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Full text of "A System of the anatomy of the human body : illustrated by upwards of two hundred tables, taken partly from the most celebrated authors, and partly from nature"

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Printed Ay J. Pillans <y Sons. 




(ppendagea of 'ike Shin, . 

IE Brain, 

Membranes and Principal Sinuses, . . . 


Cerebellum, Sic 

Origin of the Nerves, 

ie Eye, 

Orbits, ib. 

Eye-Lids and Lactytnal Organs, . . . 
Ball of the Eye, 



Vessels, 42 

Nerves, ib. 

IE Ear, 59 

External Ear, ib. 

Muscles of the External Ear, . . . ib. 

Internal Ear, 60 

Tympanum, ib. 

Labyrinth, ' ... 62 

ie Nose, 82 

IE Mouth and Throat, with their Appen- 

Movth, ib. 

Tongue, 85 

Salivary Glands, 86 

Of the Teeth, 8? 

Of the Structure of the Teeth in 
the Adult, ib. 

Of lie Temporary Teeth, 80 

Origin of the Permanent Teeth, . . 90 
Of the Appearing of the Temporary Teeth, 91 
Of the Formation of the Permanent Teeth, ib. 
Of the Shedding of the Temporary, and the 

appearing of the Permanent Teeth, . ib. 
Of the drouth of the Jaws, .... 92 

Of the Throat, 99 

Pharynx, ib. 

the Thorax, 105 

External Parts of the Thorax ib. 

Mamma, ib. 

Internal Parts otthe Thorax, .... 106 

Pleura, ib. 

Mediastinum, 10? 

Pericardium, ib. 

Heart, 108 

Lungs, 113 

Trachea, 114 

Esophagus, 116 

Thoracic Duct 117 

the Abdomen, 129 

Peritoneum ib. 

Stomach, 130 

Intestines, 132 

Small Intestines, 132.135 

Great Intestines, 132.135 

Mesentery, 133 

Omentum, 134 

Liver, 144 



Spleen, . . . ' 

Pancreas, .' 

IE Organs of "Urine and Generation in 
■he Male, 151 

Renal Gland*, 

Vesica Urinaria, 


Vesictda -St)/: :r/,i and Prostate Gland, . 

ie Organs of Urine, and of the Cnim- 
) Parts of Generation in the 

Internal Parts, ] 


■ !/>)>, initial .• "J" f/n Views, 

External Parts, ] 

•ie Gravid Uterus, ] 

Of the Omm, 

Changes produced in the. ['ferine System by 

Impregnation, ] 

Contents of the Merits about the end of 

Pregnancy, 1 

Position of the Foetus, 1 

Pei iiliaeities of the Foetus, 

Circulation of Blood in the Fcetus, ... I 






Cuticle. that it is formed by a comics: 

cosum, or by the extremities of Ext rt-tury Veaat-ls, — 
r PILE Ctitule, Epidermis, or Skarf-skin, is a thin se- its density, however, is such, that no Vc-aseb cau lie 
-*■ mi-transparent insensible Membrane, which covers traced in it, either by the eye, or by the aaaubtnCe 01 
the Skin, and adheres to it by small Vascular Filaments, gh 

Tab. LVI. Fig. 1. a. 

It is readily separated from the Cutis by boiling 
water, or by putrefaction, and, in the living Body, by the 

of Mi 

every where of the same density, being, even 
in the Fcetus, thickest in the Palms and Soles ; in which 
parts, the thickness is afterwards much increased by pres- 
sure. Tab. LVI. Fig. 3. a. 

The External Surface is marked by Furrows, which 
correspond with those in the Cutis Vera. Tab. LVI. 
Fig. £ 

Upon the Sin-Face of the Body it is perforated by the Mucos 
terminations of the Bshalent Vessels, which throw out Mttcoi, 
the Perspirable Matter ; and this Matter, when increas- which 
ed in quantity, is considered by most of the modern Phy- f, f. 

The Cuticle serve- to protect the sensible parts under 
and to regulate lln |,ionoiHuu of 1 1n- fluids thrown 
, by the Stufl&ce of the Skin ; — parlicu- 
too great a degree of evaporation. 
i found to be insoluble in \Vater, and also 
is readily dissolved in the ilkalis. It is 
uble coagulated Albumen. 


Corpus Mucosum. 

Tab. LVI. Fig. 3. 

s forming the Sweat. It is perforated also 
the ends of the Excretory Ducts, which arc found only 
in particular parts of the Skin ; by the beginning of the 
Absorbents, which take in certain Substances applied to 
the Surface of the Skin ; and by the different Hans. Tab. 
LVI. Tab. LVII. 

The Perforations, or Pores, are most evident upon 
the Palms and Soles, and upon the Nose, Ears, and ex- 
ternal parts of Generation. Tab. LVI. Tab. LVII. 

The Cuticle cover* the Skin through its whole extent, 
excepting under the Nails. 

From the external Surface of the Body, it is reflected 

composed til iln: icn.iiiKiiioii- of t-Mreim-ly niinurf 
Vessels passing between the Cutis and Cuticle, which are 
surrounded by a Mucilaginous or Viscid Substance, pro- 
perly called Corpus' Alucosum, 

It is the chief cause of that variety of colour, which 

, i Ik- i 

s of diften 

i-p.ii'fiii ■ 

tin people of the s 

a light grey scmi-trai 

black in the Ethiopia 

in all appearing through the Cuticle, on account c 

thinness and transparency of the latter. 

It is likewise the cause of the difference of coloi 

■inwards, to line the large passages ; as the Nose, Mouth, different parts of the Body of the 
Alimentary Canal, the Trachea, Urethra, Vagina, &c. It is thicker ;nui .-■! rente r in the Negro thai 

In these Passages, however, the Cuticle becomes less White Person, Tab. LVI. Fig. 4. /, and in the 


uniform i 
Stomach, it is either wanting, < 
> have the appeal 


:■ ofb 

From the Surface of the Cuticle, certain Processes are 
sent into the Skin, which line the passages by which the 
Cutis is perforated. 

Many opinions have been advanced concerning the 
Origin of the Cuticle. The latest and most probable is, 

be separated into two Layers. 

It covers every part of the Surface of the Cutis, ex- 
cepting below the Nails, where it is wanting; and is of 
such a light colour in the Palms and Soles of the Negro, 
as to have been supposed by some Authors to be deficient 
there also. 

lis O/v^- (Vihas nut yet been sufficiently ;i>ccrt\iiucJ.t I nui^h 
by some it has been supposed to be formed by the \ ■ s_ 

4, OF THE VISCERA, &c. [Part IV, 

sels imbedded in it, nor is it fully determined what, par- The Ridges are supposed to defend the Papilla, and 

ticular purposes it serves. to increase the Surface tor Perspiration. 

Among other purposes, however, it contributes to pre- In some places, as hi the red part of the Lips, the Pa- 
serve the structure of the tender Vessels, Ducts, and Pa- pillar, fromlhcir rcscmbl uicv to (he pile oi Velvet, are 
pille, placed between the Cutis and Cuticle; and in the termed Villi. Tab. LV'l. Fig. 13. 
Negro, it is supposed to serve as a defence against the Various kinds of Folds are observed va the Skin ; some 
heat of the climate, bv preventing the rays of the Sun depending upon the form of the Cellular Substance, as in 
fccm penetrating the Skin. the Hips; others on Muscular Contraction, as in the 

Cutis Vera. 

Fore-head; and othe 

Joints of the Exta^mi lies— particularly those of .the 

Fingers and Toes ; — and these Folds, to allow easy mo- 

"'" 7i, oi Skin, properly so called, lies im- tion, are thinner than the rest of the Skin. 

. . i>.' i ... pus Mucbsum, Tab. LVI. Fig. A sort of Cutis, as well as a Cuticle, is attempted to 

to the whole Body. be traced from the external parts of the Body along the 

■ Pibxee itunateiy interwoven, and run- great passages; but in its course through these, it be- 

■ ■ , l ; the hairs in the felt of a hat, cojnes softer and looser, changing into a fine Cellular 

.„<! i- -■< t* 1 1_ i : 1 1 l .. : : ; ■ ; "i\iii.:-d with Nerves and Blood-ves- Substance. 

,ii lure cannot be made in any I» an inflamed Skin, as in the case of Small-pox, a 

part of it, without occasioning pain and a discharge of Reticular Texture of Vessels is observed, which tan be 

Blood. easily injected, and has been considered by some as the 

The Blood-vessels of the Cutis are so numerous, as to Corpus jVIucosum, and by others, as Mr Eenham, as an 

appear to form almost the whole of its Substance, and additional Cuticle ; — but no such appearance is to be met 

are of such a size as to be injected with facility. Tab. with in the sound Skin. 

LVII. Fig. 1. 2. In the Cutis of the under part of the Abdomen, and 

It is strong and clastic, and may be elongated in every upper part of the Thighs of Women who have had Chil- 

■lirectiun, after which it recovers its former dimensions. dren, there are many Pits of irregular form, which ap- 

It forms the Body of the Skiu, or Dermis, and is that pear to be owing to the formation of a kind of new Skin, 

part in Quadrupeds of which Leather is made. tilling the parts of the original one, over-stretched during 

The Mtter part of it is dense and firm, the inner loose, Gestation, 

and gradually degenerating into the common Cellular The Cutis Vera serves to cover and give form to the 

Substance. Body ; unites the different parts, and defends them from 

It is thicker and looser on the posterior than on the injury; forms the External Organs of Sensation or of 

anterior part of the Body, and thicker and firmer in the Touch ; and gives passage to the Fluids which are per- 

I'alms aud Soles than in the other parts of the cxtre- spired or absorbed. 

mi ties. The Cutis consists chiefly of Gelatin, in consequence of 

The colour of the Cutis also differs in different parts of which it is a principal article in the manufacture of Glue. 
i lie E'jfly, in proportion to the uuantily of Blood ' '* 

; Vessels, and to the thinness of the Cuticle. 
At the edge of the. Eye-lid.-, the red part of the Lips, 



'Ihey are cwMd.Tfd a< forming the Organ of Touch,' separated, :>nd li.ive no cedent Vessel?, 

fi-nin their being c^remely sensible ; and from their being They differ from it, however, in structure; being 

very Vascular, they are also regarded as furnishing a formed of Plates, and (lie l'lale- of Longitudinal Fibres^ 

pa-sage to part of Uie Perspirable Matter. uhicb are doselv compacted, as ninv he seen when they 

The Papilla are most evident on the Tongue and edge are thorough d'ricd, or in a diseased state, 

of the Lips, and hi the Palme and Soles, where they are '1 hey begin by a square root, a little before the last 

placed in double rows upon iln Kiil^cs, uliich, on the Joinl of the Lingers and Toes. 

points of the Fingers and Toe, generally run in a some- When separated from I Ik- Skin, they are transparent 

what spiral and parallel direction. Tab. LVI. Fig. 12. like Horn, but are coloured in the living Body by the 

Part IV.] 


Vessels of the Cutis, to which they adhere, and from 
which they derive their nourishment. 

They are fixed at their roois in a Semilunar fold of 
the Cutis, and are there covered by a reflection of the 
Cuticle, which firmly adheres to them. 

They grow from the roots, and not from the points ; 
and begin to be formed about the third month of Con- 

The Nails strengthen, and defend the ends of the Fin- 
gers and Toes, and thereby serve as Buttresses. 

In the Fingers they increase the power of apprehen- 
sion, being useful in laying hold of minute objects. 

The Hairs arise by Roots or Bulbs, which are situat- 
ed in the Skin, or in the Cellular Substance under the 
Skin. Tab. LVII. Fig. 9. 10. 

The Bulbs are of various shapes in different parts of 
the Body, and have Blood-vessels dispersed upon them 
for their nourishment. 

Each of the Bulbs has two Membranes, or Capsules, 
containing an Oily Fluid between them, which gives co- 
lour to the Hair, and for want of which, as in advanced 
life, when ihe Capsule shrivels, or in ceriaiu diseases, the 
Hair is supposed to change its colour, and become white. 
It may be remarked, however, I hat i he Hair, after being 
cut off, continues uniformly to preserve its colour. 

The colour of the Hair has some relation to the Cor- 
pus Mucosum, since in the Negro the tint of the Hair 
corresponds with that of the Skin, and in a person with 
red or with dark-coloured Hair, there is a rosy or a dark 

The Hairs, in passing from the Skin, carry with them 
Processes of the Epidermis, which serve them as Sheaths, 
aud which are so thin ami transparent, as to allow the 
colour of the Han- iu appear through them. 

In the Human Body, the Hairs are so slender, that it 
is difficult to trace their structure ; but in the strong 
Hairs of certain Quadrupeds, this becomes apparent. 

By the assistance of a good Glass, these strong Hairs 
are observed to be composed of abundle of smaller Hairs, 
amon:; u Inch are one or two Canals for containing their 
nourishing fluid, fermed ihe Medulla. 

By desiccation, the Hairs separate at their points into 

Fluid they contain, becoming like Suet, after acquiring 
a certain decree of consistency, or being inspissated by 
stagnation . 

They are seated under ihe Cutis and are found in 
greatest abundance in those yv'..- which are exposed to 
the air, or to attrition ; as in the Nose, Ears, iS'ipples, 
Groins, and External Farts of Generation. Tab. LV. 
Tab. LVI. 

The Se&aceot/i T or Miliar,! Clauds, are so called front 
their Contents, and from Ihrir resemblance to Millet 
Seals, and are scaled in the Axilla. Tab. LVII. Fig: I?. 

Other Miliary GUnds are dc.cribcd by Authors as bc- 

Body, and as serving tor the Secretion of Perspirable 
Matter ; — but they are not demonstrable to such a gene- 
ral extent, and the Sweat is considered as being derive.! 
from the Exhalents, as already observed. 

These Follicles and Glands secrete a Fluid which 
serves to lubricate ilie Skin, and defend it from the in- 
clemency of the weather, or from the ellccts of friction. 

Tins is generally considered as one of the Integuments, 
(hough common to these and to the other parts of the 

It is composed of a fine ^ eh, lurmed ol many Mem- 
branes joined irregularly together, and these made up of 
Cells, which communicate freely null oath other where, 
ever they are found. 

It is veiy elastic, may be drawn out to a considerable 
extent, after which it suddenly recoils, and may be con- 
densed or compacted 1o a great degree. 

It lines the Skin, cover- the Muscles in general, and 
insinuates itself between their different Fibres ; — is a uni- 
versal covering to all the other parts, aud even enters 

. I he i 



i of almost every one of them, 
where the parts are most expe 
i the Hips, I'alms, and Soles. 

t Filaments. 

The Hairs, like the Nails, grow from their bases, 
onseqnence of which, when they are cut short, they set 

:' the Body are lilted with Fat. 
It has little or no Sensibility, can be handled freely, 
cut, or punctured, without giving pain. 

It serves to connect parts to each other, but so as 

prevent them from growing together; — it covers thei 
supplies them with Sheaths to move in, and contains tl 

Corpus Adiposl.ii, Adeps, Pi.nguedo, or Fat. 

The Fat is lodged in the common Cellular Substance, 
and is made up of Masses composed of small Vesicles, 
Tab. LVII. Fig. 13.— 15. and these are surrounded Ly 
a net-work of Blood-, e-.e!-, from whicli the oily matter 

composing the Fat is supposed to be secreted, without 


The Vesicles are not found to have any communication of the Viscera situated in the great Cavities of the Body; 

with the Cellular Substance, or with each other, nor have as the Brain, Lungs, Liver, Spleen, Kidneys, &c. 
any Excretory Ducts yet been perceived in them, — the The Fat serves to lubricate every part of the Body to 

Fat being supposed to transude from the Cells. which it is connected, aud facilitates the action of the 

It is of different Can&istency in different parts of the Muscles. It fills the Interstices, so as to give form and 

Body : In the living Body it is generally fluid, though in smoothness, and guard against pressure. It serves also 

some parts it approaches to a solid, and is altogether of as a reservoir of nourishment, (o be occasionally rc-ab- 

this nature hi the dead Body. sorted, aud carried into the constitution. 
In the Bones, it forms the Marrow, which lias been The chemical properties of Fat 

already described. nearly the same with r 1 

The Fat is chiefly situated immediately under the 
Skin, aud covers almost the whole Surface of the Body. 

It is also found between the different Mum lea and Fibres Pakkicuius Carnosus, Tel Tunica Carxosa. 

of Muscles, — within the Orbits, and in the Cheeks,— jn 

the Substance of the Mammae, and about the Heart. This is a general Covering found in the Quadruped, 

It abounds in the Abdomen, about the Kidneys, Loins, and formed by a thin Subcutaneous Muscle, which serves 

Omentum, and Mesentery ; — and in the Joints it forms to agitate the Skin. 

the Substances called Glands of the Joints, as already It exists only in certain parts of the Human Body ; as 

mentioned. in the Fore-head, where it is formed by the Occipito- 

The Fat is wanting in the Scrotum, Penis, and Eye. frontalis ; in the Neck, where it is funned by the Platys- 

lids, and is found only in small quantity in the Fore-head, ma Myoides ; and in the Scrotum, where it is formed by 

or about the Joints, where, from its bulk, it would have the Creraaster Testis. 
been inconvenient. — It is also wanting in the Substance The Ancients described this as an additional Covering. 

■I * 

( 1 ) 

Views of the Common Integuments. 

See Tab. XXXVIII. Fig. 2. 

Part of the Integuments of the Mamma of a Wo, 
thirty-two years of age. 

a, b, The cuticle, with the c 

Fart of the cuticle 
which the corpus mucosum has been separated. The 
roots of the hairs pass through pores of the corpus 
mucosum, and adhere to vagindse, or processes of the 
c y The cutis vera, upon which the folds of the skill and 

pores of the hairs appear. 
d, The subjacent fat. 

FIG. 2. 
Part of the Cuticle and Corpus Mucosum separated 

the cuticle ; the in- 
e roots of the hairs 
s of the. cuticle ad- 

f, The inner surface of the cutis vets., 
ff Small filaments which pass from the cutis 
tide i making a connection between the 
forming part of the corpus n 

c, The cuticle turned down. 

£, The cuticle thicker and stronger than in the European, 
also turned down. 

c, The joints and pores for the hairs, seen on the exter- 
nal surface of the cutis vera. 

<7, The cut edge of the skin. 

FIG. 5. 

A Portion of the Intestinum Rectum of an Ethiopian, 

i permei. 

tide, and reflected. 

d, The corpus mucosum adhering 1 

ner surface being here seen.— T 

appear white, from the process 

o, The raphe, or si 

b, b. The perineum, 

c, c, The situation of the anus, 
guments of the perineum pass 
the rectum. The transvorsi 
owing to the inversion of the 

d, d, The longitudinal ruga; of the 
the larger mucous follicles are pi; 

c, e, The mouths of simple gland,, 
which the rectum abouinl-,, unc 
preparation from which the figuri 

FIG. 0. 

where the external inte- 
to the inner surface of 
rugae which appear arc 

turned down 
r, The inner surface of the corpus r 

Upon the surface of the akin are seen innumerable minute 
pores, among which are interspersed larger foramina, 
especially about the concha. 


Pari of the Xosi mi Upper Lip of a Man, from which The Extremity of tlic Penis, from which the Cuticle 
the Cuticle mi Corpus Mucosum are remocei. ani Corpus Mucosum Horn hen separated. The Cor- 

Tlie culls appears full of small pores, with larger ones '"«* Cavernosa are iisleniei. 
interspersed ; the larger ones abound most about the 

passage into the nostril. The red part of the lip is a, The cuticle, with the corpus mucosum separated from 
covered with villi. the grans, and inverted, 

b. The glans, full of papilla:. 
FIG. 8. c, The corona glaadia, in which larger papilla, witb the 

sebaceous glands, appear. 
d, The prepuce turned back. 

It appears full of papilla; of different sizes, being com- FIG. 12. 

monly larger about the middle of the heel ; towards 

the middle and sides of the sole they are smaller. The Palmar Surface of Part of the Second Joint of 

the Thumb in the living Both/, viewed with a Magnu 
FIG. 9. fying Glass. 

The Inner Surface of a small Bit of the Cuticle and The figure shews the course of the ridges upon which 

Cokfus Mucosum re moved from the Arm, and viewed thc pap i| la: are placed. 

through a Magnifying Glass. In t | ie ridges also are see 

The darker spaces represent the foveol* of the corpus frequently filled with a 

mucosum, in. which tie papilla; of the cutis are lodged. epiration. 

The white streaks are eminences which correspond with 

fissures or plica: on the external surface of the cutis. p j 

a, The skin and fat. 

A, The inner membrane of the lips 

c, The aperture of the mouth. 

( 9 ) 


Views of the Skin and its Appendages. 

FIG. 1. 

The Arteries of the S&ltf. 

The figure shews part of the skin of the fore-head of a , _, _ , . , ,, -, ■ . . 

i_-ij 1. i *l » u *i „ .♦ ■-,„ „c u- k ~. <*i £>, c i l» c part from which the nai us separated ; a, A 

child about three years old, the arteries ot which are ' * ' r , l » if* 

■ • j in . l u . c .i ■ white spot ol the " n h fh&wmflj 

miected. The larger branches were cut from their . _l . .. . ' . ',. . ,p _, "* iC 

, J , • i- .i i- .l _ n i - root ot tie nail ; l>, i , Lonjatudinal tinea ; c, I lie ex. 

truiaks in separating the skin ; the smaller shew mini- , ' ' ' , ■;, ... ' * ' . 

, , r , ° -,i *. „.i,„ „,, .... „■ „ '., - trenuties of these, teemed Panitta.\ where the cuticle 

merable anastomoses with each other, all running tu a , , . ' . ' .. 

T ° recedes (mm tin- I'Mnnim nt the nail. 

P d, (/, Sulci where the margins of the nail adhered. 
<?, The inner surface of the nail ; 

FIG. 2. /, Its white toot. 

Parte/ the Sum of a Child, after the Arteries had «'«'*' The cuticle ; #, f , Its outer surface ; h, lis in. 

hee'n injected nith Wax, and the Preparation flit into ner surfl>ci! Xa » :i »»» ""= «*P US ninoosuui. 
.tyi'rtf o/" Turpentine. 

FIG. 3. A Section of the Sum from the Side of the Head, mill 

_. _. _ . „ #Ae Haiks pam/iff fi-om the Sabtutanenii\ tiilular 

The Veins gftfe guv. ,*&*«■«, taken from a dried Preparation. 

This figure shews part of the cutis of the leg of a young e. The external surface of the skin. 

woman ; the larger veins run under the skin, the b, The subjacent fat. The bulbs of the haira go trein 

smaller belong to the skin, and shew many anastomoses. the cellular substance and fat, and perforate the sub. 

They differ from the arteries painted in Fig. 1. in their stance of the skin. 

greater size, in the atraighter course ol their branches, 

and in their larger intermediate spaces. FIG 7 

JIG. 4. 

The Absorbents of the Skin. 

The figure shews part of the skin of the thigh, below 
FallofiUs's ligament, with the absorbents injected 
with quicksilver. 

a. A subcutaneous absorbent cul off at the inner part of _. ... . 
the thigh, and turned back with the skin. A little The cuticle and corpus 

... ° . j- ■ ■ c ,, ■ . i ■ . . h:.irs remain- i'pt.:unii 

higher arc seen the- tlm^iem ot this branch into two 
others; the anastomoses of the absorbents, and ex- 
tremely minute brandies passing from the substance of 
the skin, to join them. 

b. The place where the absorbent a passes from the cutis 
to cellular substance. 

r, The cutis separated from the subcutaneous cellular 
substance, and turned towards the pudendum. 

f, The porti 

(he natural magnitude. 

t out from the hairs. 

viewed in the microscope, here : 


b, b, The bare surface of the cutis, 
i peculiar cellular sub- c, r, f, The fat dissected from the inner surface of the 
cutis, and left adhering to the edges of it. 

A Hair pylledji-om the Sufercilium, and, a Jew Hon 
afterwards, viewed in a Microscope. 

tt. The body of the hair. 

b, The bulb. 

c, Filaments or radicles which adhere to it. 

d, e, A canal in it, partly replete with juice at d, ai 
partly empty at e. 


b, The thickness of the cut edge of the skin. 

c, c, The fat which forms larger and smaller portia 

la the cutis, besides the pores of the skin in general, are 
seen many sebaceous follicles, which are most conspi- 
cuous about the ala nasi and point of the nose. With- 
in the larger are observed others of an inferior size 
opening into them. 

FIG. 12. 

A Portion of the Ikteguments taken Jrom the Axilla 
of an Adult, to shew the Appearance of the Sebaceous 

a, The glands adhering to the inner surface of the cutis. 

A small Portion of the Subcutaneous Fat of the Human 
Body, viewed with a Microscope, which \ 
Diameter about thirty times. 

Represents the same Piece of Fat with that shewn in the 
Jbrmer figure, viewed througk a Microscope, which 
magnifies it to near one hundred and fifty Diameters. 

( u ) 


which, with 

vity of the Cranium ; and is larger in Man, in proportio 

to the Nerves belonging to it, than in any other Animal 

The Brain is divided into Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Ti< 
ber Annulare, and Medulla Oblongata. 

The Membranes of the Brain were called Meningi 
and Matres by the Ancients, from an idea that they ga\ 
birth to all the other Membranes of the Body. 

They consist of the Dura Mater, Tunica Arachno, 

side of the Dora Mater, Processes art 
sent off, which divide the Brain into certain parts, and 
serve to keep it steady ; viz. The Falx m 
and Falx Minor. 

dea, and Pia Mater. 

The Talk, Septum Cerebri, 
H'tudinal Process, is formed b; 
Vlater, and is situated between 
" ' , which it separa 

r Vertic«! Superior Z/>n- 
a doubling of the Dura 
the Hemispheres of the 
;ach other for a consider- 
ble way downwards. Tab. LXVIII. y, %, v, u\ 

It begins at the middle of the Sphenoid Bone, and Cris- 
a Galli of the Ethmoid Bone, and runs along the upper 
the different parts of and middle part of the Head, adhering fust to the Fron- 
tal, then to the joining of the Parietal, and afterwards to 
the middle of the Occipital Bone. 

passage, it becomes gradually broader, extends 
■ the part termed Corpus 
behind, in the middle of 

The Dura Mater, named from being of a firmer 
ture than the other two Membranes, incloses the Br: 
with all its Appendage; 
the Cranium. Tab. LVIII. Tab. LIX 

Upon the outer Surface of the Dura Mater, tb< 
small fleshy-looking Bodies, placed at irregular dis 

which are termed Glands of Pacchioni. These fre- from the Cranium above, 
quently project so much, as to make~ deep Pits in the Cat/osum bc\ow, and 
Skull. ' the Tentorium. 

The Dura Materia composed of one Membrane, which, It runs from behind forwards in a straight di 
in several parts, is divisible by maceration into two or even and has some resemblance in shape to a Sickle or 
more layers of Fibres. from which circumstance it has obtained the i 

The Texture of the Dura Mater is very dense. It is Falx. 
the thickest and strongest Membrane of the Body, 

Bet we 

i the under t 

2 of the Falx and Base of the 
composed of Tendinous-like Fibres, whii h have :i shining Ciih nun, iIhtc i- a lnr^e space of an oval jo 
appearance, particularly in its inner Surface. In many pied by that part of the Bi 
" se Fi' 

The Dura Mater adher 
of the Cranium by Blood-vessel; 

the Periosteum adheres to the Bones in the other parts of 
the Body ; but it is more firmly connected at the Sutures 
and Foramina than elsewhere ; and so much more firmly 
in Children than in Adults, that, in separating it from the 
Cranium, it is apt to bring along with it some of the Fibres 
of the Bone to which it i-< attached. — In the Adult, the 
separation of the Bone from the Membrane is less diffi- 
cult, in consequence of many of the Fibres being oblitc- 

The inner Surface of the Dura Mater, which is re- 
markably smooth, i- In close contact with the subjacent 
Membranes, and adheres to the Brain only where the 

' :ated by a Fluid and 

the Surfac 

to the 
o Hemispheres. Tab. LX. a, m, m. 

The Falx supports the Tentorium, and is considered as 
preventing the two sides of the Hrain from pressing upon 
each other, though there have been instances where part, 
or even the whole, of this Process has been wanting. 

discharged through i 
from danger, accordit 
rtnt slates of Rcspira 
The Dui;t Mater s 
supplies the place o 

The Temtoiui 
or Lateral Proa 

sues of 


.u, or Tramrerse Septum, 
Dura Mater. Tab. LX. 

n,o,p, - 


eetej behind to lli 
a of tie Occipital 

itiiiiuil iatoralh from the Fak', 

e inner Transverse Ridg. s 1 

Hoik, tin] at the fore and outer 


to the Bid 


1 grt 

-at Angles of the Temporal 
posterior Conoid Process of 

the Sol 

tcnoiil Hon 


• ecu the m 

ttl-ilT I lill 

iile an 

.id Pro 


ier edges of the Tentorium 
rf the Sphenoid Bone, there 

i Ovale, where the Cerebrum 
and Cerebellum are united, or where the Tuber Annulare 
is chiefly situated. Tab. hX. between a and n. 

The Tentorium keeps tin Falx tcn.-e, and forms a Floor 
or Vault over the Cerebellum, which prevents the Cere-- 
bruiii from orcein? unou it. .' 

2 The 

jo OF THE BRAIN - . [Pari IV. 

Tlie Falx Minor, or Septum Cerebelli, which Is transversely, and nearly oppo-ite the great external Arch 

placed between llx Lobe-, of ihe Cerebellum. It descends of the Os Occipitis, then in a winding direction down- 

From the underhand back part of the Falx and middle of wards, and terminate al the Base of the Craiiiuni, in the 

the Tentorium, adheres to the inferior Longitudinal Spine beginnings of l lie Internal Jugular A ems. Tab. LX. 

of the Os Occipilis, ami terminates insensibly at llie y, «- Tab. LXIX. H,H. 

edge of the Foramen :>h)viiiun of that Bone. Tab. Besides the Sinuses mentioned above, several others 

LXVIII. a. 0l less consideration will be pointed out in the particular 

Bcsides tlie Processes of the Dura Mater already dc- description of the Veins, 

scribed, there are four of inferior consideration, two of The Kerns of the Dnra Mater a* w very minute, 

which are situated ai the ,,idc, of Hie Sella Turcica, and ihat i hey have not as yet been distinctly traced ; and 

two at the edges of the Foramina Lacera. Tab. LX. it is found to possess very little sensibility in the sound 

Several other Processes pass out al ihe different open- state. , , . , .,.,■«- 

jogs of the Cranium, to be connected to the Pernora- Upon the side oi the Superior JUmgrtodma] Sin 

nium, or to accoinpanv the Spinal Marrow and Nerves, parts of the Brain contiguous to it, there are Rf 

—Those of tlie last description shall be afterwards taken small Granulations, of a u-Mish colour, which ; 

notice of. °f tne Glandutas Pacchtoni. 

The Arteries of the Dura Mater are derived chiefly The nature of these Granulations is still unknown — 

from the External Carotid-, and partly Gram the Internal By some they have been supposed to belong to the Lym- 

Carotids and Vertebrate. Tab. LXVIII. phatic System. 

The Veins of this Membrane are of two kinds. Tab. 
CXXVII. Fig. 1.2. Oue set of them, like the Veins 
in other parts of the Body, accompany the Arteries ; — 

the others are termed Sinuses, and diner from Veins only "rent Membrane, m which no Vessels have been hithert 

in this, that their Transverse Sections are of a triangular observed, 

figure, and that they are inclosed in a doubling of the It is spread uniformly c 

Dura Mater, which is so tense over them, that they are inclosing all its Convoluti 

little affected by the pressure of the surrounding parts. between any of them. 

In the bottom of the Sinuses are small Transverse At the upper part of tlie Brain, it adheres so closely 

Cords, termed Chorda Willisii, which may add a little to the subjacent Coat by fine Cellular Substance, that it 

to their strength, and assist in preventing them from be- can scarcely be separated from it ; but in different parts 

ing too much distended. of the Base of the Brain, particalarly about the Tuber 

The Sinuses serve to carry the Blood from the Brain, Annulare and Medulla Oblongata, h is merely in contact 

and convey it to the Veins of the Neck ; for which pur- with the Pia Mater, and may readily be raised from it 

pose they are properly iitted, their Covering from tlie by the assistance of the Blow-pipe. 

Dura Mater giving them strength, and their frequent The Tunica. Arachnoidea, like the Cuticle, covers and 

communications preventing congestion. defends the parts under it. 

The Principal Sinuses are, 

The Superior Longitudinal Sinus, which begins at treincly Vascular. Tal 

the Crista Galli of ihe Ethmoid Bone, runs along the It envelopes the Brs 

upper edge of tlie Falx, becomes gradually larger in ils tween all its Convolutions, and lines the different Cavities 

progress, and terminates In (In beginning of tlie Lateral called Ventricles. 

Sinuses. Tab. L1X. E, E. Tab. LX. h, i, k. Tab. It serves to contain, and support the Vessels of the 

LXVIII. », e, r. Brain, and allows them to divide into such minute parts, 

The Torcular ITeiiofhili, or Fourth Sinus of the An- as to prevent the Blood from entering the tender Sub- 

cients ; — the term Torcular applied from a supposition stance of t his Vise us with too great force, 

that the Blood is squeezed in this Sinus as in a Wine- The Jrtrrits of the I'ia Mater are the same with 

press.— It is chiefly formed of the Vena Galeki, runs in those of the Brain, to be afterwards taken notice of. 

the junction of the Falx and Tentorium, and terminates The Veins differ in no respects from those in other 

with the former Sinus in the beginning of the Lateral Si- parts of the Hods, excepting in this, that they do not 

nuses. Tab. LX. «, u; r. Tab. LXVIII. r, s. Tab. accompany the Arteries. 

LIX. G. The Brain, as counting of Cerebnni), (tiebelluui, 

The two Lateral Sitiust-x, which arc formed by the Tuber Arum/arc, and Mtdullu Ohlurnala, forms amass 

Longitudinal and Torcular Sinuses. They run in de- about three pounds weight, but varying a little according 

pressions . of the Occipital and Temporal Bones, first to the size of the Head. 


then apgeais in (lie greatest proport 

Tlie Cerebrum, or Brain properly ko called, is si- 
tuated hi llie upper part of the Cranium, which it com- 
pletely occupies. 

It is divided into two halves, termed Hemispheric 
which are separated from each other by Utc Falx. Tab. 
LXl. C, D. 

Each of tin 1 Hemispheres i^ of an oval form, or they 
somewhat resemble an Egg cut longitudinally into two 
equal parts. The inner sides are flat, and closely applied 
to the Falx, the upper and outer parts convex, ana the 

The under Surface is divided into two Anterior, two 
Lateral, and two Posterior Lubes, or Processes. 

The Anterior Lobes are situated in the fore part of 
the Base of the Cranium. T^b. LXIX. A, A. 

The Lateral or Middle Lobes are lodged in the Fossa 
formed by the Temporal and Sphenoid Bones. Tab. 

LXIX. c, c. 

The Posterior Lobes are placed over the Cerebellum, 
and are separated from il by the Tentorium, upon which 
they rest. Tab. LXIX. D, D. 

Between the Anterior and Lateral Lobes on each side, 
there is a Furrow formed by the Anterior Clinoid Pro- 
cesses of the Sphenoid Bone, which has been termed .Fos- 
sa, or Fissura Magna Sylvii. Tab. LXIX. 

The Surface of the Brain in genera), both above and 
below, is divided by deep Fissures, into many turnings or 
windings, termed Circumvolutions, wliich run in various 
directions, and arc of different sizes and lengths on diffe- 
rent parts of the Brain. Tab. LXI. Tab. LXV. 

The Circumvolutions are every where connected to 
the Pia Mater by an infinite number of small Vessels,— 
called by Ruysch, Tomentum Cerebri, — which run into 
the Substance of the Brain ; as may be readily seen, 
upon separating the Circumvolutions a little from each 
other, or by raising part of the Pia Mater from the Brain. 

Between the Hemispheres, a broad white Substance is 
observed, called Corpus Callosum, from its Being a little 
firmer than the rest of the Brain. It goes across the 
Brain, under the Falx, and is merely a continuation of 
the Medullar) Substance, running horizontally, and join- 
ing the two sides of the Hemispheres to each other. It 
is turned a little down at its anterior and posterior edges. 
Tab. LXX. Fig. 5. E. Tab. LXII. I, I. 

In the middle of the Corpus Callosum, there is a Ion- _ 
gitudinal Raphe, with a Medullary Cord on each side, 
from which many Transverse Streaks issue. These 
Cords, like the Corpus Callosum itself, become gradually 
broader towards the Posterior Extremity, Tab. LXII. 
K, L, L. 

■V Section of the Hemispheres of the Brain shews the 
division into outer and inner, or Cortical 'Medullary 
Substances, if this Section be made in a horizontal di- 
rection, a little above the middle height of the Brain, or 
upon a. level with the Corpus Callosum, the Medullary 


Tlie outer Substance is also termed Cineritmis, from 
its somewhat resembling the ashes of burnt wood, or be- 
ing of a greyish colour, — though a little tinged with 

part of the Braiu, as the Bark does the inner parts of a 
Tree. Tab. LXII. C, C. 

It is termed bv souk- Authors Glandular, aud by 
others Secretory, from a supposition that a irluid was 
secreted in it. 

The Cineritious Substance coven the Brain iu general, 
aud enters deep between its Convolutions, is of a soft 
consistence, and composed of numerous small A r essels, 
earning red Blood ; but it is uniform, and without any 
appearance of a Fibrous Texture. 

The inner Substance is termed improperly White or Me- 
dullary, anil i : . <:<>iiMi] aspiring origin to the different 
Nerves. It has been by some called Excretory, from hav- 
ing been supposed to be formed of hollow Tubes continued 
from the Vessels of the Cortical part ; but no Cavities 
have ever been observed in the soft Fibres of which it is 
composed. Tab. LX11I. 

A Section of this part of the Brain shews numerous 
red points, which are the cut extremities of Blood-ves- 
sels, with the Blood oozing from them. The number of 
these points varies according to the quantity of Blood re- 
maining in the Brain. 

The Medullary Substance is greater iu quantity, and 
somewhat firmer in texture, than the Cineritious Sub- 
stance, with which it is so intimately connected, as to 
appear to be a continuation of it. — The soft Fibres or 
Streaks of the Medullary Matter, run in general in a 
parallel and transverse direction. 

In many parts of the Cineritious Substance, Medullary 
Matter appears ; aud, on the contrary, in different parts 
of the Medullary Substance, Ciucritious Matter is found ; 
the two being frequent Iv blended together in the form of 
Streaks. See Monko on the Xereous System. Tab. VII. 

Centrum Ovale of Vieussens. This is the Mc- 
(iuilarv Substance of the Brain, forming a kind of Nu- 
cleus, which is seen after removing the Cineritious Sub- 
stance, and all the Medullary parts mixed with it, which, 
lie between the Cortical Convolutions. 

To obtain a proper view of the Centrum Ovale, the 
Nucleus- ought to be cut in such a manner as to preserve 
the Corpus Callosum, and the same convexity with that 
of the genera! convexity of the Brain. 

The Centrum Ovale forms an Arcli or Iicof over the 
two Lateral Ventricles ; and the under pan of this Koof, 
which is smooth and uniform, constitutes the upper part 
of these Ventricles. 

Vieussens considered the Centruin Ovale as the Great 
Dispensatory of the Animal Spirits. 

In the Substance of the Brain, there are four Cavities 
termed I'attrieles, viz. two Lateral, » third, and a 





The four Ventricles have their sides contiguous to each 
other, are chiefly formed of Medullary Matter, and arc 
lined with a continuation of the Pia Mater, conducted in 
by the Blood-vessels, but differing from that part of the 
Membrane covering the exterior Surface of the Brain, 
iu having fewer Vessels dispersed upon it. 

They are constantly moistened by a Fluid, which pre- 
vents their opposite sides from adhering to each other. 

The Use of the Ventricles, as of many other parts of 
the Brain, is still unknown. 

The Lateral, formerly called Superior Ventricles, are 
situated in the Hemispheres, one in each. Tab. LXIII. 
II, U, S. 

They arc of an irregular form, lying under the Cen- 
trum Ovale, and have each three winding Corners, coin- 
pared by HallER to Rams' Horns, which are therefore 
called by him Cornua, and the Cavities themselves Ven- 
trkuli Tricornes. 

Each of the Cornua is placed in a corresponding Lobe 
of the Brain. 

The Anterior Cornua are separated from each other 
only by a partition called Septum Lucidum. Tab. LX1II. 
II, H. 

The Posterior Cornua, Tab. LXIII. between IT and S, 
Tab. LXIII. X, X, X, called also Digital Cavities; 
are at a considerable distance from each other, but ap- 
proach nearer at their pointed extremities. 

The Anterior and Posterior Cornua run nearly in a ho- 
rizontal direction, or according to the length of the He- 
mispheres themselves ; while the Inferior pass first down- 
wards, then -forwards, and terminate in the Lateral Lobes 
of the Brain. 

In each of the Posterior Cornua there is an Elonga- 
tion, which terminates in a point, and which is called 
Ergot by the French, from its resemblance to the Spur 
of a Cock.; or Hippocampus Minor, from- its similarity 
to, and connection with, the Substance termed Hippo- 
campus Major. Tab. LXIII. T. 

In the fore part of the bottom of the Lateral Ventri- 
cles, are two large Eminences, called Corpora Striata, 
wh k'h are largo .mil rounded before, but become ^j:i iluull v 
and recede from each other at their posterior 

Tab. LXIII. G, G. 

The Structure of these is Cineritious externally, aud 

mixed with Medullary Strut within, some of which form 

large Transverse .Medullar) Aldus, and others run more 

Between ihe posterior parts of the Corpora Striata, 
-are situated the Thahmi Sereorum Op/icnim, which 
have a rounds h form ami Mcihill.-.iv Suiiace, and are of 
a Striated appear;- ucC within ; but the Stun: are less di- 
' the Corpora Striata. Tab. LXIV. F, F, 



ilflCl < 

■ IIm 

ous ; and above, they axe so closely connected as to form 
one continued Surface, called Commissura Mollis of the 
Optic Thalami. Tab. LXX. Fig. D. Tab. LXIV. I. 

The posterior parts of the Thalami turn downwards 
and outwards, after which they are elongated, to form the 
two white Cords, termed Tract Us Optic i. Tab. LXIX. 
d, d. Tab. LXV. 

In the Groove between the Corpora Striata and Tha- 
lami, there is a Medullary Band, called Centrum Semi- 
circular* Geminum of Vieusslns, or Taenia Semicir~ 
cularis of Haller, or simply Tania. Tab. LYIV. 

Over the Thalami is placed the Choroid Plexus, nam- 
ed from its being composed of a Chorus of Vessels and 
Membranes. It is a fine Vascular Web, consisting of 
small ramifications of Arteries aud Veins, connected by 
the Pia Mater, and spread upon the Surface of the Tha- 
lami, and some of the adjacent [.arts. Tab. LXIII. Q, Q. 

The Veins of each Choroid Plexus, form a Trunk term- 
ed Vena Galeni, and the two Vena Galest unite to- 
gether, and terminate in the Torcular Herofiuli. 

The Choroid Plexus frequently contains numerous round 
Globules, resembling Hydatids, which have been consi- 
dered by some Authors as Lymphatic Glands. 

Under the Raphe of the Corpus Callosum, is placed 
the Septum Lucidum, which, when viewed laterally, is 
observed to be broad before, curved at its edge, and to 
become gradually narrower towards its posterior extremi- 
ty. Tab. LXIII. I. Tab. XXVIII. O. 

It is connected above to the Corpus Callosum, below to 
the Fornix, and forms a distinct Partition between the 
Lateral Ventricles. 

It is composed of two Cineritious and Medullary La~ 
mince, more or less separated from each other at their 
fore part, by a small Cavity, called Fissure, or fossa of 
Sylvius, of Sinus of the Septum Lucidum. This Cavi- 
ty is considered by some as a fifth Ventricle. It does not, 
however, communicate with the other Ventricles, though 
in some Subjects it reaches a considerable way backwards, 
and, as well as the other Cavities of the Brain, has been 
found full of water in cases of Hydrocephalus. Tab, 

Under the Septum Lucidum is placed the Substance 
which has been compared in shape to a Vault by the An- 
cients, and from that has obtained the name of Fornix. 
Tab. LXVI. P. 

The Fornix is merely a continuation of the Corpus 
('allu-iun and Septum Lucidum, and forms a sort of hol- 
low Ceiling, with four Pillars, called Crura, or Cornua 
from their winding direction, of which there are two an- 

The two tut trior Crura are short, run close together, 
and become euU-ed at their inferior parts. Tab.LlV.C. 

T'he tin Posterior Citu a are long, at a considerable 
di.ti.uce from each other, and form Curvatures which cor- 
respond will, i he < .mi-.- nt i In* Inferior Cortina uf the La- 
teral Ventricles, Tab. LXIIL M, M. 



That part of the Cr urn Fornicis lying in the Inferior Cor- Mum : but properly, Iter ad TmRTXl 

nua of these Ventricles, forms thin puckered B ( ir.|.-rs rci- or 1'^c to the Third f'tntrirlc. Tab. LSI V. II. 

ting the name of Corpora Fimbriate ;— but, according (o Tab. LXVII. above V. 

Vic D'Azyr, they are more properly termed Tivnia Kip- Between the C<iininksm-.t Mollis of the Opfic Thalami 

put nm/'i, from being united with Uk great I J ; ppovaiii pti-;. and Niih>tati'c called l'i,i< vl (.land, time is a r-mall Pas- 

The Body of the Fornix is narrow anteriorly, and be- sage termed Vnus, or Foramen C-.r.winie 1 '<..-!. r-i/.-, 
comes considerable brmi-.h-r behind, where it is incorpo- which has been supposed bv koiiic \ntlmr \n fnnn a corn- 
rated with tlie Corpus Callosum. municatiou between the bach pan of ihell.ird Ventricle 

The under Surface of the posterior part of the Eodv and Lateral Venlrich s ; hut it K completely cloned up 

of the Fornix is impressed will) numerww transverse anil by the Tela Choroid™, and also h\ the Fornix, which is 

oblique Lilies, which have been called Psnlterium, or intimately connected to this Membrane. Tab. L\V 

fjyra, from some resemblance they bear to the ancient Fig. 9. g. 
musical instruments of these names. 

The Body of the Fornix is joined above to the Septum The Third Tkktricle is in form of a deep Fissure, 

Lucidum ; and below, it is connected to the Thalami placed beiwccn the inner cuds of the Thalami Optici, 

Optici by a Vascular Membrane, called Tela t'ftoroidra, having the Cominissura Mollis of these Thalami situated 

which spreads over the Thalami, and parts termed Tu- above, the Crura Cerebri below, and the Bodies of the 

bercuta QuaSrigemina and Pineal Gland, and unites Thalami on each side. Tab. LXVII. P. 
with the Choroid Plexus of the Lateral Ventricles. Tab. 

LXX. Fig. 7. F, F. The Infundibulum, Tab. LSVL U. Tab. LXVJI. 

ThePEDEsHippocAMPi,CoRNUAAMMONis,orGREAT Tab. LXVIII. formed of a Cineritious and Medullary 

Hippocampus,— named from a supposed resemblance to Substance, i> a Passage of mi^iilenibie si/.e, which leads 

these parts, — arc two Medullary Eminences, which arise downwards and forwards, from the anterior part of the 

from the sides of the posterior extremity of the Corpus Third Ventricle; gradually contracting, and becoming 

Callosum, and are situated in the inferior Prolongations solid at its under end, where it terminates in the Glandula 

of the Lateral Ventricles. Tab. LXIIL V, \V. Tab. Pitvitaria, and thus, contrary to the opinion of the Ad- 

LXIV. W, W. cients, preventing the passage of any Pituitous Fluid from 

They run through the whole extent of these Proloaga- it to the Nose, 
tions, first behind, then at the outer part of the Posterior 

Pillars of the Fornix, and arc so intimately connected The Glandula PitUITAria is of an oval form, about 

with them, that they have been considered by some Au- tlie size of a field-bean, lodged in the Sella Turcica, and 

thors as forming part of the Pillars themselves. surrounded bya doubling of the Dura Mater. Tab.LXVI. 

They are small at their Origin, from which they con- V. Tab. LXVIH. 14. 

tinue to increase to their farther extremity. On the outside, it is of a brownish colour, and formed 

Like the greater [part of the Ventricles, they are co- of Cineritious Matter : It is whiter within, where it is 

vered externally with a Medullary Lamina; — internally, mixed with Medullary Substance. 

they are found to consist of Medullary and Cineritious The Glandula Pitnitaria was formerly supposed to ab- 

Laminre, which have a convoluted appearance. sorb a Fluid from the In fundi bul urn, and transmit it to 

At the inner edge of the Pedes Hippocampi, there is a the Nose. It has been already mentioned, however, that 

■platted, serrated, or indented Margin, which, in the ge- the Infundibulum is impervious ; and tlie real use of this 

nerality of Quadrupeds, is much larger, in proportion to Gland, as well as of the other Tubercles of the Brain, 

the size of the Brain, than it is in Man. The resem- seems still unknown. 

blance, however, to the Human kind, in the structure of At the fore part of the third Ventricle, and immediate* 

this particular part of the Brain, is more striking in the ly before the Anterior Crura of the Fornix, there is a 

Ape than in any other Quadruped. white Medullary Cord, which runs transversely through 

In the bottom of the Lateral Ventricles, behind the the Corpora Striata, uniting these together, and having 

anterior Crura of the Fornix, and before the meeting of the name of Commissuka Cerebri Anterior. Tab. 

the Choroid Plexuses of these Ventricles, below the ante- LXIV. uppermost D. Tab. LXVIII. No. 4. 

rior part of the Body of the Fornix, and over the fore At the back part of the third Ventricle, and under the 

part of the Third Ventricle, there is a Hole of an oval root of the Pineal Gland, there is another Cord sunilar to 

form, by which the Literal Ventricles communicate free- the former, but shorter, called Commissura Cerebri 

ly with each other. Tab. LXVL S. Tab. LXVII. S. Posterior. Tab. LXIV. undermost D. Tab. LXVIII. 

See Monro's Obs. mi Xert: Syst. 1/S3, and Treatise No. 9. Tlie Commissura' Cerebri assist in uniting the 

an the Brain, 1797. two sides of the Brain to which they are fixed. 

After dividing and turning back the Fornix, another From the under and back part of the third Ventricle, 

communication from the above passage is found, called there is a Passage which leads to the fourth, under the 

Foramen Commune Anterius, J itfi'ff, or Iter ad Infundi- name of Iter ad Quartum Ventriculwm, Canah's Me- 


[Vary IV. 

di'u.*, vet Aqwrdt/ctia S 

After the posterior part of the Fornix, and the Tel: 

Choroidea to whii li il adlurcs, hive been removed, the 
appear at the back part of the third Ventricle, behind 
tin- TliLihtmi, and over the Iter a Tertio ad Quartum Ven- 
triculum, the Nates and Testes, or Tubei 
, and the Pineal Gland. 

Tab. LSVII. c. Tab. or Hemispheres, but lias no separation above, like that 
of the Brain. 

It3 Surface is divided into numerous Circumvolutions, 
which form Arches in many parts, decussating each 
other at sharp angles. 

The T 

whiter In their colour than the Nates, and broader from 
one side to the other. 

A Longitudinal Section shews the Tubereula to be co- 
vered externally with .t thin Medullary Lamina, and to 
he Cineritious within. 

In Man they are more nearly of an enua) size and co- 
lonr than in Quadrupeds, as in the Ox, Sheep, &c. 

Over the "Sates, and under the back part of the For- 
nix, is placed the Glandoxa Pinealis, which is of a 
Cinerifioi's nature, about the size of a Garden-pea, and 
of a Conoid Figure ; obtaining its name from its resem- 
blance in shape to a Pine or Fir Cunt: Tab. LXIV. L. 

In consequence ot n^ h< ne; always present, ajid seldom 
found in a diseased state, it has been celebrated by Des 
Cartes as the Seat of the Saul 

The Pineal Gland h fixed at its root to the Commis- 
sure Cerebri Posterior, and sends out two long Medullar?/ 
Peduncles, or Fmt-stalks, io be fixed to the upper and 
inner side of the Thalami, and to the Anterior Crura of 
the Fornix. Tub. LXIV. K, K. 

Near, or in the Substance of the Pineal Gland, small 
Calcareous Concretions are frequently found, callenj by 
Soemmehhing, Acervtthit Cerebri, from their being ge- 
nerally found collected hi a heap. 

They do not appear to be the effects of disease ; nor 
are they met with till after the age of Puberty. 


The Cerebellum is situated in the Inferior Fossa? of the 
Occipital Bone, under the posterior Lobes of the Brain, 
and is separated from these Lobes by the Tentorium 
Tab. LIN. I, I. Tab. LXVI. under M. Tab. LXVIII. 

It is somewhat of a roundish form, though a little flat- 
tened above, and broader from one side to the other than 
from before backwards, Tab. LXV. D,D. Tan. LX1X. 
It is only about a sixth part of the size of the Cerebrum, 
and less complex. 

It is divided behind by the Falx Minor into two Lobes 

them, into which, as in the Brain, the" Pia Mat 
nuates itself. This may be readily seen by making a 
Punctnre into the Arachnoid Coat, and blowing in Air, 
till it distend the Cellular Substance, and separate the 
Coats from each other. 

It has two middle Eminences, called Appendices Ver- 
mifortnes, from their resemblance to Earth-worms, one 
of which is situated anteriorly and superiorly, the other 
iniVrioilv slid po-iL-riorlv. Tab. LXX. Fig. '.'. 0. 

Each of the Lobes of the Cerebellum is again divided 
into Monticuli or Loln/les, which have different names 
according to their relative situations, connections with 
other parts, &c. They vary a little in different Sub- 
jects, but are easily distinguished from the direction of 
their Convolutions. 

The. Substance of the Cerebellum consists iu Cineri- 
tious and Medullary Mattel-, as in the Cerebrum; but 
the Cineritious hears a greater proportion to the Me- 
dullary in tlie former than in the latter. 

When the Cerebellum is cut in a vertical direction, 
the Medullary part is then found to bear a striking re- 
semblance to the branching of the Shrub called Arbor 
Vita: from which circumstance it Iras obtained tlie 
name of this Shrub. Tab. LXIV. K, R. 

When cut m slices nearly parallel to the Base of the 
Brain, the Medullary substance appears in Lamina; 
corresponding to those of the Surface of the Cerebel- 
lum ; and when cut to a considerable depth, there is, as 
iu the Cerebrum, a Centrum Medullare uniting the La- 
teral Lobes. 

Between the Cerebellum, the under part of the Tu- 
ber Annulare, and upper part of the Medulla Oblon- 
gata, the Fourth J'entricle is situated, which extends 
from the Teatet to the posterior-inferior Notch of the Ce- 
rebellum formed by the Falx Minor. Tab. LXIV. O, T. 
Tab. LXVI. Tab. LXVU. 

A little lower than the Testes, tlte Ventricle become* 
wider, and forms an Angle behind, from which again it 
contracts, and becoming narrower and pointed below 
like a writing-pen, has got the name of Caiamvs Scrip, 
torim. Tab. LXIY. T. 

Over the under end of the Aouscductua Stj.vii, and. 
upper part of the Fourth Ventricle, there is » thin 
Medullary Lamina, called Valvvla, but properly Velum 
Viedssenii. Tab. LXVI. i. 

At the sides of the Velum VreuasEHll there are two 
Medullary Tracts, called Processus ad Testes, or Colaith. 
na Votruhr Vieussenii. Tab. LXIV. Q, Q. 

The under end of the Ventricle is found to be ;>hut up 





Upon inverting the Brain, the Lobes already taken 
notice of, appear iu a conspicuous manner. 

Near the middle of the Bue of the Brain, and be- 
tween its Lateral Lobe-, there are two small, round, 
white Bodies, termed Eininentiar Manuni/lures, vcl Cor- 
pora Mbicantia, Medullary without, and Cineritious 
within, mistaken by some Authors for Glands. Tab. 
LXV. L, L. Tab. LXIX. H. 

In the Corpora Albicantia, various Medullary Strata 
terminate, which come from different parts of the Brain. 

Immediately before the Corpora Albicautia, is seen 
Hie Infiindibulum, leading from the Third Ventricle. 
Tab. LXIX. G. Tab. LXV. M. 

On the outside of the Corpora Albicautia, twp large 
white Cords are observed, called Crura, vel Pcdunculi 
Cert hi, vel Crura AnUriora Medulla- Oblongata, which 
arise from the Medullary Substance of the Brain, and 
gradually approach each other in their course, till they 

nth the Tuber Annulare 
Their Surface is flat, and 
dullary Fibres. Internally t]i 

those of the Sixili Fair. These two Ft.r^cm/i ^nelntie 
only a little way in the edges of the Tuber, and receive 
a Plexus of Vessels. 

The Substance of the Tuber h intermixed v. ill. a con- 
siderable quantity of Cortical Mailer, formed iiHo Strut 
running iu different directions. 

Continued from the Tuber, there is a l;ir;e Snhstiini r 
in form of an inverted Cone, which extends lo the Fo- 
ramen Magnum of (he Occipital Bone, under the name of 
Medulla Oblongata. Tub. LXIX. R, V. 

Upon the Surface of the Medulla Oblongata, two 
small Eminences appear, which run longitudinally, ami 
contiguous to each other, and, from their shape, have 
the name of Corpora Pyramidal iu, \ el Eminent m Pyra- 
midales. Tab. LXIX. T. 

Between the Corpora Pyramidalia, there is a deep 
Fissure, into which the Pia Mater penetrates, and where 
Blood-vessels pass into the interior part of the Medulla. 

At the outside of the former Eminences, are two 
others, somewhat of the figure of Olives, from which 
they are termed Corpora Olivaria, vel Eminent ia Oli- 
ve other two Eminen- 
ces, less evident than the last, which have been describ- 
ed by some Authors under the name of Corpora Pyra- 
jnida/ia Lateralia. 

The Medulla Oblongata is divided into two lateral 
by an anterior and posterior Fissure. These 
formed of Medullary Mai 

Tab. LXV. F, F. 
nposed of distil 
are formed of 
of Cineritious and Medullary Matter, the former Porti 
of which, being of a darker colour at one particular part two Portions are formed of Medullar) Matter without, 
than in any other of the Brain, has been termed Locus and a large proportion of Cineritious Matter within, 
Niger Crurum Cerebri. ioined together by Medullary Fibres. Tab. LXIX. S, 

Between the Crura Cerebri, and likewise between the T. Tab. LXV. G, G. 
Corpora Albicantia, there is a Cineritious Substance, The Arteries of the Brain are derived from the Inter- 
called Pons Taiuni, which joins these Bodies of the n -j.\ Carotids and Vertebrals, and run in a tortuous man- 
opposite sides together, and assists in forming the bot- ner through the Base of the Cranium, to prevent the 
torn of the Third Ventricle. Tab. LV. between the Blood from rushing too violently in upon the Brain. 

The Veins only differ from those of other Viscera, 
in not following the course of their respective Arteries. 

The Brain is the Grand and Primary Organ of 
Sense, with which the Mind is supposed to be most imme- 
diately and intimately connected, and from which the 
Nervous Influence is found, by experiment, to be commit* 
nicated to ail the other parts of the Body, 

From the Medullary part of the Cerebellum, which 
forms the Trunk of the Arbor Vita-, two while Cords 
arise under the name of Crura Ccrtbe/li, vel Crura Paste- 
riora, vel Pedunculi Cercbe/li, Tab. LXV. t, C. Tab. 
LXIX. O, O, which unite with the Crura Cerebri, to 
compose the Tuber Annulare, vel Pons Varolii, Tab. 
LXIX. P, P, so named from forming a Ring or Bridge 
over the Crura. This ring is intimately incorporated 

Origin of the Nerve 

I- the back part of The Nerves 

of Medullary parts of the Brain, 

e Threads, which afterward; 

-beginning anteriorly 

connected with, (he 

in solid Cords, others 

unite into Cords, 


the Body of the Sphenoid, and Cuneiform Pre 

the Occipital Bones. Many Transverse Streaks run on m separs 

its Surface, and it is divided into two lateral parts by a and havt 

longitudinal Depression, occasioned by the situation of to their 

the Vertebral Artery. Tab. LXIX. Tab. LXVIII. Nine « 

No. 23. No. 27. sides a pair termed Sympathetic. 

At the fore and back parts of the Tuber, are the Fa- The First, or Olfactory Pair of Nerves, arise from 

ramina Cceca, /Interim vt Posterius, the former placed the back part of the anterior Lobes of the Brain, and 

between the Nerves of the Third, and the totter between run towards the Crista Galli of the Ethmoid Bone, over 

Vol. II. C which 



[Past IV. 

Trhich each forms a brownish-coloured Bulb, from whence 
numerous small Nerves arc sent off. Tab. LXIX. a,n,c. 

The Second Pair, or Optic Nerves, are the contuma- 
tion of the Thalami Optici. They are united imme- 
diately before the lnfundibulum, and form an intimate 
intermixture of parts, and again separate, previous to 
their passing into the Orbits. Tab. LXIX. d, e,J. 

The Third Pair arise from the Crura Cerebri by nu- 
merous Tlireads, which are soon collected into Trunks. 
Tab. LXIX. g, g. „ „ , 

The Fourth Pair, which are the smallest Nerves tit 
the Body, aria Ik hind the Testes, and have a long wind- 
in. course. Tab. LXIX. it, h. 

"The Fifth Pair, which are the largest Nerves in the 
Biain, have . ,<■ h an anterior small, and a posterior large 
l^cu'iilis. avians from ihc sides of the Tuber Vnunhne. 
i'-,h. IAIN .). 

The Sixth Pair arise from the begvaning of the Me. 
dulla Oblongata, where it joins the Tuber Arululare. 
Each of the Nerves of this I'm has a small Ihread at 
ils inner nan. Tab. LXIX. »', t. 

The Scvvuili Pair arise from the beginning of the late- 
ral parts of the Medulla Oblongata, and are divided on 
each side into a Portia Mollis, and Portia Dura. Tab. 

The Eighth Pair arise by small Fasciculi from the Cor. 
pora Ohraria. Tab. LXIX. n, o. 

The Ninth Pair of Nerves also arise by small Fasciculi 
a little below the former, from the Corpora Pyramidalia. 
Tab. LXIX. p,p. 

The Origin of the Ne 
lattrth in Vol. 111. 

described at greater 


C 19 ) 


Gives a View of the Duha Hater; the Integuments being turned down, and the Upper Pa 
of the Skuli 

A, A, The cut edge of the cranium. E, E, Depressions between the convolutions of the brain 

B, B, The course of the superior longitudinal sinus. appearing through the dura mater. 

C, C, C, Small pits, and scattered fibres of the dura F, 1', F, The convolutions of the brain appearing through 
mater, commonly occupied by the Glandules Pac- the dura mater. 

chioni. G, The principal artery of the dura mater, dividing into 

D, D, Part of the dura mater which covers the right branches, which have corresponding iurroiv; in (lie --kull. 
hemisphere of the brain. H, I, Branches from the trunk G. 

( 20 ) 


In this Figure the Integuments of the Superior Part of the Head are cut and turned down, and 
the Skull-Cap removed, to exhibit the Brain covered by the Dura Mater, with its principal 
Sinuses laid open. The View is taken from the Upper and Back Part. The Figure is the 
reverse of the Drawing from which it was taken. 

A, A, A, The integuments of the upper part of the head, F, F, Two small portions of the dura mater, where the 
reflected. • sinus was split in this subjei 

JB, B, The cut edge of the bone, near the base of the G, The termination of the torcular Herophlu, in 

cranium. beginning of one of the lateral sinuses. 

C, C, The upper, and, H, H, The two lateral sinuses laid open, with the ter 

D, D, The back part of the two hemispheres of the ce- nation of the veins from the upper part of the ct 
rcbrum, covered by the dura mater; with some traces bellum. 

of the principal arteries of that membrane. I, I, The two lobes or hemispheres of the cerebeil 

E, E, The superior longitudinal sinus slit open, with the covered by the dura mater, 
s of the superior cerebral veins. 

7L4B. <59. 


( 21 ) 


A Section of the Skull, giving a View of the principal PnocnssEs and Sinuses of the 
Duua Mater. 

A, B, C, The cut edge of the skull, a little to the left 

side of the falx. 
D, E, F, The left side of the skull, cut horizontally, a 

little above the tentorium. 
G, The 03 nasi. 

H, The nasal process of the superior maxillary bone. 
I, The outer orbitar process of the os frontis. 
K, The alveolar arch of the superior maxillary bone, 
L, The under part of the orbit. 
M, The os mala. 

N, The temporal plate of the sphenoid bone. 
O, The inferior, or external orbitar fissure. 
P, The large tuberosity at the back part of the superior 

maxillary bone. 
Q, The zygoma. 
H, Tlif -iquamous part of the temporal bone. 

S, The 

T, The mastoid 
V, U, The spim 
V, W, Its orbit, 
X,X, The ante 
Y, T, Thefora 

for the lateral lobes of the brai 
as of the occipital bone, 
ce of the pars petrosa. 
pital boue, for Judging the rig 

, The posterior clir 
, A, The middle lbs: 
, The cuneiform pr< 
, rf, The anterior su 
, The fossa in the c 

side of the cerebellum, 
i The spine of the occipital Imtn-. 
, A, i, k, /, m, m, The falx. 
, o, p, q, The left side of the t 
, s, t, The right side of the t 

Tin.- uiidi-r S)idu raised and stretched by (he falx. 
, ?', t\ k, The superior longitudinal sinus; 

The backmost ?«,/«, point out the i 

auditorius, behind which is the stjloid 

of the frontal bone ; 

-J *>i- tliiiiiitl pro* L-fti of the sphei 

i of the internal carotid arteries 

y, The left lateral uinus. — The Light is concealed bv 

1. The scat of the Itft cavernous -inn . 
1. 3. The left petrosal sinus. 
■\ T!'e '»!' 'lie I'ir.lii inferior petrosal c Idus, 


Tiie Circumvolutions of the Brain appearing through the Pia Mater, after the Skull-Cap 
and Dura Mater have been raised. 

A, A, The skin and muscle which covered the cranium, 
turned down. 

B, B, The cut edge of the cranium. 

C, C, The right hemisphere of the brain. 

D, D, D, D, The left hemisphere. — Between the two 
hemispheres is the space which was occupied by the 
fabt ot the dura mater. 

E, E, The anterior circumvolutions of the brain, which 
were lodged in the cavity of the os froutis. — They are 
smaller than those which correspond with the parietal 
bone ; nor do they resemble those on the opposite side 
of the head. 

F, F, F, The middle circumvolutions of the brain.— They 

run in an oblique direction, and are larger, longer, and 
straighter, than those in the other parts of the brain. 

G, G, The posterior circumvolutions, which are not 
much inferior in size te the former, but more convo- 
luted and numerous. 

H, H, The posterior aud inferior circumvolutions, smaller 
than the rest, and their disposition similar to that of the 
anterior circumvolutions. 

I, The appearance of an union of two circumvolutions 
into one ; instances of which are frequently met with. 
Over the surface of the pia mater are seen small arte- 
ries, which, after being .spread out on that membrane, 
plunge into the substance of the brain. 

7'AJi.O >. 

( 23 ) 


A View of a Transverse Section of the Brain, upon a level with the Corpus Callosum. 

A, A, The cranium sawed at its greatest diameter. 
U, B, The dura mater turned back. 

C, C, C, The cortical part of the brain. 

D, D, The fissures between the circumvolutions. 

E, E, The arterial callosse, which were placed upon the 
corpus callosum, and are now drawn forwards. 

E, 1", F, Some portions of the cortical substance sepa- 
rated from the rest : They belonged to that part of the 

brain which was raised from this. 

G, G, G, The medullary substance, in 

the cut orifices of many blood-vessels. 


H, A branch of an artery which sinks into the Fos.-a 

I, I, K, L, L, The corpus callosum.— K, A Baphe, or 
suture, in the middle of the corpus callosum, on each 
side of which is a medullary cord L, L, broad behind 
and narrow before, which accompanies it through its 
whole length. On the outside of L, L, transverse 
lines are seen, which run under the medullary cords, 
are connected to them, and pass from one hemisphere 
of the brain to the other, so as to assist in forming the 

( 2* ) 


A deeper Section of the Brain than that shewn in the former Table. — The Corpus Callosum 
is removed, to obtain a View of the Lateral Ventricles. 

A, A, The cut edge of the cranium. 

B, B, The frontal sinuses. 

C, C, Their openings into the nose. 

D, D, The fissures between the circumvolutions. 
E,E, The medullary substance of the brain, with : 

small dots, which represent the orifices of cut arteries. 

F, The fissure which separates the two anterior lobes of 
the brain. 

G, G, The corpora striata rounded and large anteriorly, 
and diminishing towards the posterior part, where they 
terminate, each in a point. — Ramifications of blood- 
vessels are seen upon them, which pass under the for- 
nix, and terminate in the vena Galeni. 

H, H, The anterior corona of the lateral ventricles, of 
the same form with the anterior extremities of the cor- 

I, The septum lucidum, which separates the lateral ven- 
tricles from each other. 

K, K, The two laminae of the septum lucidum, the in- 
ternal part of which is formed of medullary, and the 
external of cineritious matter. 

L, The cavity or sinus of the septum lucidum. 

M, M, The two posterior crura of the fornix ;— the an- 
terior crura are hid by the septum lucidum. 

N, The back part of the corpus callosum joined to the 
fornix and septum lucidum. 

O, O, The ] 

forme is, w 

P, P, The anterior bandalelte? ot the posterior crura for- 

nicis, the origin only of which is here seen. 
Q, Q, The choroid plexuses of the superior or lateral 

ventricles, situated over the outer edge of the fornix, 

and upper part of the thalami nervorum opticoruin. 
B,R, 1 wo medullary bands, called Centrum Setnicircu- 

lare Geminumoi Vieussens, or Ttetiia Sctitu-imtlari.. 

of HaLLER ; placed between the corpora striata and 

thalami nervorum opticorura. 
S, S, Posterior prolongations of the lateral ventricles. 
T, T, Projections in the posterior prolongations of the 

lateral ventricles, termed Ergot t each being in form of 

a cock-spur. 
U, Left side, the beginning of the inferior cornu of the 

lateral ventricle. — U, Right side, the continuation of 

the posterior crus of the fornix in the inferior cornu 

of the ventricle. 
V, The beginning, and, 

W, The termination of the pes Hippocampi in the infe- 
rior cornu of the right lateral ventricle. 
X, X, X, The inferior cornu of the lateral ventricle of 

this side, shewn by cutting deep into the substance of 

the brain. 


( 2« ) 


A Portion of the Brain cut horizontally, to shew Parts deeper seated than those represented 
in the former Table. — The Ceeebellum is cut perpendicularly, from before backwards, and 
the Lateral Parts separated a little from each other. 

A, The middle of the brain, which surrounds the corpora 

B, B, The corpora striata, with some blood-vessels upon 
their surface. 

C, &_ section of the anterior pillars of the fornix, 
interior et posterior of the brain. 

D, The co 

E, E, The 

1 semicirculare 

F, F, &c. The thalami optic! covered with many vessels. 
At the fore part, the letters, F, F, point out also the 
anterior tubercles of the thalami. 

G, G, The bottom of the third ventricle. 
H, The origin of the infundibulum. 

I, The commissura mollis of the optic thalami, concealing 

part of the third ventricle. 
K, K, The peduncles of the pineal gland. Behind, they 

cover part of the posterior commissure of the brain, 

but are distinct from it. 
L, The pineal gland, chiefly composed of cineritious sub- 

M, M, The tuhercula quadrigemina snperiora, vel nates, 

over which the pineal gland is placed. 
N, N, The tubercula quadrigemina inferiora, vel testes. 

P, P, The origin of the fourth pair of : 
Q, Q, Two medullary tracts, called Pr 

Columnar Valvule Vieussenii, &c. 
K, R, The medullary part of the c 

S, The cavity of the fourth ventricle, in the bottom of 
which there is a furrow, called Calamus Scriptorius. 

T, The end of the fourth ventricle and calamus scriptorius, 

TJ, U, The cerebellum. 

V, V, A perpendicular section of the brain. 

W, \V, Thecornua Ammonis, or great Hippocampi. 

X, X, The corpus firubriatum, or band of the great Hip- 

T, X, The choroid plexus. 

a, A principal branch of the deep cerebral artery, which 
comes from the vertebral one. This sends small brunch- 
es inwards to the tubercula quadrigemina, pineal gland, 
and its peduncles. The principal branches run forwards 
to the thalami optici and choroid plexus ; these fre- 
quently anastomose, and cross each other. A few 
branches run from the former to the taenia semicircula- 
ris, and back part of the corpora striata. 

b, b, The superior arteries of the cerebellum. The first 
part of these sends branches to the tubercula quadrige- 
mina, and parts near them ; and some small twigs run 
to the fourth ventricle, where the: 
the superior arteries of the cerebell 
side of the tubercula, the deep and su 
of the superior arteries of the cerebel 

c, c, The continuation of the superficial arteries of the 
cerebellum. They spread over its surface, sink into 

( 26 ) 


The Brain inverted, on which are seen the Crura Cerebri et Cerebelli j — the Tuber Annu- 
lare, and Medulla Oblongata ; — the Arachnoid Coat and Pia Mater being removed, in 
order to shew the General Direction of their Medullary Fibres. ■ 

A, A, The anterior lobes of the brain. 

B, B, The lateral or middle lobes. 

C, C, The posterior lobes. 

D, D, The lobes, or hemispheres of the cerebellum ; 

«, o, Its superior :md anti-rior lohuli vs, called also Ver- 
miform Processes of the Cerebellum. 

E, E, The tuber annulare, the surface of which consists of 
medullary fibres, disposed chiefly in transverse bundles. 

ft, A depression where the basilar artery was placed. 

F, F, The crura cerebri, composed externally of bundles 
of medullary fibres. 

of medullary fibres. G, G, The middle line where 
the cords are united. H, H, The corpora pyramida- 
lia, which, in the natural situation, arc contiguous to 
each other. I, I, The corpora olivaria. 
K, K, The optic nerves cut horizontally, I 

' their 

t the f 

iramiua optic 

rf, rf, Cineritiono =«ij=iances mtunately connected to the 
optic nerves, and furnishing some part of their medul- 
lary substance. 
L, L, The corpora albicantia. 

Between the corpora albicantia, there is a cineritious 
substance called Pons Tarini, uniting them and the 
crura cerebri of the opposite sides. 
M, A section of the infunaibulum, 

Tab. ffs. 


Shews the Brain placed upon its Base. — A Cut is made in a vertical direction through the 
middle of the Corpus Callosum, as far as the Anterior Commissure, and continued posterior- 
ly to the Tubercula Quadrigemina. The Hemispheres are separated from each other, ami 
turned to each side. The Septum Lucidum and Fornix are cut and removed. The Cerebel- 
lum, in a similar manner, is divided as far as the Fourth Ventricle. In the Left Side, a Ver- 
tical Section is seen ; in the Eight, the parts are cut horizontally. 

A, A, The hemispheres of the brain. P, P, The peduncles, or superior cords of < 

B, B, The anterior lobes. the pineal gland with ihe thalami. 

C, C, The posterior lobes. Q, The pineal gland. 

D, A vertical section of the fore and inner part of the 11, B, The nates, or anterior pair of the tubercula qua- 
right* hemisphere, to shew the cortical and medullary drigemina. 

parts. H, S, The testes, or posterior pair. 

E, E, The cut edges of the corpus callosum, between T, The commissure of the tubercula qgadrigetnina. 
which parts the lateral ventricles are included. Vj, U, V, V, The valvula Vieussen'ji, or mass of con- 

F, F, The corpora striata. In the right corpus, a band ncction between the tubevcula and the cerebellum, 
of medullary stride is seen. W, W, The tuber annulare. 

G, G, The thalami nervorum opticorum, on which their X, X, Y, Z, The fourth ventricle. Y, Z, The linen 
eminences or tubercles distinctly appear, and also some media of this ventricle. Z, The under part of this;, 
medullary stria: running in a curved direction. termed C'alctMits Scriptorivs, 

II, H, The centrum semicirculare geminnm. </, *t, Medullary stria.- in (lie Iburih ventricle, which form 

I, Hie commissura mollis of the optic thalami. the beginning of the auditory nerves. 

K, The remains of the septum lucidum. ft, ft, The outer surface of the "cerebellum. 

E, A section of the anterior commissure of the brain- c, c, The medullary part of ilie cerebellum, forming the 

iU, The third ventricle. trunk of the arbor vita:. 

N, Part of the infundibuluin. i!. The corpus denticulatuni vel rhomhoideum of the ce- 

O, The posterior commissure of the brain. rebellum. 

( 246 ) 


Represents the Braih inverted, and certain Sections made into it, so as to shew several of the 
deep parts of the Cerebrum and Cerebellum, the intermixture of the Cortical and Medullary 
Substances, and the exit of some of the Nerves. 

A, A, The ulterior, and, 

IS, B, The posterior lobes of the cerebrum. 

C, C, The middle lobe of the left side. 

U, The fissure of Sylvius. — On the right side, 
U made into the middle lobe, somewhat hi ai 
ial direction, by which the coi 
of the cortical and medullary parts tlisliuctly appear. 

]■"., The corpus striatum, or great superior tenia al gan- 
glion of Gall. 

I-', White striae in this substance. 

G, Sections of nervous fasciculi in the middle lobe. 

II, H, The crura cerebri, will 
dullary matter running across these, 

I, I, The corpora mamraillaria. 

clc. of the cerebellum, on the left 

N, N, A section of the cerebellum downwards and out. 
wards, from the corpus restifonne, through the gan- 

th the medulla ob- a, The place of 
b, The opt: 

Varolii ; the pons being removed on the right side, to 
shew the corresponding crus fully. 
S, The crura cerebri continued into the corpora pyra. 

T, The under end of the corpora pyramidalia, in which 
the connection is seen between the fibres of the oppo- 

U, U, The corpora olivaria, vel ganglia ovalia of the 
medulla oblongata of Gall. 

V, V, The prolongation of the cerebellum towards the me- 
dulla oblongata entire on the left side, the currespond- 
ing part of the right side being cut to shew its connec- 
tion with the cerebellum. 

\V, The continuation of the anterior median fissure of the 
medulla spinalis. 

X, The left olfactory nerve, in which are seen behind, 
its external and internal roots, and before, its bulb or 

tuberculum externum 

glion O, to shew the d 

dullary parts, aud its 

O, The fringed, denticulated, or rhomboidal body, or the 
ganglion of the cerebellum of Gall. 

P, The prolongation of the cerebellum towards the me- 
dulla oblongata, or the original fasciculus of the 
bellum of Gall. 

Q, The tuber annulare, or pons Varolii. 

Pi, It, The passage of the crura cerebri under the pon; 

Y, Y, The corpus geniculate 

of the optic nerve. 
Z, The t 

of the opti 

itinued from the thalamus opticus. 
The I'nurtli, or pathetic nerve, 
rf, The fifth nerve! 
:- e, The origin of the fifth nerve. 
!- /, The portio dura. 

g, The portio mollis of this nerve, incorporated with the 
prolongation of the cerebellum towards the medulla ob- 

71 LB. 6 o: 

C « ) 


The Crahwm, Era 

nd Nose, cut perpendicularly, close to the Left Side of the Falx, 

Cerebri and Septum Narium. 

A, A, A, A, A section of the cranium. 

B, Part of the left frontal sinus. 

C, Part of the left sphenoid sinus. 

D, The nasal lamelU of the ethmoid bone. 

E, The vomer. 

F, A cartilage composing a large share of the septum 

G, The opening from the right nostril into the throat. 
H, The roof of the mouth and the teeth of the right side 

of the upper jaw. 

I, I, The canceJli of the cuneiform process of the occi- 
pital bone ; from it, upwards to the sella Turcica, nume- 
rous and large cancelli were continued in this subject. 

L, L, li, The root of the falx, the rest being removed, 
to shew the convolutions of the inner side of the right 
hemisphere of the brain. 

O, The septum lucidum. 

P, The body of the fornix. 

Q, Q, The two anterior crura of the fornix, 

B, A section of the commissura anterior, 

S f The passage by which the lateral ventricles of the 

brain communicate with each other, and with the third 


T, The right side of the third ventricle, situated under 

the right thalamus nervi optici. 
V, The infundibulum, at the bottom of the third ven- 

V, The glandula pituitaria lodged in the sella Turcica. 

W, A section of the left optic nerve. 

X, A section of the left corpus albicans, behind the in- 

Y, Part of the choroid plexus. 

Z, The pineal gland, with two peduncles, one of which 
connects it to the side of the third ventricle, and tin. 
other to— a, which is a section of the commissura cc. 

b, The iter ad quartum ventriculum. 

c, d, A section of the nates and testes, 

e, The valvula Vjeussenii. 

f, The arbor vita; of the cerebellum. 

g, The cavity of the fourth ventricle. 

h, The bottom of the fourth ventricle, shut t. 

cular or choroid plexus and pia mater, 
i, A section of the tuber annulare, 
k, A section of the medulla oblongata. 
1, A section of the upper part of the spinal marrow, 
m, The basilar artery. 

( 2S ) 


A Perpendicular Section of the Cranium and Brain, at the Left Side of the Falx 
and Septum Lucidum. 

A, A, The section of tlie cranium. 

B, A section of the left frontal sinus. 

( , 1 Ik (ore part of the falx, fixed to the crista Galli. 
D, The back part of the falx, fixed to the middle of the 

the fornix, by which the two lateral ventricles c 
munkate with each other, and with the tiiiitl - 

T, A section of the right optic nerve, at the place w] 

F, The upper and anterior part of the cerebellum. 

G, Part of the inner side of the right hemisphere of the 
brain, with arteries upon its surface, Irom the anterior 
branch of the internal carotid. 

H, H, A section of the corpus callosuin. 

I, J, The septum luciduin between the lateral ventricles. 

K, The middle part, or body of the fornix. 

L, A section of the left posterior crus of the fornix. 

M, A section of the left anterior crus of the fornix. 

N, The right anterior crus of the fornix. 

O, A section of the anterior commissura cerebri. 

P, The inner side of the right thalamus nervi optici, 

forming the right side of the third ventricle. 
Q, A vein running on the left side of the septum luciduin, 

to terminate in the choroid plexus R . 
S, Ad oval bole under the anterior part of the body of 

under the commissura anterior, and betw 
miation of the corpus callosuin and joining of the right 
optic nerve with its thalamus. 
r , The iter per infundibulum ad glandulam pituitariani, 
between the joining of the optic nerves with their tha. 
lami and the corpora aibicantia ; a section of the left 
of which is represented at W. 

, and by a middle pe- 
> Z, the commfssura cerebri posterior, 
n of the nates of the left side, 
n of the testis of the same side. 
■ a tertio ad quart urn ventriculum. 
n of the left internal carotid artery- 


( 29 ) 


A Vertical Section of the Head and Neck, from before backwards, and a little to one side, 
as to preserve in this View the parts in the middle, and common to each Side of the Head. 

A — F, The contour of the figure, and a section of the 

common integuments. 
G, The upper part of the sternum. 
H, H, The bodies of all the cervical vertebrae, and first 

vertebra of the back. 
I, I, The transverse processes of these vertebrae. 
K, L, The cuneiform process of the occipital bone. 
L, M, The foramen magnum of the occipital bone. 
N, The upper part of the occipital bone, and the lanib- 

N, O, The parietal bone. O, The coronal suture. 

O, R, The frontal bone. 

P, The plates of this bone separating, to form, 

Q, The frontal sinus of this side, divided from the other 

by a partition. 
R, The os frontis indented with the nasal bones. 
S, The ethmoid bone. . 
T, The nasal bones. 
U, The crista Galli of the ethmoid bone. 
V, The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. 
Wf The right sphenoid sinus separated from the left by 

a partition covered with a vascular membrane. 
X, The sella Turcica. 

T, The crista cuneiformis, or processus azygos. 
Z, The cuneiform bone joined to the occipital. 
Z, a. The osseous palate. 

n, One of the dentes incisores of the upper jaw. 
i, The lower jaw. 

c, One of the denies incisores of the lower jaw. 

d, A small tubercle at the under and back, part of the mid- 
dle of the lower jaw, to which several muscles arc fixed. 

e, The os hyoides. 

/ — /, The larynx and trachea lined with their proper 

/, The point of the epiglottis. 
g, A, /, The thyroid cartilage. 
A, ft, The cricoid cartilage. 
/, /, The trachea laid open, the cartilages of which arc 

seen through the inner membranci 

wi, ;n, The inter-vertebral cartilages. 

n, Ligaments binding tin: fir;* and second vertebra to the. 

occipital bone, 
o, Ligament binding the first vertebra to the second. 
P1P1P1 The portion of the dura mater which lines tin 

spinal canal. 
5, The falx minor, 
r, ,?, The torcular Herophili ; — r, is placed before the 

opening of the left lateral sinus. 
t y The opening of the vena Galen I into the torcular 

V, v, y, The superior longitudinal sinus. At its upper 

and back part are seen the orifices of some of i he vein - 

of the brain. — n, The termination of the sinus in the 

beginning of the lateral sinuses. 
u; i, The inferior longitudinal sinus ; 
X, The termination of the sinus in the torcular Hero- 

3 Of 

are seen — y, The connection of the falx with the 
Cii>t a Galli. — %, Connection with the tentorium. — 
i', The upper edge connected to the cranium. — H', The 
nndi ]■ i.'1-e of the i',il\, c-iteuilinc; between the hemi- 
spheres of the brain to near the corpus callosum. 

.. 1. Part of the surface of the left In inisphere, covered 
by the pia mater and its blood-vessels. 

I. 2. The corpus callosuni. 

!. 3. The septum lucidum. 

. The anterior cuiniui-.sme of i lie brain. 

•. 6. The anterior crura of the fornix. — 6. The right 
cms cut, to obtain a view of the left. 

i. — ;i. The continuation of the fornix, the back part of 
which is seen united uiih the corpus callosum. 

'. The passu-, bv which the lateral ventricles communi- 
cate witli each other and with the third ventricle. This 
opening is not represented in the original figure, but 
is added here from nature. 



8. to a lHtle below 10. The third ventricle, winch c 

trading, forms the infundibulum. 
Between 8. and 10. The left thalamus opticus, forn 

the left side of the third ventricle. 
P. The posterior commissure of the brain. 

II. One of the corpora albicantia. 
1L The union of the optic nerves. 

13. The under end of the infundibulum joining, 
1 i. The glandula pituitai ' 
" Thcc 

The i 

The n 
IS. The testes. 

III. 2D. 21. A sectioi 

22. The arbor vita:, 
the cerebellum. 

23. The tuber annulare. 

24. 24. 25. 25. The fourth ventricle. The uppermost 
24. is placed in die duel which leads from the third to 
the fourth vc 
below the call 

25. 25. 26. The medulla oblongata. 
27- The basilar artery. 

28. A branch of the internal carotid artery, which is 
distributed over the surface of the left hemisphere of 
the brain. 

29. The choroid plexus, composed of small arteries and 
veins seated above the optic thalami : 

30. The vena Galeni, formed by the union of these veins. 

26.31. The spinal marrow, continued through the ver- 
tebra: of the neck.. The nerves which are seen issuing 
from its anterior and posterior surface, and uniting into 
cords, are not much to be attended to in this figure, 

32. Liniments which occupy the intervals of the verte- 
brae from their bodies to their spinous processes, and 

iophagus j 

33. The 


t them togethei 

capitis postici 

37. The complexus. 

38. The splenius. 

39. The cucullaris. 

40. The cesophagus. 

41. The internal membrane of the c 

42. Its cavity. 
42.-48. A section of the pharynx, 

43. The cut edge of the pharynx. 

4 k Miif-Ties placed between the pharynx and vertebra;. 
45. The mucous glands of the pharynx. 
40. The orifice <>l the Eustnchian tube. 

47. The velum palati. 

48. The posterior opening of the left uusini. 

49. The uvula, with, its glandular substance and muscle, 

50. The septum uarium, covered by its vascular mem- 

51. The palate. 

52. The anterior arch of the palate pulled forward with 
the tongue. 

53. The posterior arch of the palate, 

54. The amygdala. 

55. The root of the tongue. 

56. The mucous glands at the root of the tongue. 

57. The genio-hyo-glossus, extending from the root to 
the tip of the tongue. 

58. The apex lingua:. 

59. The genio-hyoideus. 

60. The anterior belly of the digastrics, 

61. A portion of the platysma myoides. 

62. The sterno-hyoidens. 

63. The sterno-thyroideus, 

64. The ligament which binds the os hyoides to the thy- 
roid cartilage. 

65. The epiglottis, and membrane on each side, which 
binds it to the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages, 

66. The left ventricle of the larynx. 

67. A section of the arytenoid muscles, and between that 
and the ventricle of the larynx, the arytenoid cartilage, 

78. A section of the thyroid gland.<>. 

( 31 ) 


A View of the Base of the Brain, and of the Nerves which take their Origin from it. 

A, A, A, A, The anterior lobes of the brain. 

B, B, The division of the anterior lobes of the brain. 
CC, CC, The lateral lobes. 

D, D, The posterior lobes. 

E, E, A perforated part of the brain, for the passage of 

F, F, A circumvolution on each side, 

G, The infimdibuluni, supported upon the 

H, The corpora albic; 


and anterior lobules 

N, N, The 

it" the cerebellum, called also i 
1 anterior Vermiform Processes, 
rura cerebri. At their inner edge the c 
of blood-vessels are seen. 
O, O, The crura cerebelli. 
P, P, The tuber annulare. 
Q, An impression made bv the basilar artcrr- 
R, S, T, U, U, V, The medulla oblongata. ' 
S, The fissure where the two lalcinl cords, of which the 
medulla oblongata is composed, can be separated some 
way from each other. 
T, The corpora pvramidalia. 
U, U, The corpora olivaria. 

V, The part where the medulla oblongata is said to ter- 
minate, and tin' spinal marrow to begin. 
«, a, The olfactory or first pair of r.e.-ves, which, con- 

trary to the other nerves, converge 
under the brain. 
6, i, The roots of the olfactory nerves, 
part of the anterior lobes, at the tiss 
each composed of three parts 

c, r. The anterior bulbous e: 
tious matter, mixed with t 

d, d, The tractus opticus or 

e, The union of the optic n 

/,/, A section of the optic 

the foramina optica. 
g, g y The third pair of ner 
A, A, The fourth pair of ne 
/,?', The fifth pair of ncrv 

A, /r, The e 

iceaied by the 
their entry into 

ill. and . 

p..-. v 

inposed of « 

i of uliii h has a ma 
from tin tru tk. 
/, m,/,ffi, The seventh pair of nerve— /, The port 
dura. — ?«, The portio mollis of 
the portio mollis and portio dura, 

,— Betuc. 

which form Wrisbekg's Portio Mci'in inter Comma- 

nicantem Faciei et Ntmtm Auditorium. 
«, o, «, o, The eighth pair of nerves, composed of, ;;, the 

ncrvus glosso-pli;crvngeu5 ; and, o, the par va-uiii, ivr.v.- 

ed of small fasciculi. 
p,Pi The ninth pair, each formed of three tViiculi. 
q, y, The accessory nerves of the eighth p;;ir. 

( 3* ) 


Additional Views of the Brain and Spinal Marrow. 

FIG. 2. 

A View of the Upper Part of the Brain of a Young 

Pekson, with the \ essels wimtttlif injected. 
A, B, The uuder part of the fore-head. 

C, A portion of the tunica araclmoidea, raised by inflation. 

D, The spinous part of the frontal boue, insinuating it- 
self between the hemispheres of the brain. - 

E, The groove between the two hemispheres of the brain, 
from which very numerous arteries emerge, and are 
connected by anastomoses, in an infinite number of 
places, with, 

F, F, The lateral arteries of the brain. 

G, G, G, The furrows or circumvolutions of the brain, 
covered by the pia mater and tunica araclmoidea, by 
which their depth is concealed. 

FIG. 3. 

Shews a portion of the pia mater A, A, covering the 
brain with its processes B, B, B, insinuating themselves 
within the circumvolutions of the brain, and winding 
along in a serpentine direction. — Numberless arteries, 
1 dispersed over it, which in the 

F, F, F, F, A section of the dura mater into four [ 
with its angles depending. 

G, The medulla oblongata, 
H, The cerebellum. 

A, A, The anterior lobes of the brain. 

B, B, The posterior lobes. 

C, C, C, A section of the cortical part of the brain, and of 
the medullary portions which are intermixed with it. 

D, D, D, D, The medullary part. 

E, The part from which the corpus callosum is dissected. 

F, G, G, H, H, F, G, G, H, H, The lateral ventricles 
of the brain. 

G, G, G, G, The c 
"" II, H, H, Ch 

;ssels which e 

subject itself are still u 

FIG. 4. 
Shews the pia mater A, covering the cerebellum, — from 
a youug subject. The same uumber of falciform pro- 
cesses B, B, B, are found in it, as there are circum- 
volutions in the cerebellum — Only a lew Literal branches 
oi arteries arc added ; for, had the whole been repre- 
sented, the falciform processes would have been ob- 
literated. C, shews the very short, delicate, and nit- 

of the nia mater, and resembling a species of iri..-s, 

of which the :inlli:,j' fifij-i- |'i: : in^.n> |„ iv:k ||„>di<i. 

FIG. 5. 

The Brain viewed on the Right Side, the Dvka Ma- 
ter being cut and t trued down. 
AA, BE, The 1, it hnnhplicte of the brain. 
BB, That part which is opposed to the mis. 

CC, DD, A transverse section of the right hemisphere, 

r v nearly similar i<j I he /» <y, din« , Init differs in this, — 
that the Fornix and Choroid Plexus are dissected 
from the Anterior Parts, and turned back. 

A, A section of the anterior eras of the fornix. 

B, The other section of the fornix turned back. 

C, C, The inferior part of the fornix turned back. 

D, D, The inferior part of the choroid plexus, also turned 
back with the fornix. 

E, E, Trunks formed by the veins of the choroid plexus. 

F, F, Continuation of the veins of the choroid plexus, 
passing under the fornix to the fourth sinus of the dura 

fl, A. small portion of the cerebellum. 

H, H, The testes. 

I, I, The nates. 

K, The pineal gland. 

K, The third ventricle. 

M, M, The thalami nervorum opticorum. 

N, N, The coqiora striata. 

FIG. 8. 

T( (//./ t!„ Dt'KA Y\\- 

a title above tlie ce M ui, 
CC, The cortical part, ant 
X), D, The medullary pa 
Ej The corpus callosum. 


,-fuing medullary port 



£ it 

J L£jL/y__,^/ /_ ;_ / 

VP^i * / ! 



Si <T^ 

cfr^V '• 

•tjj ' 




r, c, The thalami nervorum opticorum. 

(/, rf, Tlie pedes Hippocampi. 

e, e. The choroid plexus. 

/, The part where the two plexus meet under the fornix. 

gi g. Other parts of the choroid plexus, lying under the 

posterior crura of the fornix. 
k, A, Large veins of the choroid plexus, supported by a 

probe, in their passage backwards to the fumih Miur- 

of the dura mater. 
/, i. The coi-pora striata. 
*-, The rima of the third vent: 

large veins of the choroid plex 
/, /, The centrum seuiicirculare geminum. 
m, >«, m, m, The centrum ovale of ViEUSSENS, 
n, The fourth sinus of the dura mater, 
o, The termination of the superior longitudinal i 
}>, p. The lateral sinuses. 

5, A large vein entering one of the lateral sinust 
r, r, The cerebellum covered by the tentorium. 
, The under and back part of the cerebellum 
of the dura mater. 

ct, it. The corpora striata. 

ft, ft. The thalami nervorum opticorum. 
ppoited by a c. The anterior pillar of the fornix. 
: fourth sinus d y The third ventricle, at the anterior part of which : 
seen the bt-giunii.-g i.l' 'he ini'midibulum. 

c, The pineal gland. 
:ealed by the f,f, The tubi r< ula ffri'ln^emina. 

gigigigi The two [jrji r i-,n ■, of thr cerebellum. 

h, //, The medullary substance of the cerebellum, coo 
iiioiily called the Arbor Vita'. 

i, r\ k, k, The fourth ventricle. 

k, k. The groove in the ventricle, culled CuUimv, Sen) 

/, The extremity of the medulla oblongata. 

FIG. 11. 
Exhibits the Base of the Brain, with Part of the Spi 

nal Marhow, and the Blood-vessels, which m 
injected with Wai . 

A Section of the Brain, the Fornix and Choroid j 

Plexus being removed, to shew the Connection of the B, B, The lateral lobes. 

Thalami Nervorum Opticorum ; the Anterior and ' - C, The posterior lobes. 

Posterior Commissures ; the Pineal Gland ; the D » ^i Tlie cerebelh 

lobes of the brain . 

Tubercula Quadrigemina ; the Valvula Vieus- 

c, a, a, a. The cortical, or cineritious substance, which 

surrounds the whole of 
ft, ft, ft, ft, The medullary, or white substance of the brain, 
c, c, The corpora striata, of an ashy colour, 
rf, <?, The thalami nervorum opticorum, of a white colour, 
c, The anterior pillar, separated from the rest of the 

fornix, and turned forward, to shew the two short 

luinns which support it, and the anterior corinnisi 

which unites them. 
/, The anterior opening, common to the two lateral \ 

tricles, and to the third ventricle, 
£, The posterior opening, which is shut up by a vasculai 

membrane and choroid plexus. 
A, The pineal gland. 

i, ;, i, ?", The tulxTcuhi ijiiiidnycmiiia, or nates and testes, 
/, The large valve of Vieussens. 
m, m, The fourth pair of nerves. 

«, The cerebellum, with blood-vessels running upon it; 

E, E, The vertebral arteries, where they pass between 
the first cervical vertebra and occipital bone. 

F, F, The lateral sinuses. 

G, The vertebral sinus of this side. 

H, The dura mater of the right side, cut and turned 
back from the spinal marrow ; on the left side it rc- 

rf, (/, Communicating branches between the internal c 

tid and vertebral arteries. 
e, <*, e, e, Four principal branches of the vertebral a 
: back part of the cerebrum, 

to the cci-ebcll 


111' Ilr- 

/;, The tr 
I, The an 

1; The c 
/, The en 


ng oil' fir 

m the cam 
■tebral urtt 



m. The 

annul ire 


The cor. 

is p^ 


>f the n ;; ! 

R, presents a deeper Section than Fig. !'. of the Brain of 
uw.ther Subjat. The Thalami Nervorum Optico- 
rum are separated, so as to bring the Third Ven- 

FIC. 12. 13. 14 


The EYMS, which constitute the Organ of Vision, are 
situated m the Cavities of the Orbits, ami air surrounded 
by several parts, some of which protect them from injury, 
and others assiVi in the performance of their various mo- 

The Orbits are of a conic si figure, -it tinted in the fore 
part of the Cranium, with their Apices behind, their Axes 
in an horizontal direction, and their bases turned oblique- 
ly outwards. 

They are formed of different Processes of the following 

The upper part of each Orbit, by the Orbitar Plate of 
the Frontal Bone ; — the inferior, by the Orbitar Plates 
of the superior Maxillary and Malar Bones; — the inter- 
nal, chiefly by the Orbitar part of the Os Unguis and Pars 
Plana of the Ethmoid Bone ;— the external, by the Or- 
bitar Plates of the Sphenoid and Malar Bones ; — the pos- 
terior, by the Sphenoid and Palate Bones ; — and the an- 
terior edge of the Orbit, by the Frontal, Superior Max- 
illary, and Malar Bones. 

The Cavities of the Orbits are lined with Productions 
of the Dura Mater, which pass through the Foramina 
Optica and Lacera ; and at the anterior edges of the 
Orbits, join the Periosteum of the Face, where they sup- 
ply the place of Ligaments to the Palpebral. 


The Supercilia or Eye-Brown, which are peculiar to 
the Human Species, are the Arches of Hair situated upon 
the Superciliary Ridges of the Frontal Bone. The Hairs 

are placed obliquely, wilh their roots towards the Nose, 
and the Arches elevated a little above the rest of the 
foil -l!r:ul, by a considerable quantity of Cellular Sub- 
stance lying under the Skin. 

They are moved in different directions by the action 
of the Occipitofrontal is, Corrugalur Supercilii, and Or- 
bicularis Palpebrarum. 

The\ ;jic- intended partly for Ornament, and partly as 
Shades over the I've-, thereby preventing them from be- 
ing injured by extraneous inciter, or by too great a de- 
cree of light. They also as-ist in expressing the Passions 
of the Mind. 


The Palpebral, or Eye-Uds, arc chiefly composed of a 
Doubling of the Skin inching the Cartilages called Tar- 
si, and a portion of the Orbicularis Palpebrarum ; and 
form Angles at their outer and inner extremities, termed 
Cunthi, or Corners nf the Eye. 

The Eye-lids are covered by the common Integument*, 
which are much thinner here than in most of the other 
parts of the Body, and are destitute of Subcutaneous 
rat. They are connected to the anterior Edge of the Or- 
bits by Cellular Substance condensed, which assists in (In- 
form at ioa of what has been called Ligaments of the Pal- 

Thc Upper Eye-lid is the larger of the two, and is the 
one which moves principally in closing or opening the 
Eye. The under Eye-lid is raised by that part of the 
Orbicularis belonging to it. It is depressed by its own 

The Motions of the Eye-'ids are performed by the ac- 
tions of the Orbicularis and Levator Palpebral Superiors. 

The Eye-lids serve as Curtains or Veils, to defend the 
Eyes during Sleep. They likewise prevent them from 
being injured by extraneous objects, or by too muehliglil. 
In certain situations, they assist vision by diminishing the 
rays of light when they are too strong. By their frequent 
motion, they increase the secretion of the Tears, apply 
them properly to the Surface of the Eye, and conduct 
what remains, after washing the Eye, to the Puncta La- 
cry m alia. 


This is a thin Cartilaginous Arch, situated in the edge 
of each Eye-lid - t that in the upper one being considerably- 
broader than the one below, and each broader at its mid- 
dle than towards its extremities. Tab. LXXJI. Fig. 8. 

The Tarsi terminate at a little distance from the in- 
ner Angle of the Eye. — Their edges are so formed, that 
when the Eye-lids are shut, a Groove is left next the Eye, 
by which the Tears arc conveyed towards the Nose. 

The Tarsi serve to keep the Eye-lids extended, allow 

\czje, Ciliares, vel Meibomian*. 

The last term is obtained from these substances being 
described by Meibomius. They are situated between 
the Tarsus and lining of the Eye-lids, and are formed 
of a series of white Lines or Fullii It:-, i uniting across the 
Tarsus in serpentine direct ions, ami, m hen viewed I li rough 
a Magnifier, appear like Bows of Pearls. From their 
Substance an Oily or Sebaceous Matter, resembling Im lie 
Worms, may be readily squeezed out through the Fo- 
ramina or Pun c I a Ciliaria, placed upon the edges of the 
Eye-lids. Tab. LXXIV. Fig. IT. g,g. 

The Matter of the Sebaceous Clauds anoints the edges, 


and facilitates the motions of the Eye-lids ; it like- 
wise prevents their Accretion, or the Tears from passing 
over them during Sleep. 

The Cilia, or Eyc-laskcs, are stiff Hairs placed in 
edges of the Eye-lids. Those of llie Upper Eye-lid 
bent upwards, aud arc t on-idiiabl} longer than those ot 
the Under one, which are bent in the opposite direc- 
tion. In both Eye-lids they are wanting near the inner 

The Cilia prevent dust, insects., &c. from getting into 
the Eve, assist in moderating ilu i|ii;uiiitv of light sent 
into it, and add considerably to the beauty of the Face. 

Glandula Lacrymalis. 

The Glandula Lacrymalis, called, till of late years, 
Glandula hmomiaata Galeni, is situated within the 
Orbit, upon the upper and outer part of the Eye, in a 
hollow behind the outer end of the Superciliary Ridge of 
the Frontal Bone. 

It is a lobulated Gland, or oue of the Conglomerate kind. 
Is of a yellowish white colour, of an oblong form, and a 
little Hattened. Has one end pointing to the Nose, the 
other to the external Angle of t he Eye, and is fixed to the 
outer part of the Orbit by a small Ligament. Tab. 
LXX1V. Fig. 16. 17. 

Besides the Glandula Lacrymalis, there is a chain of 
smaller Ghtntlx, lying between it and the upper Eye-lid, 
and connecting them together. 

In the direction of the smaller Glands, there are six 
or seven Excretory Ducts, — described by Dr Monro, 
1758,— which run nearly parallel to, but do not commu- 
nicate with each other. 

The Excretory Ducts, on account of their smaJlness, 
are not often seen, and arc injected with difficulty. They 
terminate on the inner side of the upper Eye-lid, near 
the outer Angle of the E\c and upper edge of the Tarsus. 

The use of the Lacrymal Claud is to set rete the Tears, 
which are spread over the Surface of the Eye by their 
own weight, and by the motion of the Eye-lids, for the 
purpose of preserving the delicacy of the Eye, and par- 
ticularly the transparency of the Cornea. 


The Puncta Lain.maliti are two small Orifices placed 
near the inner Angle of the Eye, oue in the upper, the 
other in the under Eye-lid, at the extremity of the Tar- 
sus, and opposite to each other. Tab. LXXIV. Fig. 15. 
16. 17. 

Each Punctum is seated obliquely upon a little Emi- 
nence, aud is surrounded by a Cartilaginous Circle, which 
keeps it constantly open. 

The Puncta Lai rymalia arc the Orifices of two small 
Canals, which, after going a iittle across at their begin- 
ning, make a sharp Angle, and run in (lie direction of the 

Edges of the Eye-lids towards the side of the Nose, 
where they approach each other. They terminate toge- 
ther, sometimes by a common Duct, hut more frccpieully 
by distinct opium:;-, in tin Lacrymal Sue, which will bo 
described under the article Nose. 

The Tears which remain after moistening the Eye are 
absorbed by the Puncta, in (lie manner of Capillary s 

,d ilm 

nto the 
Lacrymal Sac by I lie impulse of i lie Eye-lids. 

Tiie Tears are transparent, colourless, ami sail Mi (-. 
the Taste ; and consist of water and mucus, mixed with 
a small proportion of Saline Matter. 

small Gland of areddi-h 


tin while the Eyc-lhU 

Valvula Semilunaris. 

The Valvula Semilunaris is a small doubling of the 
Tunica Conjunctiva, and lit- between the Cartmcul.i La- 
cryinalis and Hall of the Tab.LXXIII. Fig. 15. f. 

It is larger in the Ape and other Quadrupeds than "in 
the Human Species, and still larger in liirds, in which, 
as well as in Quadrupeds, it is called Mvmbreim Xicti- 
tamt, or Palpchva Tertia. 

It is in form of a Crescent, the Horns of which are 
turned towards the Puncta Lairvmuli:',, and assists the 
Canmcula in conducting the Teal's to the Puncta. 


Tunica Adnata. 

The Tunica Adnata, or Conjunct ira. Tab. LXXIf. 
Fig. 17. f, /, named from its connecting the Eye to the 
Orbit, is a retlcction of the Skin continued from the Eve- 
lids over the whole fore part of the Ball of the Eye. 

It adheres sligbtlv bv means of Cellular Substance to 
S th c 

the white of die Eye, but so firmly to the Cornea, as to 
be separated from it with difficulty till niter maceriti.m. 

It is so remarkably thin, that the colour of the subja- 
cent parts appear readily through it. 

Between this Coat and the white part of the Eye, there 
in a quantity of loose Cellular Substance, which is very 
Vascular, and is the common seat of Ophthalmia. 

The Tunica Adnata supports the Ball of the Eye, pre- 

I EYE. [PaetIT. 

described by ZlNN, who shews that it is only connected 
to this Coat by the medium of the Ciliary Circle. 

It is placed at a little distance from the Cornea, begin* 
a small way behind the junction of that Coat with the 
Sclerotica, and, running across, it forms a Septum, a little 
ind perforated in the middle by a Hole 
Sight of the Eye ; the former term 
represents objects no larger than a 

called the Pupil 01 
applied, because ' 

and forms a smooth covering to lessen the frict: 
,clu the Eye and Eye-lids. 

liodic fn.m in-ttin? to the back part of PupUa or Puppet. 

1th covering to lessen the frictL be- In the Fortus, the Pup.l .. occupied by a Vascular 
Membrane, termed Memhruna rtipiuans, which gene- 
rally disappears between the seventh and uimJi month of 

Cornea. Upon the back part of the Iris, there is a dark-colour- 

i« termed by many Autlnn -I..,,,,,, l.,u /.!„', t„.lM,,. R ui.,h posterior Layer of the Iris, aid called by them IV™, 

, 1 romthe S e,e„.i S t,hitb,,, r eAuthor s ca U cdC».,, ra ^^^£ ^j^gg^fe 

0f l'Ljst .trior licidCoverittg of the Eye, is »«, »f IB--. — *t "^ futhorc bj- - 

more convex than the rest of the Ball, but is not quite various onm.ons; one set >u the form of Ra 

circular. It is joined to the Tunica Sclerotica, like the ferent colours of winch give the d.vemty of 

Segment of a small Sphere to that of a larger one. 11,. Eyi 4.J*- S^™""*-* _«« 

bich Authors have entertained 
the form of Radii, the dif- 

t i.i lour to tlw 

the Iris, and considered by Dr Monro as the Sphincter 
Muscle of the Pnpil. 

The colour of the Iris corresponds in general with that 

Segment of a small Sphei 
convexity, however, varies in different pei 
form a short or long sighted Eye, according as the Cor. 
nea is more or less prominent. It is found also to be- 
come more convex when we look at near objects, and the of the Hair, being blue or grey where the Hair i> light, 
reverse when we ^ iew those at a distance. In the former ™* brown or black where the Hair and Complexion an 
case, the convexity of the fore part of the Eye may be so of a dark colour. 

much increased, by making the Eye-lids approach each The Ins has also many Blood-vessels, which 
other, as to answer the purpose of a convex Glass. 

In a recent Subject, it is hard, dense, and transparent ; PJ^P 
but after maceration in water, it becomes soft and opake, Hoay. 
and may be readily separated, especially in young Ani- 
mals, into different Lamella-, the anterior of which is the 
continuation of the Tunica Adnata 

By a slight degree of putrefacti 
panted from the T 

dered evident by Injection ; and is furnished with a greater 

a of Nei 

1 almost any other part of the 

duk Humour, and is of such a na- 
re to a strong light, or when the 
object, the diameter of the Pupil 

i it may also be 
i Sclerotica. 
In the Whale, the edge of the Cornea 
a distinct Groove, formed by the Scleroti 
of the same kind takes place in the Human Body, but 
the latter the Sclerotic overlaps more of t" 
posterior edge of the Cornea. 

In a sound state, the Cornea lias no Ve 
ry red Blood, though such arc frequently 

It floats in the Aqui 
ture, that upon 
Eye iimks upon a neai 
is diminished ; and vice versa. 

The different motions of the Iris in Man and thegene- 
•eived into "^ty of Animals are involuntary, and are supposed to be 
b_, h „„. excited by the sensibility of thelletin 
'. : > .;... „ri;„i,f ,,,1,^1, fv.ii,, .,„„„ tl.ot- v«. 

and by the quan- 
tity of light which falls "upon that Nerve, the b'ght having 
no direct effect upon the Iiis itself. 

The Iris serves to regulate the quantity of light sent 
to the bottom of the Eye. 

i be traced ; yet it poss 

the Eye is inflamed. 

Its Nerves are to 
exquisite sensibility 

It collects the rays of light, and 
Eye, protects the tender parts within it, and 
Aqueous Humour. 

Tunica Sclerotica 

s hard- 

The Tunica Sclerotica, which is named from 

. ness, is the largest and strongest Coat of the Eye, cover- 

, ie ing the whole Ball, excepting the parts occupied by the 

tLc entrance of the Optic Nerve behind, and by the Cornea 

before. Tab. LXXIV. Fig. t. A, A, r. 

It covers the edge of the Cornea, and is so firmly fixed 

j R , s< to it, that it has been considered by many Anatomists as 

a continuation of the same substance ; but it differs from 

The Iris-, Tab. LXXIV. Fig. 2. 4. so named from the Cornea in the following particulars ;— it is opake and 

being in some persons of different colours, is the only Coat of a pure white colour ; is Conned of elastic Fibres run- 

of the Ball of the Eye which possesses motion. It was uini; m rvi-rv direction, and closely interwoven with each 

considered as a continuation of the Choroid Coat, until other, and ifi not divisible into Layers. 




It is thicker iii its posterior than anterior part, and 
receives a little tinge, on the iuiier Surface, from the 
Choroid Coat, with which it is in contact. It has few 
Blood-vessel:- when compared with the Choroides, and 
does not>* very acute sensibility. 

It gives form and strength to the Eye, attachment to 
its Muscles, and protects and supports the tender parts 
it incloses. It has also been conjectured, and Blumen- 
bach thinks he has ascertained, from comparative Ana- 
tomy, the truth of the conjecture, that this Coat, by its 
structure, is so effected by the action of the Muscles, as 
to influence what are called the Internal Changes of the 
Eye i by which the form of the Eye-ball, consequently 
ihe length of its Axis, and the respective situation of the 
Lens, are adjusted according to the proximity or remote- 
ness of the object. 

The Tendons of the four Recti Muscles of the Eye are 
fixed to the fore part of the Tunica Sclerotica. These, 
or the Cellular Vaginae covering them, have been suppos- 
ed to give an additional whiteness to the Eye, and the part 
giving this whiteness has been termed Tunica Albuginea : 
— But the Sclerotic Coat is every where of a pure white, 
«nd can receive little additional brightness from any such 

Tukica Choroides. 

The Choroides, Tab. LXXV. Fig. 7. 8. lies under the 
Sclerotica* and is connected to it by the Trunks of Ves- 
sels and Nerves which pass from the one Coat to the other, 
and also by a tender Cellular Substance, of a brown co- 
lour, which tinges the inner Surface of the Sclerotica. 

It begins at the entrance of the Optic Nerve into the 
Eye, runs between the Sclerotica and Betina, nearly to 
the Crystalline Lens, where it is more firmly connected to 
the Sclerotic Coat than it is elsewhere, by means of the 
Ciliary Circle. Tab. LXXV. Fig. 8. 9. 

The Ciliary Circle, or Ciliary Ligament us it is called, 
is composed of a quantity of condensed shining Cellular 
Substance, is hit Ji forms a white King connecting the fore 
part of the Choroides, and the Boot or outer margin of 
the Iris, to the Sclerotica. 

At the inner side of the Ciliary Circle, is the Canal of 
Fontana, which is of a Triangular Shape, and is partly 

of the Body, m.-ci first -jglit to he entirely composed 
of Vessels.—- ' he greater number of those on the outside 
run in whirls ; while those on the inside, taking a direc- 
tion forwards and nearly parallel to each oilier, gave rise 
to the supposed existence fit' I he Mnuliruna KuyschIANa. 

It is also furnished with numerous Nerves, which are 
united with its Vessels by a line Cellular Texture, and 
are seen running forwards flat, and in a parallel direction 
upon its outer Surface. 

In the Human Eye. the Choroides k of a dusky 

brown colour, both externally and internally ; but the co- 
lour varies considerably in the Eyes of different Animals. 

The inner Surface of this Coat, which is Villous, wa.> 
described by Buvscn as a distinct Lamina, and has been 
termed by many Anatomists Tunica Ruyschiana. — 
But Halle ti, Zinn, and many others who follow- 
ed them, havo demonstrated this Coat to consist of 
only one Lamina ; though in Sheep, and in some of the 
larger Animals, it appears to be double. 

Upon the inner side of the Choroides, there is a Mu- 
cus, the colour of which, in different Animals, is found 
to have some connection with the general colour of the 
Hair and Skin, though commonly, in the Human Body, 
it is of a blackish brown, and termed Pigment um Ni- 
grum ; the darkness of the shade, however, still corre- 
sponding with that of the Hair, as appeal's very evident 
in the Negro. 

It is supposed to be produced from the Vessels of this- 
Coat, and is blackest and thickest at the fore part of the 
Eye, where it adheres so tenaciously as to be removed 
with difficulty ; but behind it is thinner, more fluid, and 
more easily removed ; becoming gradually less evident 
towards the Optic Nerve, round which it almost disap. 

In advanced age, the Pigmentum Nigrum becomes 
more diluted, and of a lighter colour, so that the Ves- 
sels of the Choroid Coat may be seen shining through 
the Vitreous Humour. 

Though Haller denies that the Memhana Ruyschi- 
ana can ever be separated, in the Human Eye, from the 
Choroides, — he retains the name, to denote the black 
Surface of this Coat. 

In Gramenivorous Animals, and in those Animal* which 
go in quest of prey in the night, the Pigmentum is of a light 
and shining colour in the bottom of the Eye, and is called 

In some entirely white Animals, as the white Babbit, 
the Paint is wanting, or transparent, and the Eye has 
a red colour, from the Vessels of the Choroid Coat be- 
ing seen in the bottom of the Eye ; but the redness 
disappears when the Animal is dead. In the Albinos 
also, and white Persons bom of Negro Parents, the Pig- 
mentum Nigrum is entirely or nearly deficient, and » 
red colour appears in the bottom of the Eye. 

The fore part of the Choroid Coat, opposite to the 
Ciliary Circle, forms a black radiated Ring, called Cor- 
pus Ciliare, which is about the sixth part of an inch in 
breadth towards the Temple, but somewhat narrower to- 
wards the Nose. Tab. LXXVI. Fig. 8. No. 10. 

In the posterior portion of the Corpus Ciliare, there 
are numerous pale radiated Ciliary Stria., buj so covered 
by the Pigmentum Nigrum, as not to be distinctly seen 
till the Paint is removed. 

Near the connection of the Corpus Ciliare with the 

root of the Iii>, thoe Stria; become gradually broader 

and more clevatnl, and form white Plica' or Folds, a- 

bout Betenty in number, termed Processus Ciliares, the 




intervals of which arc also covered by the Pigmentum 
Nigrum. Tab. LXXV. 

The Processus filiates are commonly formed, each of 
two or more Stria:. They are not all of an equal size, 
and many of them arc forked at their extremities. 

The Corpus Ciliare, formed of the Ciliary Stria and 
Ciliary Processes, has no appearance of Muscularity, 
though the contrary has been supposed by some Authors! 
A fine Injection shews it to be chiefly composed of a con- 
tinuation of the Blood-vessels of the Choroid Coat, the 
Branches of which divide into such minute parts, as to 
give the whole a Villous appearance. 

The Corpus Ciliare is glued to the Retina, at the 
forepart of the Vitreous Humour, and a little behind 
tin. edge of the Crystalline Lens ; but the Ciliary Pro- 
cesses float in the Aqueous Humour in the Posterior 
Chamber of the Eye, at the inner side of the root of 
the Lis, and may be readily turned back behind the 
edge cjf the Lens, to which they are contiguous, but do 
not adhere, of course cannot be supposed to compress it, 
though this has been the opinion of some Writers. 

The Choroid Coat, with its dark paint, serves to suf- 
focate the rays of light which pass through the Retina, 
thereby allowing a di-tin.t image to be formed upon the 
bottom of the Eye, and preventing the rays from being 
reflected so as to form a second image. 

In those Animals in which this Coat, or its paint, is 
of a bright colour, it acts as a mirror to reflect light, 
and make the impression stronger. 

Optic Nerve and Retiwa. 

The Optic Nerve, in its passage through the Orbit, 
is covered by a continuation of the Membranes which 
surround the Brain. Tab. LXXIL— LXXVI. 

At the Foramen Opticum, the Dura Mater is divided 
into two Lamina, one of which assists in forming the 
m of the Orbit ; the other, which is again 

The Retina advances between the Choroid Coat and 
Capsule of the Vitreous Humour, to the fore part of 
the Eye, and tcrniimiics «\- <li-;appeLirs upon 1 lie anterior 
part of the edge, or greatest diameter of the Capsule 
of the Crystalline Lens. 

The Retina is contiguous to the Choroid Coat and 
Capsule of the Vitreous Humour, but does not, by Blood- 


vided into two Laminae, furnishes a Sheath to the 
lVi'vi, and accompanies it to the Tunica Sclerotica, to 
which it is so firmly connected by Cellular Substance, 
as to have induced some Authors to describe the Sclero- 
tica as a continuation of the Dura Mater. 

The Body of the Nerve is still more closely invested 

At the back part of the Ball of the Eye, and a little 
removed from the Axis, towards the Nose,' the Fmcictth' 
of the Optic Nerve pass through a Cribriform part of 

Vessels or otherwise, adhere to either, till it reach the 
Corpus Ciliare. 

Under the Corpus Ciliare, the Retina is so covered 
externally by the Pigmentum Nigrum, and adheres 
internally so closely to the Capsule of the Vitreous Hu- 
mour, as to be prevented from being seen till the black 
Paint be washed off", or till all the Coats be removed 
posteriorly-, and the Eye \icwed through the medium of 

the Choroid Coat, directly in the Axis of the Eye, there 
is a transparent Spot, which appears like a Foramen, 
rounded by a yellow Border, that becomes palei 
wards the Circumference, Tab. LXXV. Fig. 4. 5. 6, 
This was first discovered by Soemmerring, and is 
ed Foramen C'entrate, but its nature is not yet under- 
stood. It is said to be peculiar to the Human Species 
and Ape. According to Blumenbach, it may serve as 
a kind of Pupil through which concentric rays may pass, 
and be absorbed by the Pigmentum Nigrum of the Cho- 
roides, in those Animals which have the Axis of the Eyes 
parallel to each other, and thereby see objects with both 
Eyes at once, but are in danger from this of being dazzled 
by strong light. 

The Retina is composed of a tender and Pulpy-like 
Substance, is semi-transparent, and of a light grey co- 
lour resembling that of ground glass, but becoming a little 
firmer and more opake when immersed hi Spirit of Wine. 

From the entrance of the Optic Nerve to the edge of 
the Corpus Ciliare, the Retina is of an equal and uniform 
Substance, and is so easily torn and separated from the 
edge of that Body, as to be described by many Authors 
as terminating there. 

Under the Stria and Processes of the Corpus Ciliare, 
the Retina is thinner than hi the posterior part of the 
Eye, and is so compressed by these Bodies, as also to 
have the appearance of Striw terminating in numerous 
minute Fibres, like Nerves in other parts of the Body. 

The Retina is one of the most sensible parts of the 
Body. It is the seat of Vision, and therefore the pri- 
mary part of the Eye, to which all the other parts within 
the Orbit are subservient. 

Sclerotic Coat, but immediately after its ingress, 
pands to form the Retina,— so called from its supposed 

Aqueous Humour. 

Part IV.] OF THE EYE. 39 

This space is divided into two Cavities, called Cham- of a reddisli colour ; but immediately after Birth, they 

bers i the anterior of which is situated between the Cor- become perfectly transparent. — In a person considerably 

nea and Iris, and is the larger of the two. advanced in years, the Lens is observed to acquire a yel- 

The posterior is placed between the Iris and Crystal- low tinge, whit li appears first in 1 lie centre, and afterwards 

line Lens, and is so much smaller than the former, that cxti-nds gradually u> the circumference ; and in extreme 

its existence lias been denied by some Author*, though old age, this yellow tinge becomes so deep as to resem- 

it isa distinct Cavity, demonstrable, not only in the Adult, ble Amber. 

where the Pupil is open, but in the t'eetus before the An Aqucou- Fluid i- described as being situated be- 

Pupil is formed. tween the Crystalline Lamella, which is supposed to dc- 

The Aqueous Humour is as clear as the purest water, crease in quantity, and to become somewhat yellow, the 
hut is somewhat heavier, possesses a small degree of vis- Lens at the same lime increasing iu solidity as the Per- 
cidity, is about Gve grains iu weight, and is found to be son advances in life Thi- dificreucc, however, of con- 
composed of water, albumen, gelatin, :md muriate of soda, vexity, colour, and consistence, according to the diffe- 

In the Fostus, and for the first month after Birth, it rence of age, is not met with uniformly, 

is reddish and turbid. The Lens becomes opake soon altt t death, and acquirer 

When evacuated, it is ipiickly renewed ; for within an additional opacity when put into Spirit of Wine. 
forty-eight hours after it has been discharged by punc- It is composed of concentric Lamella, laid over each 
lure, the Cornea is observed to be again perfectly dis- other like the coats of an Onion. These Lamella: are 
tended. connected by fine I ellnlar Substance, and are more close- 
It is supposed to be secreted from the neighbouring ly compacted the nearer they are to the centre. 
Arteries, particularly from those on the.fore part of the This Lamellated Structure may he readily observed in 
Lis and Ciliary Processes. the Eye of an Ox, or any oilier large LnimaL but is most 

It serves to keep the Cornea distended, and, by its evident when the Lens has hecu boiled iu water, or mace- 
roundish form and pellucidity, it asn.-ts m collecting and rated ui water or vinegar. 

transmitting the rays of light to the inner parts of the Wheu the maceration is continued for some time, the 

Eye. It likewise guards the Iris and Lens, and admits Lamella; put on a radiated appearance 1 , the Radii running 

of the motions of the former. in a vertical manner, or issuing f 

, dividing the Surface into Isosceles Tr; 
angles, or like the Meridian lines running between th> 
two Poles of a Geographical Globe. 
The Crystalline Zens, Tab. LXXV. which has its The Lamella: were discovered by Leuwenr. 

Crystalline Lens. 

shapes, — has always beeu classed among ing the convexity of the Lens according to the distance of 

the Humours of the Eye. the objects we look at ; but it is observed, that the Eyes 

It is situated behind the Aqueous Humour, opposite from which the Lens lias been removed, are, by the as- 
to the Pupil, and the whole of its posterior part is re- sistance of Glasses, enabled to form distinct vision, 
ceived into a Depression on the fore part of the Vitreous The substance of the Lens somen hat resembles half- 
Humour, melted Gum, is very soft and tender on the outside, but 

Like a common Lens, or magnifying Glass, it has two become-, gradually firmer and tougher towards the centre, 
convex Surfaces, the anterior of which is in general Ic- where it forms a Nucleus, in consequence of which its re- 
convex than the posterior; the two being formed of seg- fractive power is found to be more equal than any Lens 
inents of spheres of unequal size. produced by art. 

The anterior Surface, according to the experiments The Lens is surrounded by a very pellucid proper Cap- 

of Petit, forms the segment of a sphere, the diameter sule, called Tunica Amiu-a, vcl Cri/.sfa/i.ria, which is 

of which is between seven and eight lines, or twelfths of much thicker and more elastic than the Capsule of the 

an inch ; while the posterior Surface is only equal to the Vitreous Humour, but adheres so slightly to the Lens, 

segment of a sphere of about live lines in iliami tcr. and is so easily lacerated, that after a small puncture is 

It has been observed by Zinn, — that the figure of the made in it, the Lens starts out, upon applying gentle 

Lens varies at different periods, being in the Fetus al- pressure to the Capsule, 
most of a spherical form, but becoming gradually (latter The posterior part of the C.ip-ule i- much thinner, 

of thirty, after which its form does not appear to vary." r/A//«<V M, ,,<!.><:, le from ih, Tunica \ilrca; yet so firmly 

As the figure, so also the colour and consistency, are connected to it by Cellular Substance, that it i, difficult 

found to change at different times of life.— In the Fret us, to separate them, without lacerating both the Vitreous 

not only a Capsule, which covers it, but the Lens also, is Coat and its Humour. 



[Part IV. 

Some Authors describe an Aqueous Humour as seated 
between the liens and its Capsule ; while others, of no 
small respectability, deny the existence of this Humour, 
as well as of that which is said to be situated between the 
Lamellae of the Lens. 

The Vessels of the Lens, or of its Capsule, arc not to 
be seen in the Eye of th? Adult ; but in that of a Feet us, 
Petit found Vessels passing from the Corpus Ciliare over 
ihe fore part of the Capsule of the Lens. 

Winslow afterwards observed, thai in the Fcetus, and 
m new-born Children, a Hue Injection succeeded so well, 
::s to discover the Vessels of the Membrana Crystalline 
«t Vitrea; — and in a Fat us of about six months, the in- 
jected liquor seemed to him to have penetrated a part of 
-he Crystalline and Vitreous Humours. 

Albinus du'ivcs ihcoc Vessels from a double source. 
—In the Eye of a Whale, he demons rated Vessel* pass- 
ing from the Ciliary Processes to the Substance of the 
Lens ; and, at a later period, he injected in the Human 
Eye a small Branch arising from the Central Artery of 
i lie Retina, which proceeded hi a straight direction 
through the Vitreous Humour, and divided in the poste- 
rior part of the Capsule into numerous .Branches, many 
twigs of which plunged into the substance of the Lens. 

This Artery and its Branches, Tab. LXXIV. have 
been frequently and successfully injected by succeeding 

Vitreous Humour. 

TIk Vitreous Humour, Tab. LXXTXI. Fig. 8. B, 
.- -iiuated ill the back, part of the Cavity of the Eye, 

which it occupies from the insertion of the Optic Nerve 
in the Surface of ilie Crystalline Lens. 

It id round at the back part and sides, where it is co- 
vered by the Retina ; but is concave before, where it 
forms a bed for the Crystalline Leas. 

It is by much the largest of the three Humours, occu- 
pying upwards of nine-tenths of liie whole F,ye, and has 
a Gelatinous appearance, — or is somewhat like the Glaire 
of an Egg. 

In an Adult, it is always very transparent ; and in an 
Old Person, it does not, like the Lens, degenerate into 
a yellow, or any other colour. 

In the Fcetus, like the Aqueous Humour, it is of a 
reddish colour. 

The liquor of which the Vitreous Humour is composed, 
i- similar to the Aqueous, — very fluid, transpires readily 
tiirongli the Capsule, though that Coat be entire, and, 
like the Aqueous Humour, is somewhat thicker, heavier, 

living Body, it is very seldom, though 

Up" 11 the Surface of this Humour there is a Coat, 
termed Vitrec. vd Hjah-.dix, from h* .•-cmbl.uicc to 

Glass, as transparent as the Humour itself, and so thin 
and Cobweb-like, us to have alio the name of Arunea. 

The Tunica i'itira Is remarkably munoth ou its outer 
Surface ; excepting at its fore pari, where it i. impressed 
by the Corpus Cilure and Pigmeatum Nigrum; but 
within, it senile Processes iuto the Body of the Huinoiu 1 , 
of the same nature with the external Membrane. 

Some Authors, and among these Winslovv, h*ye de- 
scribed this Coat as consisting of two Lamina ; but b-A- 
Batier, and other hue M riters, seem stifliciently satisfied 
I hat it is a single Layer ; and even this single Layer can- 
not be raised but with difficulty, though it is demonstrable 
by making a puncture to allow the Humour to escape, 
and by afterwards distending the part with air. 

The structure of the Humour consists of a set of deli- 
cate Cells, which contain the Liquor within them, as ma-, 
be seen by the assistance of Acids, or by boiling Water, 
or by Congelation. 

The Cells of the Humour communicate freely with 
each other, as appears from the Liquor oozing out by the 
smallest puncture made in the general Capsule. 

Under the Corpus Ciliare, the Capsule of the Vitreous 
Humour sends on" an external Lamina, which accompa- 
nies the Retina, and is inserted with it into the fore part 
of the Capsule of the Lens, a little before its anterior 
edge. It is termed Membramila Corona Citiaris, vel 
Xwiit/a Ciliuris, from its striated appearance and circular 
form. This Membrane, though extremely thin, assists in 
fixing the Lens to the V itreous Humour. Tab. LXXH. 
Eig. I- 

After sending off the Ciliary Zone, the Coat of the Vi- 
treous Humour goes behind the Capsule of the Lens, with 
which it is intimately connected. 

Between the Ciliary Zone and part where the Capsule 
of the Vitreous Humour adheres to that of the Lens, — 
which is at the same distance behind the edge of the Lens 
with the distance of the insertion of the Ciliary Zone be- 
fore it, — a passage is formed, named Canalis Petitia- 
nus, after Petit, who discovered it. 

The Membranes forming this Passage are pervaded by 
transverse Fibres, in such a manner, that when Air is 
introduced, it goes freely round the edge of the Lens; 
but the Passage has a Cellular appearance, being con- 
tracted and dilated alternately. 

The Canal of Petit is nearly of the same breadth with 
the Corpus Ciliare, is always empty, and has no commu- 
nication with the Capsules of the Vitreous or-Crystallinc 

No Vessels are to he seen in the Vitreous Humour of 
an Adult ; but in the Eye of a Fcetue, an Artery is ob- 
served to arise from the'Ccntra! one of the Retina, which 
pa^es through ihe middle of the Vitreous Humour, send. 
iug Tv. ig^ to the Cellular Texture of this Humour, while 
the principal Trunk is continued to the Capsule of the 
Crystalline Lens, as has been already observed. 

The Vitreous Humour serves to give shape to the Eye, 
to keep the Coals propcily expanded, to preserve the due 


Vel Rectus At fallens, vel Supeii 

The Ball of the Eye is moved by Sh Muscles* which 
are divided, on account of their direction, into four 
straight and two oblique Muscles, obtaining their respec- 
tive names from their size, situation, direction, or use. 
Tab. LXXII. &c 

Of the straight Muscles, one is situated above the Eye, 
another below it, and one on each side. Of the oblique, 
one is placed at the upper aud inner, and the other at 
the under and outer part of the Eye. 

The Recti are not straight, as the name implies j for, 
on account of the situation of the Eye and shape of the 
Orbit, all, except the internal, or that next the Nose, 
have somewhat of a curved direction. 

Neither are they all equally long, the internal being 
the shortest, the external the longest. The other two 
are nearly of the same length with each other. 

The four straight Muscles, which bear a strong re- 
semblance to one another, arise by a narrow beginning, 
a little Tendinous aud Fleshy, from the edge of the Fo- 
ramen Opticuin, where they embrace the Optic Nerve 
.it its entrance into the Orbit. 

In their passage forwards, they form Fleshy Bellies, 
which send off broad and very thin Tendons, to be in- 
serted into the Sclerotic Coat, under the Tunica Adnata, 
about a quarter of an inch behind the edge of the Cornea, 
and at equal di-Utnrcs from each other. 

At the place of their insertion, they are so intiraately 
counected with the Sclerotica, thai they cannot be sepa- 
rated from it, or their insertions be brought as far as the 
Cornea, without evident laceration. 

Of the Oblique Muscles, one arises along with the 
Recti, the other comes from the fore part of the Orbit, 
and both ace fixed to the back part of the Sclerotica. 

The different Muscles of the Eye, where they lie upo 

below the Levator Falpebia.- Supci 
passes to the Eye. 

Insert ion : Into the upper aud fore part of the Tunica 

Action : To raise the fore part of the Ball of the Eve. 

Depressor Ocull, 

Tel Rectus Dejrrinuns, vel Humilis. 

Origin: From the inferior part of the Foramen Opti- 
cum. It lies at the bottom of the Orbit. 
Insertion : Opposite to the former. 
Action : To pull the fore part of the Eye downwards. 

Adductor Oculi, 
Vel Rectus Addueens, vel Bibitorius. 

Origin : From the Foramen Opticum, between the 
Obliquus Superior and Depressor ; and running at the 
inner side of the Orbit, it has its 

Insertion opposite to the inner Angle of the Eye. 

Action : To turn the fore part of the Eye towards the 

Sheath, which after- 
Substance which is 

ording to their 

the BaU, 

wards degenerates 

The Recti Mus. 
respective situations. When two of the 
act, or all of them act together, they draw "the Eye u 
the Orbit. 

When two of the adjacent Recti act, they turn t 
fore part of the Eye obliquely iu a direction towards th< 

The Oblique Mii-hIc*, actinp; separately, roll the E 
according to iluir -iluation ami the diivct'ion of their I 
I ires'; moving conjunctly, they draw the Eye forwai 

ami lifetime tin a: 1 1. 1' oiii i L ■■ of the Recti. 

Abductor Oculi, 
Vel Rectus Abducens, vel Indignabundus. 

Origin : From the Bony Partition between the Fora- 
ini n Opiicum aud Laceruni. It passes at the outer part 
of the Orbit, to have its 

Insert ion into ihe Ball of the Eye, opposite to the 
outer Angle. 

Action : To turn the fore part of the Eye towards the 

Obliquus Superior, 
Vel Obliquus Major, vel Trochltaris. 



Insertion : By a bro.v. iltm Ti'iid<vi. mio lliC Tunica 
■Sclerotica, about li:t!t'-n.iv between the insertion of the . 

iivatorSculi an,' enrn.ire of i In Optic Nerve Besides the 0/rf*f M'rre, already taken 

^c*«m : To roll the Ball of the Eye, by turning the Eye receives the 
Pupil downwards and outwards. 

Vol Obliq, 

Ball of the Ei 

ml-, 1 

round tlie 

notice of, the 
and Branches 
the first of the Fifth Pair, together with the Sixth 
Pair, and Branches from the Seventh. 

The parts about the fore-aide of the Orbit are supplied 
by Branches from the Fifth and Seventh Pairs ;— the 
Ball of the Eye by Nerves called Viiian,; which come 
from the Third and Fifth Pairs ;— the Fat, Muscles, La. 
crymal Gland, See. are supplied by the Third, Fourth. 
Fifth, and Sixth Pairs. 

The Humours of the Eye, and especially the Crystal, 
line Lens, receive and collect the rays of light, in such 
a manner as to form upon the Retina the image or picture 
of the object which the Eye looks at ; and the point 
where these different rays meet is called the Focus. 

The object is painted upon the Retina in an inverted 
manner, the rays from above being reflected to its under, 
and those from below to its upper part ; while the rays 
from the right side of the object are sent to the left, 

; By a broad thin Tendon, into the Sclerotic 
Coat, between the entrance of the Optic Nerve and in- 
sertion of the Abductor Oeuli, and opposite to the inser- 
tion of the Oblinuus Superior. 

Actum : To roll the Ball of the Eye, by turning the 
Pupil upwards and inwards, and, with the assistance of 
i In- Obliouus Superior, to pull the Eye forwards. 

The two oblique Muscles, on account of rolling the 
Eve. and assisting it in the expression of certain Pas- - 

fe .. , „ . . r i a ..._. Cornea pass in a pcrpc-udii u!;i i- <lnvi.' urn to the bottom of 

the Eye ; aud it is supposed to be by habit, or rather by 
instinct, that we judge of the real situation of any object. 
That the rays of light may terminate distinctly on the 
Retina, it is necessary that both the Cornea and Crystal- 
Lite Frontal, Facial, and Temporal Arteries, which line Lens should have a certain degree of convexity. 

II.-, have been called Hotalores; and Amatores, 


those from - the left side of it to the right side of the 
"Va's- Eye. The rays which go through the centre of the 
Cornea pass ii 

■ternal Maxillary Ar- 
1 of the Orbit and Fat 

If either the one or the other be too prominent, the 
Focus will be formed before it reach the Retina, as is the 
case in short-sighted people, who require concave glasses 
to enable them to see objects distinctly, at the proper and 
ordinary distance. 

If, on the contrary, the Cornea or Lens be too fiat, or 
the refract ivepower of the Humours be in any way diroi- 
Branch of the Internal uished, the Focus will then fall behind the Retina, and 
be imperfectly formed, till the object is viewed at a 
greater distance than ordinary, as is the case with persons 
cles, aud Ball of the Eye, and also the Lacrymal Gland advanced in life, to whom the assistance of convex grassl- 
and Tunica Conjunctiva. becomes necessary. 

The Brandies which belong to the Ball of the Eye, How an object, viewed with both Eyes, appears single, 
have the name of Ciliares. They perforate the Sclera- has been, as well as our judging of the real situation of 
" >persed upon any object, ascribed by the generality of Authors to c"" 

E the E: 

ply the Palpebral, and communica' 
dispersed within the Orbit. 

Some small Branches of the J 
tin/ pass through the Inferior Orl 
perscd chiefly upon the Periosteui 
of the Eye. 

The Ocular Artery, which is a 
Carotid, passes through the Foramen Opti 
pany with the Optic Nerve, and supplies the Fat, Mm 

the Choroid Coat 

id Iri 

One Br. 




m tin- Fxternal Juguh 
i he fore pari of the O 
gulat \ em, by the Ca 

one pouit. 

abled to judge of, or accommodate itself 
emit distances, by the action of its Mus- 
■ diminishing the length of its axis, and 
f the Iris allowing a greater or snialic 1 ' 

to be thrown into the Eye. 

( « ) 

Represents the Course of the Vessels and Nerves in the Base of the Cranium ; with different 
Views of the Principal Parts of the Nose, and of the Eye. 

Represents the Inside of the Base of the Cranium, lined 
with the Dura Mater ; — the. 'Course of the Arte- 
bies, Veins, and Nerves ; — and the Sinuses which 
are injected, 

a, a, The cut edge of the skuU. 

6, The crista Galli. 

c, The infundibuluni inserted into the glandula pituitaria. 

tf, The foramen magnum of the occipital bone. 

e, The zygoma. 

f,f, The auterior arteries of the dura mater. 

g,g, The middle and principal arteries of the dura mater. 

//, One of the posterior arteries of the dura mater. 

f, 7, The trunks of the internal carotid arteries. 

k, k, A section of the internal carotid arteries, where 

they go to the brain. 
/, I, The circular sinus of RiDtEV. 
7«, The left cavernous sinus laid open, 
n, n, The superior petrosal sinuses, 
e, o, The inferior petrosal sinuses. 
p. Veins passing into the inferior petrosal sinuses. 
9,9, The lateral sinuses. 
1.1. The passage of the first pair of nerves. 

2. 2. A section of the optic nerves. 

3. The left part of the third pair of nerves. 

4. 4. The fourth pair, turned forwards. 

5. 5. The fifth pair, in itt natural situation on one side, 
and turned outwards on the other. 

6. 6. The sixth pair. 

r, The upper end of the great sympathetic nerve, con- 
nected in this figure with the fifth and sixth pairs. 

7. 7. The seventh, 

8. 8. The eighth, and, 

9. 9. The ninth pair. 

FIG. 2. 

J! View of the Left Side of the Nose, with the Muscuhis 
Levator Labii Sttperions Atajgut Nasi, one part (if 
which in turned down. 

a, The first or upper carti 
/'. The secoud, 

c, The third, 

d, The fourth cartilage. 

e, The membranous part c 

The Right Portion of the Upper Jaw, and Fore Part 

of the Base of the Cranium, divided frmn the Sep. 

Narium, and viewed from the Left Side. 

, The 

5 plate. 

The cuneiform process of the occipital bone, united 

xvith the back part of the os sphenoides, 
, The sella Turcica. 
, The sphenoid sinus. 
tgtgt The ethmoid cells, which, with the other parts of 

the nostril, are lined with the mucous membrane. 
, The fore part of the nostril. 
, The os spongiosum superiuB. 

, inferius. 

i A glandular body resembling the uvula. 

The Left Side of the Septum Narium, teilh its Mmuii- 
Covering, and small Arteries, which are much more 
numerous than could here be represented. 

A Section of the Cranium and Upper Jaw, to shew 

some of the Passages which terminate in the Nose, 

Sftt us the Cartilages of the Nose, viewed on the Left 
Side.— Part of the Muscles (objected with the Car'ti- 

pinned out. 

-oduced from 
. The ethmoid cells. 

vity of the left frontal 

d, The 


rf, The sphenoid sinus of the right side. 

e, A passage by which this sinus opens into 

/", A probe passed from the leffl lacrymal groove 

cavity of the left nostril. 
g, A probe passed through the foramen incisii 

the mouth. 

FIG. 8. 

(/, The tunica sclerotica. 
r, The optic nerve. 

FIG. 9. 
Posterior View of the Globe of the Eye. 

ft, ft, J, J, The choroid coat, also cut and turned back. 
r, A section of (he optic nerve near the ball. 
d, d, The retina, with its blood-vessels. * 

Shews the Inner Surface of the Choroid Coat, dm Tu- 
nica Ruyschiana so called, from the Centre of which 
a Portion of the Retina depends. 

a, A large portion of the choroid coat. 

ft, The depending portion of the retina, going from the 
bottom of the eye. 

f, Numberless smalt arteries dispersed over the inner sur- 
face of the choroid coat, emerging from the bottom of. 
the eye, and running in a direction different from those 

of i 

r surface. 

Another Posterior View of the Ball, (Fig. 9.), the Tu- 
nica Sclerotica, together with the Choroides <iw/ 
the Retina, being dissected^ and turned back in the 

of the ball, and the angles turned aside. 

I), The optic nerve, cut off. 

c, r. The choroid coat and its vessels. These, and the 
vessels of several other figures of this Table, are rude- 
ly expressed. 

FIG. 10. 

Shews the Tunica Choroides, the Tunica Adnata 
and Sclerotica being removed ;— from a Boy of six 
or seven Years of Age. 

cr, The ocular arteries, various branches of which go to 
the bottom of the tunica choroides, and various others 
to the middle of it. 

ft, The ciliary ligament. 

r, The iris. 

(/, The pupil. ■ 


rf, The extremity of the optic nerve adhering t 

the angles of the retina. 
f, The vitreous humour. 

o, ft, c, d, As in the preceding figure, 
e, f, The anterior part of the retina ei 
/, The crystalline lens. 

The Choroid Coat, the Sclerotic being removed, i 
the Arteries left out, to shew the, Ciliary Nerve 
c, The ciliary nerves. 

h, Their continuation upon the choroid coal. 
c, The iris, upon which the ciliary nerves terminate. 

FIG. 12. 

The same Ball with that represented in Fig. 9. also 
viewed Posteriorly. The Silerotic and Choroid 
Coats arc cut, and turned back. 

The same Ball, dissected and opened as above ; but be- 
sides the Vitreous Humour, the Crystalline Lens 
and Retina are also removed. 

a, ft, As above. 

c, c, The anterior part of the choroid coat. 

d, (/, The ciliary proi e 

c,c, The iris. " 
/, The pupil. 

FIG. 17. 

irfacc of the choroid coat, covered with 

ft, The 


£>, The ciliary processes. FIG. 21. 

c, The posterior surface of the iris. „ , 

rf Tl e u il former, hut along with tlte Sclerotica 

* P P ' and Choroides, the Retina also w dissected, and 

. turned back, and the Crystalline Lens and Vl- 

F J G " 18 - treous Humour removed, to shew. 

The same Ball with Fig. 16. dissected in the same part The posterior part of the retina, with ils vessels. 
and manner, and /aid open , hut consisting only if the 

Sclerotica and Cornea ; the Humours being en- FIG. 3s! 
tirely removed. 

a, a, a, a, The sclerotic coat dissected, aiid i 

b, ^The iuHor part of the sclerotica entire. "' fl > ^ dunifoa, with its blooA-vesseU, rudely 
c The cornea pressed. 

' b, The entry of the optic nerve. 

FIG. 1!). FIG . 23- 

The same Ball, viewed Anteriorly. The CoRMEA, with The same Ball. It consists of the Sclerotica i 
the Sclerotica, are dissected into four parts, from CORNEA only, tin other Purl. !,.:„, ruuwrd. 

the middle of the Cornea to the middle nj the Ball, 
and the Angles are turned bad: F I G. 24. 

a, a, a, a, The reflected angles of the cornea and sclerotica. 

b, 6, The tunica choroides, and its blood-vessels. 

c, c, The ciliary circle, 
rf, d, The iris. 
e, The pupil. 

FIG. 20. 
The same Ball opened on the Anterit. 

a, a, b, c. The reflected angles of the sclerolic 

d, d, The reliua, uitli Us vewk. 

e, e , Vestiges nl ilu eiiiai\ processes. 
f, The crystalline lens. 

b,b, The sclerotic coat. 

C, c, The choroid eoal eonnertcd at its fore pat 
root of the iiis and lumen sclerotica, and thei 

t to the 

l luriiiii.. 

inwards to form the ciliary processes. 
d, d, Tlie iris. 

e. The pupil. 
f, The optie nerve. 
gj-gi The retina. 
h, The anterior, and, 

i, i, The posterior chambers in which ttic ami 

mour i, lodged. 

( 46 ) 


Different Views of the Eye, of the Eye-lids, and of the Lacrymal Gland and Ducts, 

d, The obliquus inferior, arising from the anterior edge 
) the ball of the eye. 

«, The vitreous humour. F l G " 4 * 

b, The crystalline lens. 

c, A serrated ring, composed of a black pigment spread 
upon the anterior part of the vitreous humour and co- 
rona ciliaris. 0) -p vom a new-born child. 

tJ, Small bubbles into which the inerabranula corona: ci- $ f ^■ tom a ^y a f ew veai . a om >. 

liaris is raised by inflation. ^ From ^ .^ of twenty years of age. 

c, A small puncture through which the air was intro- 
duced. FIG _ 5 

FIG. 2. 

A horizontal Section of the Coats of the Eye, magnified. 

n, The optic nerve dissected. «» The ball of the eye. 

b, The exterior, and, &i The optic nerve in the muscular canty. 

c, Tlie interior lamina of the sheath of the optic nerve. c > A section of the optic nerve before its entrance into 

d, The pia mater of the optic nerve. tne orbit. 

f, The central artery of the retina. <?» -A portion of the dura mater which leaves the opfio 
/, Part of the lamina crfbroaa, through which the medul- nerve, to go into the periosteum of the orbit. 

lary substance of the optic nerve passes. *■> The levator palpebrse superiors, arising from the angle 

g, The tunica sclerotica, i bicker posteriorly, where it is of separation of the dura mater, and terminating in a 
connected with the sheath of the optic nerve. broad aponeurosis. 

h t The circle surrounding the lamina cribrosa, from /» The attollens muscle, a great part of it covered by 

whence the pia mater of the optic nerve is turned back. ,l,e levator palpebral. 

?', i, The inner part of the tunica sclerotica. St The obliquue aunerior, bending through the trochlea! 

A,/, Arteries which run tongitudinally in the inner sur- !l i The insertion ol the obktjuus inferior. 

face of the choroides. h The deprimens muscle, 

«i, The white plicte of the ciliarv processes. ^? The abducens muscle, arising with a double head. 

n, Tlie iris. /, The upper small head. 

*, The connection of the sclerotica with the cornea. »'i The under head. 

«, The interval between the two heads, tlu-ough which 
F T n " a fasciculus of nerves is transmit ted. 

* », The Brsl branch of the fifth pair of nerves. 

The Inferior Oelirue Muscle of the Eye. ;», Tlie lacrymal branch of this first branch. 
o, The frontal branch cut off, 

«, The ball of the eye. r, The nasal branch. 

A, The abductor muscle. «. Tlie root of the nasal branch, which forma tie long 
c, The depressor. root f the ophthalmic ganglion. 



/, The third pair of nerves, 
v* The sixth pair of nerves. 

FIG. 6. 

5 of the Eye ;— the Levator F 

rf, A portion of the du: 

r which goes 

* the 

c, The levator palpebral cut oft' near its origin. 
f. The obliquus superior, bending through the trochlea. 
g, The attollens muscle ; 
h, Its tendon expanded near its insertion. 
?\ The adducens muscle. 
k, The two last-mentioned muscles, connected with eac 

other near their origin. 
/, The deprimens muscle. 
vi, The abducens muscle. 
«, The upper head connected with the attollens. 
o, The inferior- head. 
p. The interval between the two heads. 

g. Four bristles introduced into the ducts of the lacrymal 

hf One of these ducts into width quicksilver was injected, 
which is hid when: it parses between t lie glandithc con- 
gregata;^ but appiars again where it conies out of the 
glandula lacrymalis, composed of three branches. 

(', A part of the tunica conjunctiva, at which, before the 
preparation wa.-. immersed in spivils, the orilices of two 
or three very small Lit i vmal ducts could be perceived. 

FIG. 8. 

Represents the Eye-uds of the Left Eye, viewed fruit 
tin- Pustvridv-iutirior Part; — the Glandulje Mei- 
bomian^; — the Caruncula and Puncta Lacryma- 
with the Passages by which the latter commu- 

nicate with t 

■ >o" 

, b, Tlie inner coat of the eye-lids. 

, c, The cilia. 

, e, The upper and under tarsus, with their sebaceous 
1'ulliile-, each terminating in a ptculi;ir .iiiiall foramen 
Lit. ihe margin of the eye-lid. 

1 The puncta lacrymalia. 

, The caruncula lacryrnalis, and the lacrymal sac, into 
which the ducts of the puncta laerynialia open. 

', The lacrymal duct. 

, The extremity of the lacrymal duct, with a small por- 
tion of the membrane of the nose left around it. 

:, The inner side of the upper eye-lid. 

, by The two puncta laerynialia, into which the two 

ends of a hit of wire arc introduced, 
, Part of the under eye-lid. 
F, The external canthus. 
', The lacrymal gland. 
\ A number of smaller lacn nul gland-, lying between e 

and the conjunctiva, called by Dr Monro Glandule? 
Tjttcrymales Congregata? . 

o, The lacrymal gland. 

b f c. The puncta laerymalia, with the lacrymal canals 

proceeding from them to, 
rf, The lacrymal sac. 
e, A contraction of the sac, forming, 
f^ The lacrymal duct ; 
, Its 

//„ The caruncula laer 

( 48 ) 


Views of the Coats, Muscles, Vessels, and Nerves of the Eve. 

The External Vessels of the Eye, to obtain a View of 
which, a great pari of the Orbicularis Muscle is 

a, Part of the orbicularis palpebrarum. 

b, The ciliary ligament. 

c, The extremity of the os nasi. 

rf, A branch of the temporal artery. 
e, Branches of the supra-orbitar artery to the fore-head, 
communicating with the branches of the temporal ar- 

f, The trunk of the ocular artery. 
g, Branches to the nose. 
A, The iufra-orbitar artery. 
2\ The labial artery. 

A View of the Upper Side of the Eye-ball and its Ves- 
sels ; the Arch of the Okbit, the Levator Palpe- 
br;e, and Rectus Superior Muscles, being removed. 

/, The superior palpebral arch. 

»', The nasal branch. 

«, A branch from the temporal artery 

A, The* optic nerve, wit 

B, The trochlearis muscle passing through its pulley, 

C, The lacrymal gland. 

D, The tarsus of the upper eye-lid. 

E, The thick, part of the os malse. 

F, Put of theosfrontis. 

G, The levator palpebiic and levator oculi, turned asi 
H, The adductor oculi. 

I, The depressor oculi. 

K, The abductor oculi. 

*;, Tin internal carotid art en 1 . 

b, The ocular artery. 

f, The lacrymal artery. 

d, The external ciliary artery. 

e, Branches to the muscles, between the cvt an<] nut- 

A, The optic nerve. 

B, The sclerotic coat. 

C, The cornea, with the i 

* and pupil appearing through 

I, The depressor oculi. 
1, The inierior oblique muscle. 
', A section of the frontal bone. 
!, The anterior ethmoid cell. 
1, Part of the frontal bone. 

, The ocular artery drawn with the eye out of its p 
, The inferior branch of the eye. 
i c. The ciliary arteries. 

, The iufra-orbitar artery. The other branches 
seen supplying the lower part of the orbit in ger 
.' ■.■■■■ 

i, A, B, The cut edge* of the sclerotic coat. 

:', The cornea, with the iris and pupil. 

0, D, The choroid coat. 

(, The optic nerve. 

>, The ocular artery. 

', c, The ciliary arteries. 

/, The central artery of the retina. 

-, Another brain li ti> the dura mater nf the optic nerve. 

', The ciliary arteries forming a ring at the entrance uf 

the optic nerve, 
r, The long ciliary arteries. 
>, h. The posterior ciliary arteries, 

rotica, and running upon the 

where they form 

e of the chmoides, 



7JiB. 73 

^55' ^^ 

A, A, Part of the I 

uiiica scleruti 

a, o, », o, The luu 

.iid. elioroides. 

a, b. The ilia. 


Shews the Choroid Coat, the Ciliary Circle, and ' * ' 

litis, with their Vessels ,- the Sclerotic Coat and FIG. 9. 
Cornea being removed, 

_ " ... . Represents the Eve-ball of a Fcetus magnified, fio» 

A, A, A, The ciliary circle. u , hick lke Cornea and part of the Sclerotica hav, 

B ' B ' Zl mS '- bem removed, t» shew the Chokoides, Iris, and IV 

C, C, The vorticose veins. PJI ^ m y t the jjistribution of the Blood-vessels. 
a, a, The long ciliary arteries. 
v, Tlie large ring of the iris, formed by the ciliary arteries 

FIG. 6. 

The Fore Part of the Eve, from which the Cornea i 

removed, to shew the Ciliary Circle, Iris, and Pu- , 

pil, Kith the disposition of their Vessels. rf ' (/ ' £. lh , e ^S/'W «**&. 

f , e, Circular ami nuliniL-u vessels upon the iris. 

a, a, The choroid coat. a, Vessels running irregularl) upon the lucuibrana pupil, 

a, a, The ciliary circle. laris.. 

c, c, The iris. 
J, The crystalline lens appearing through the pupi 

e, e, Tlie long ciliaiy arteries. those of the iris. 

f, The anterior ciliaiy artery inserted into the circular _ , _ . . 

" artery. FIG - 10 - 

j, g. The large circular artery of the iris, formed by the A View of the Ball and Muscles of the Eye. 

different ciliary arteries. . . „,, ... 

/ A, A, The eye-ball. 

, in radii to B, The optic nerve, with the origin of the muscles. 

C, The levator palpebral superioris, with part of the e; 
lid to which it is fixed. 

pjq » D, The levator oculi. 

E, The trochlearis, or superior oblique muscle. 

A Side View of the Eye-ball, from which the Sclerotic F, The adductor oculi. 

ttnd Choroid Coats are partly removed, to shew the G, The abductor oculi. 

Retina, and the Course of the Central Artery on it. H, The depressor oculi. 

m. ,. I, Insertion of the obliouus inferior, 

fl, Ihe optic nerve. T 

a, a, The choroid coat, turned back. FIG. 12. 

r. The sclerotic coat and cornea, also turned back. _, _ , . . - » ., ,- 

d, The retina. Tke Eye ' deprived of some of Us Muscles. 
<» The ciliaiy process. , . „ A, The eye-ball. 

/, Ihe striae or the retina formed by the impressions of g -j^e optic nerve. 

the ciliary processes. c ' T , K . J ductor 0C ' uIi . 

S , The ophthalmic artery. Dt T]]C ab( ]uctor oculi. 

h, The central artery of the retina penetrating the optic £ The depressor oculi. 

7* The coucinuation of that artery appearing through the FIG. 12. 

TCtma ' The Left Eye-ball, with all its Muscles, t 
FIG. 8. the Upper and Outer Part. 

The Eye-ball nearly a<i in the former Figure, but the A, Tlie eye-ball. 

Cornea and Sclerotica removed, and the Crystal- B, The optic nerve. 

line Lens brought more into view. C, The trochlearis, or superior obliqut 
D, The obliqui ' 

\, The ciliary processes. E, The levator, 

B, The retina, with the brandies of (he central artery F, The abductor, 

of the retina investing the vitreous humour and its G, The depressor, 

tapsule. H, The adductor o> 

F I O. 
of the 


FIG. 16. 

n, The optic nerve. 

b. The tunica sclerotica. A, 

f, The choroid turned back upon the sclerotic coat. fe ( 

rf, The retina lying upon the vitreous humour. c , 

e, The anterior termination of the retina, according to ^ 
the author of this figure. c, 

f, The posterior serrated part of the ciliary processes. 
'' e of the ciliary processes, with white radii. 

going from 

"g, The plica: of the ciliary processes, with white radii. 
It, The place where the while radii : 
the lens. 

FIG. 11. 

mews the Structure of the Iris and Ciliary Nerves. 

Tke Eye somewhat magnified. 

a. The optic nerve. 

6, A, 6, b, The sclerotic coat turned back. 

c, r, Some of the large ciliary nerves divided anteriorly 

into branches. 
(/, Some smaller cilinrv nerve-., wild scarcely any branches. 
c, r. Two of the large ciliary veins, commonly called 

/, A hole iu the sclerotic coat, through which the vorti- 

gi A small cdiary vein-. 

//, The ciliary circle, 

t\ The large ring of the iris. 

J-, The parallel serpentine fibres of the iris. 

/, The small circle of the iris, formed by arches which 
join the large fibres to each other. — Straight fibres are 
seen going from the convexity of the arches to the pupil. 

til, The pupil. 

FIG. 15. 
A View nf the Lacrymal Passages. 

, TIk- 

upper eye- 1 

Orifices of the glandular Me; 
r. The ball of the eye. 

d, The iris appearing through the cornea. 

e, The pupil. 

f, The small semilunar membrane before the car 
lacrymal is. 

£, The camncula lacrymalis. 

A, A, The duns of the puueta lacrymalia, which 

The ball of the eye. 

The lacrymal gland. 

The abduceus muscle. 

The attollcns muscle. 

The levator palpebral. 

The deprimens muscle. 
, The adducens muscle. 
, The obliquus superior. 
, The trochlea. 
, Fart of the obliquus iuferior muscle. 
, The course of the carotid in the receptaculnm. 
'/, The carotid, where it penetrates into the cavity of 

the cranium, with the ocular artery arising from it. 
', The optic nerve passing through its foramen. 
, The optic nerve within the orbit. 
, The trunk of the nerve of the third pair. 
', The superior small branch of the third pair. 
■, The short root of the ophthalmic gangliou, from the 

nerve- of the obliimus inferior. 
, A branch of the third pair of nerves to the adducens 

, A branch of the third pair of nerves to tbe deprimens 

i, A branch of the third pair to the obliquus inferior. 
', The ophthalmic ganglion, freed from its connection 

with the optic nerve, and turned outwards, to obtain a 
of the third pair of nerves. 

, of 1,11 


i pair 

it. of the intercostal i 

, the i 

X, The fifth pair of nerves in the cavity of the cranium. 

y, The first branch of the fifth pair of nerves. 

k, The frontal branch of the first branch _y, of the fifth 

pair of nerves, divided into two branches. 
J. The nasal branch of the first branchy, of the fifth 

pair of nerves. 

2. Small ciliary branches of branch 1. passing along the 

3. A small branch inserted into one of the two twigs 2. 
-which arises Inni. the nasal nerve ascending to the outer 
side of the op'ic nerve, below the upper fasciculus. 

1. The lacrymal branch of branch y. 

5. The second branch of the fifth pair of nerves. 

6. The third branch of the fifth pair- of nerves. 

Tab. m 

fy ■<* 

( si ) 


The Eye and Lacrtmal Organs dissected. 

FIG. 1. b y That of the sclerotica. 

The Anterior Half of the Left Eye-ball, with the In- c t The membrane of the aqueous humour, which forms the 
serf ions of the Four Recti Muscles, and of the Ob- "m™ lamina of the cornea, separated and reflected. 
uquus Superior. 

o. The cornea. 

i, The remains of the conjunctiva. A Viea °f the Posterior Surface of the Iris. 

% The teSu a of the obliquus superior passing behind C ' a " J** ^^ side of tlie Mlt€rior P art of the choroid 

the rectus superior, to be inserted into the back part , ^ ™ ... 

of the scleroik 6 - b ' "•>= cll, "f P™«*«- 

c. The muscular part of the rectus intern™ ; C ! C ! ™ e vessels , anJ '^" tei f^ 5 '. . 

/■ T* * j ■ S, j ■„.,. ,v,„ r,, .„ „. „*■ .1.., i„ i- »i «i 11 " ! I W the iris. 

/, Its tendon inserted into the tore part ot the sclerotis. ' ^ * 

g, A, Similar parts of the rectus superior. * P P • 

i, *, . externus. FIG. 5. 

/, wi, '■■■'■ — .. . inferior. 

The Canalis Fontan*:. From the Eye of an Ox. 

a, Part of the sclerotica. 
FIG. -. ^* The internal surface of the choroides. 

The Eye dissected. € J ^ $¥* of the cUiai 7 ?"»««». 

o, The optic nerve. e, The pupil. 

6, ft, Part of the sclerotic coat cut longitudinally, and /, The canal of Fontana, 

turned outwards, 
r, Part of the sclerotic coat cut transversely, and turned FIG. G. 

forwards with, 
a\ The cornea. 

f, e, Half of the iris in its natural situation. 
/, The pupil and crystalline lens. 0) The interior surface of the posterior part of the scle- 

gy g, The ciliary circle. rotica. 

A, A, The choroid coat. B , The outer, and, 

z, The ciliary processes, seen in their places, by cutting Ci) The inner surface of the choroides. 

off a portion of the iris. d. The circuit cribrifbnnia, or lamina ciibrosa, through 

k, A portion of the iris, cut and turned back. the foraniinula. of which the medulla of the optic nerve 

/, The ciliary processes, also turned back. passes to form the retina. 

in, The middle smooth part of the retina, seen by cutting ei) The retina, with its blood-vessels. 

a hole in the choroid coat, 
n, The roots of the ciliary processes of the retina, to FIG" 

which the black paint of the ciliary processes of the 

choroid coat adheres. The Crystalline Lf_>. s, an it appears after Maceration 

o, The ciliary processes of the retina, inserted into the in Water. 

capsule of the crystalline lens. 

fig, 3. FIG - a 

Tfa Co«»EA «< Mm.u>i .f ItetoBK Humour. Th * \"]"' v ,"/ ,""' L ' '' ' ,"' ."" ,','! »»'»«"«' <" ' V "™« 
Actdy /»/ irhuh 1'iusl Siihtih rifHT.s an- teen running 
<y, The Internal or posterior surface of the cornea; and, from the one Fit re in if'/ of the Lens to the other. 


FIG. 9. o. The outer, and, 

An Interned Section of the Lens which mu boiled, and ''' £' ,c inI) ? r la y Er of *J; e va 6»™ of the optic nerve. 

vfteneards macerated in an Acid, and divide,! trans- «'» Tllc P l ' c nerve so dissected, Hat the vena centralist 

rrrsely at the Ju\ to shew distinctly th,- Lame I luted seen perforating the vagma, and running in the centre 

appearance.— This from the Erie of an Ox. of the nerve. 

ri J J J d, The vena centralis, dividing uito three branches, 

p j (j. jq which run in form of a net-work, upon the inner, .^ide 

" ' of the retina, and unite with the veins of thecoma 

The Eye of a faku magnified, and the Sclerotis, ciliare 

(horoides, and Retina, toned aside, to then the T[]C v ' itrcous hlimour which enc^ the _„_„, f 

Arteria Centralis Retin* fffemrg tang* /Ae the vc|lie retina . m the regiou o{ - the corp^u^, 

f tfttWUS Humour. ^ The ^^ se p arate d f lt)m tue vitreous humour and 

(i n The sclerotic coat. corpus ciliare, and reflected. 

b, b, The choroid coat, with the vena; vorticosac on its Si Tlie choroid coat divided and spread out, the vessels 

outer, and retina on its inner side. °^ which are not represented in this figure. 

1 The ciliary circle. l 'i The ciliary processes. 

7, The iris and membrana pupillaris, with their blood- h The iris also spread oat. 

r, The entrance of the arteria centralis, at the bottom of FIG. 14. 

the eye, with the branches it gives off to the retina. S//em the £ ACRYMAL Sac and Ducts hid open. 

~fi I he course of the artery through the axis of the vi- 
treous humour. «, The upper, 

g, The division of this artery into branches, and the mi- b, The under eye-lid. 

nute ramiiii alious of these upon the back part of the e, d. Bristles introduced into the two puueta laciymalia, 

• capsule of the crystalline lens. and the ducts from them cut open. 

/j, The optic nerve. e,f, The termination of these ducta in the lacrymal sac. 
g, h, i, The lacrymal sac and nasal duct laid open. 

The termination of this duct i 


<f the Lens, much magnified, in a Foetus of the r 1 G. 15. 

tenth Month. 

A Fore View of the Eve-lids of the Left Side, w i 

"«, a, A portion of the vitreous humour. Young Man, open. 

b. The trunk of the arteria centralis retina; cut off near T . , 

:t „ t ■ . .. , I, c ., a, I he eve-brow. 

its entrance into tlie ball ol the eye. . ' i „, 4. c . , . t , ,. , • . , L .. 

r, !,i.]i](.li. - ol i he artena centralis running to the mem- i j 

brane and cells of the vitreous humour. The rest are ly VF?. 

h mn rU nf tL „.^ D : , + r i" u r .1 C ' C > Hoi" ui the -1.; '.-■■■■■ 

branches ot the artena centralis, which go from ilic , 11 J 

circumference of the lens to the anterior and posterior j S ..■i ' ., L , i j *Jl im_ 

M„f a c-,, „f it , ™ F „ic. ti,c b ™„ i„- .„■, i„lk<,, „ii ''• '';.,' l! ' T of ,.", c scl »«°» 8 e , ™ <1 " ° f the f^- 

Und. „e»t to Ihe „,cmbra„a pupillaA. ? /I'. , °'"™ »"« e <*th. «.. 

1 * /»/» 1 he ptmcla lacrymalia. 

p t n jo g, g, The two limbs of the inner angle of the eye. 

' h, The valvula semilunaris. 

The Anterior Surface of the Membrana Pupillaris ,<■ The caruncula lacrymalia. 
in a Fcetusofsii Month*, with the Arteries injected. 

The Paitehrx. are opened. The Vascular nature of FIG. 16. 

the Membranei Pupillaris, with its lietiform and A- 
nastomrMng -fppearancex, is distinctly seen i the Fi- 
gure being inuiinifed iiptiurrh ■■/' tuo Diameters. 

y j ^ . ., a, The lacrymal gland ; its natural situation shewn * 

The Yfva Centralis Retina. The View is taken b, b. The two evc-Hds widely opened. 

from a fj'ti n of tuo :,cars, and magnified. The Re- r, «■, The pmicta lacrymalia. 

1 Humour so placed, d, </, Tlie lacrymal ducts. 

at one part remains e, c, A blind sac in each of the ducts. 

i of the duets in the lacrymal sac. 
SiSi '■ 



J\ The conjunctiva. 

£, g, The sebaceous glands of the eye-lids, shining 

through the conjunctiva. 
Ji t A, The puncta lacrymalia. 
i\ The caruncula lacrymalia. 
X', A", The valvula semilunaris, 

• Ci . u- . FIG. 18. 

(T, e, A portion o! ilu' orbn.uku'is ocull. 

i, The opening of the eye-lids. 

c, c, The lacrymal gland seen from below, divided i 
two principal lobes, and very little covered by the con- 
junctiva, m, Tlie lacrymal duct of the upper eye-lid. 

rf, The situation of the excretory ducts of the lacrymal b, under eye-lid. 

c, rf,/, The lacrymal sac and duct ; c, rf, the sac 

the duct. 
/, The opening where the duct terminates in the n 


( Si ) 


Views of the Coats and Humours of the Eye. 

The Anterior Half of the Eie-ball, quite recent, dt. £ The optic nerve divided. - 

vided perpendicularly, without any Injection. / m *r-\ K coats of the nerve. 

m . _ , , ..... ... n. Traces of the central artery which penetrates the 

a, The edge of the sclerotis, lined with a blackish mucus. nerve. 
bj The choroides, lined with the proper pigmentum ni- 

c, The 
</, Its ante 

the figure. 
e, The ciliary pi 

the vitreous El 
/, The iris. 
g. The pupil. 

FIG. 4. 

ordwg to the author of T&€ p^,^ riew of the Retina ; the Sclerous and 
, . . Y99HHfll Chokoidls being removed. 

:hining through the remauis of 

the middle point of the retina, 
ut off. not above 

o, The central hole in 

surrounded by a yelloi 
6, Th« point where the optic 

FIG. 2. 

The Posterior Half of the s 

, a, b, As in the first figure, 
r, The outer surface of the retina. 
</, tf, e f f, The inner surface of the 

,r* FIG. 5. 
Anterior View »f the a 

r , A round white spot which marks the entrance of the a i "■> The retmfl ; °i Its a nt< 

optic nerve. to the author of the figure, 

f, (/, e, Three branches of the central artery, which pe- . c i The ciliary processes. 

netrate the eye-ball along with the optic nerve. . <?i A rm K round the lei 

f, d. Two of these which form a circle round the central 

hole in the retina, 
■■, The true middle, or central point of the retina, on 

which several plaits or folds of that substance meet, 

and conceal the central hole and its yellow border. 

lens, formed by (lie membranes of 

< lit; vitreous humour. 
d, e, The lens in its capsule. 
f, The central hole in the relina, seen through the lens 

and vitreous humour. 
The vessels of the retiu.i appear also through the humours. 

o, The sclerotic. 

b, The cornea. 

c, The union of the sclerolis with the cornea. 

d, The concave side of the cornea. 

, The choroides, with the pigmentum nigrum lining it. 

A Vu 

a, t>, ,; Tli 

FIG. 6. 

9 of the Exterior Side of the Retina 

of the central vessels of the 

f, The ciliary processes. 

S, //, The lens in iis tapsuh ; g, the pnil 

V r -V **■* 

-Kg e. 

Tig '2 




above the ciliary processes ; h, the portion seen through 
tlie ciliary processes. 

C, The remains of ihc ,clin'oUs 
rf, e, e, The choroides. 
figi n i The ' on S internal ciliary artery, 

FIG. 8. 

The Left Eye seen from below 

n. The optic nerve. 

b, The sclerotia. 

c, The choroides. 

rf, The ciliai-y ligament, with 
viding into branches. 

e, The edge of the iris. 

f, The inferior vena vnrticosa 

g, g, Tlie ciliary nerves. 

FIG. 9. 

The Anterior Surface of the Choroides and Iris. 

o, The choroides ; the letter is placed on its under side. ' 
by The ciliary ligament. 
c, The iris, smaller next the cheek, 
rf, The pupil. 
f, The long internal, and, 

f, The long external ciliary artery. The white lines re- 
present the ciliary nerves. 

FIG. 10. 

The Anterior Surface of the Anh-rm Half 'of the Cho- 
roides of a seven month Foetus. The Arteries 
and Veins are JUL d with Vermilion. 

w, The internal, and, 

b, Tlie external long ciliary artery. 

c, The iris. 

(/, The lneuibnina piipilLiii-., uiih its vessels injected. 

The Anterior Portion of the Conjunctiva and C'ohse \ 
of the Left Eve of a siv month Foetus, ivith its 
Blood-vessels filled with Vermilion, and magnified liner 
its natural Size ; shewing the great degree of Vasev.. 

FIG. 13. 

The Lens of a netv-bom Child in Profile. 

FIG. 14. 
Tlie Lens of a Child six years old in Pi-ofiie. 

FIG. 15. 
The Lens of an Adult in Profile. 

FIG. 16. 

a, The pupil. 

b, The iris covered with its pigmentum nigrum. 
<■, The choroides. 

d, The ciliary processes ; their anterior edges projecting 
over and concealing the outer edge of the iris. 


( se ) 


Views of the Muscles, Vessels, Nerves, Coats, and Humours of the Eve. 

ilieivs the Distribution of the Right Ocular Artery, as 
it appears when the Muscles remain connected with 
the Eye, except the Levator Palpebr<e and Leva- 
tor Oculi, which are cut and turned back. 

ind, c, c, the under edge of 

fl , The inner, b, the o 

the orbit, 
rf, The canal of the optic nerve. 

f , The levator palpebral, cut and turned back. 

/, g, The levator, A, the adductor, and, ;', the abductor 

A, A; The optic nerve, 

/, The eye-ball. 

ct, The cerebral artery. 

n, o. The ocular artery ; o, its flexure. 

p, The long ciliary arteries. 

§, The lacrymal artery. 

r, The continuation of the ocular artery which crosses 

the optic nerve. 
9, A branch from the inner maxillary artery. 

FIG. 2. 

The same View with the former, except that the Eye- 
Ball and Optic Nerve are removed. 

■a, 6, c, The orbit. 

rf, The canal of the optic nerve. 

e, The musculus trochlears ; f, its trochlea. 

g, Tlit- depressor, /t, the adductor, and, /", the abductor 

k t The obliquus inferior. 

/, The first long ciliary artery. 

, The continuation of the ocular artery. 

, The trunk, of the internal maxillary 'artery. 

, The under orbit ular auerv, a constant branch, 

U The eye-baD. 

■, The optic nerve. 

\ f, Tlie levator palpebral. 

', Tlie levator oculi. 

i, Tlie insertion of the trochlears ; 1, its pulley. 

:, /, The abductor, and, m, the depressor oculi. 

s, The lacryinal gland a little displaced, and part of it 

, The cerebro-ocular vein. 

', The fronto-ocular vein. 

, Anastomoses with the internal ocular vein. 

■, A branch, consisting of the under external ciliary 
vein, and anastomosing twig of the posterior cerebro- 
ocular vein. 

, The anterior ciliary vein. 

, The external ciliary vein. 

:, The termination of the cerebro-ocular vein, with the 
fronto-ocular vein, after winding round the optic nerve. 

, The fronto-ocular vein communicating with, 

I, The frontal, and with, 

, The palpebral vein. 

, The cut end of the trochlears. 

, The adductor oculi. 

, c, Tlie depressor oculi divided. 

, The obliquus inferior. 

,/, The anterior and posterior roots of the cerebro-ocu- 
lar vein, with branches from the adjacent parts. 

, A short ciliary, aud, 

, A long ciliaiy vein. 

, Aii.p-in -ii between the fronto-ocular and the poste- 
rior root of the cerebro-ocular vein. 

, The -.iii;:le under . ili,'.r\ vein. 

, A communicating branch formed by the posterior ana 
anterior cercbio-ocukr veins, which unite with, 

1, The internal frontal vein. 

, The under external ciliary vein. 

, The facial vein receiving, 

, The external palpebral vein. 


Skew the Nerves of the Right Eve in their nati 
situation in a young man of eighteen years of age. 

a, The optic nerve. 

b, The nerve of the third pair. 

r, ■ — ■ ■ ■ ■ fourth pair. 

- fifth j 

- sixth pair, with its termination i 

the abductor oculi, 

f, The cerebral end of the fifth pair, which t 
■ conicallyin, 

g, A ganglion. 

A, The first branch of the fifth pair. 

t\ The second, passing through the foramen rotundum. 

k, The third, going through the foramen ovale. 

/, The connection of the first branch of the fifth pair with 

the fourth pair. 
?n, The frontal branch of the first branch of the fifih pair, 

sending oft', 
«, The lacrymal nerve, and afterwards proceeding by 

different branches to the forehead. 
o, A branch of the facial nerve, which penetrates through 

the os make into the orbit. 
p y A nerve to the nose. 
5, The nervus trochlearis. 
r, The levator palpebrae. 
5, The levator, /, the depressor, «, the adductor, and. 

r, the abductor oculi. 
ic, The trochlearis ; x, its trochlea. 
v, The lacrymal gland. 

FIG. 6. 

o, The first branch of the fifth pair. 

p, The lacrymal nerve. 

y, The slender branch of the frontal nerve. 

r, The proper frontal nerve. 

s, A twig from the Grst branch of the fifth pair to the 

ciliary ganglion. 
/, ii. The sixth pair ; «, .its termination in the adductor 

FIG. 7. 

c, The levator oculi inverted. 

ft, The levator palpebrae. 

c, The third pair of nerves. 

rf, A small branch ^uing off before its entrance into the 
orbit ; connected, at c, with the branches of the fifth 
pair, forming the ciliary ganglion. 

f, The principal inferior branch of the third pair. 

g^ The ciliary ganglion, from which are sent off two 
bundles of ciliary nerves ; the upper bundle, A, divides 
into three branches, which run along the optic nerve, 
and divide into six or more threads of unequal thick- 
ness, of which three are here seen penetrating the 

t, A branch from the principal branch of the third pair 
going to thcobliquus inferior. 

k, Branches to the depressor oculi. 

/, The branch of the third pair to the levator oculi. 

_- palpebral. 

, The first pair reflected. 

, The ganglion of the fifth pair. 

, The first, 

, The second, and, 

, The third branch of the fifth pair. 

, The smaller portion of the fifth pair, beading to join 

the third branch. 
, The small branch corresponding with d 9 of Fig. 6. 
which, after receiving, 
A, Similar to e, of Fig. 6. is cut across, 
j, Two long ciliary nerves running upon the optic nerve. 
Ar, A branch from these, which, under the levator oculi, 
splits, sends a nerve to the nose, and then forms the 
nervus trochlearis. 
I, The ciliary ganglion. 

m, Branches from the third pair to the depressor oculi. 
n, The branch from the thira pair to the obliquus inferior, 
o, The frontal branches of the first of the fifth pair cut 

P) The sixth pair. 

5, Twigs from the sixth pair, which form a rete along 

the internal carotid artery, in its passage through the 

base of the skull, 
r, The termination of the sixth pair on the abductor 

FIG. 8. 

Represents the Bight Eye, wAencorererffo/rAf Eye-Lids, 
after a perpendicular Incibionjrom before backwards. 

•vexed by the dura 

d, The right frontal sinus. 

e, 6, The canalis opticus. 

f, The under side of the orbit. 

g, A cavity filled with fat, &c. 
A, The connection between the dura mater, the sheath of 

the optic nerve, and the origin of the levatores oculi 
et palpebral. 
t, The shin of the forehead. 
H it, The 


k, The fat. 

/, The occipito-froiitalis ; 

m, The fat under it. 

n. The corrugator supercilii, before which arc sections of 

a vein, an artery, and a hair of the supcrcilium, with 

the orbicularis muscle. 

0, The upper eye-lid shut upon the eye.. 

p. The tarsus or cartilage of the upper eye-lid. 

a, g, The boundary of the tunica adnata. 

r, The under eye-Lid and orbicularis muscle. 

s, The tarsus of the under eye-lid. 

/, The openings of the eye-lids, with the eye-lashes. 

At the inner edge of the eye-lids is seen a small triangu- 
lar opening, by which the tears pass towards the nose 
when the eye-lids are shut. 

v, The levator palpebral 

if, The depressor oculi. 
a 1 , The tendon of the trochlearis. 
y, The belly of the obliquus inferior, 
a, The optic nerve surrounded with fat, and contracting 
where it enters the eye. 

1. The outer and inner layers of the sheath of the nerve. 

2. As 

i of the ii 

3. A section of the ocular artery, 

4. Sections of the vein. 

5. The eye-ball. 

6. The cornea and anterior chamber. 

7. The sclerotica becoming gradually thinner towards iti 
fore part ; its anterior edge forming a groove to receive 
the edge of the cornea. 

8. The choroides. 

9. The ciliary ligament. 

10. The corpus ciliare. 

11. The ciliary processes. 

12. The iris and pupil. 

13. The lens in its capsule. The dark space between 
the lens and iris is the posterior chamber. 

14. The retina seen through the vitreous humour. 

FIG. 9. 

Is nearly the same as Fig. 8. except that the Eye-lids 
are open, by which the Cornea appears more prominent, 
the Lens is removed, the Sheet h of the Optic Nerve is 
slit open its whole length, the Vessels of the Choroid 
Coat, and the Ciliary Processes, are distinctly seen. 

( 59 ) 




Jailer lie rinse upon the Cartilage, and, in the general) 
of Subjects, are so thin, white, and indistinct, as to r 
ceive from some Authors the name of Mmrvkir Met. 
braucs. — They are considered as hem- calculated to pi' 

The Externa! Ear comprehends the Auricle, or Ear 
properly so called, and the Meatus Auditorium Eiternvs. 

It is again divided into Pinna, or Ala, Tab. LXXVII. 
Fig. 1. a — h, which constitutes by much the greater part 
of it, and Lobus, which is placed at its under end. Tab. 
LXXVII. Fig. I.e. 

The Pinna is chiefly composed of Cartilage, and is 
divided, at its fore part, into several Eminences and Ca- 
v Hit's, which have received particular names ; viz. 

The Helix, or outer Bar or Margin, which arises 
behind, at the Lobe of the Ear, surrounds its upper 
edge, and terminates below, nearly opposite to its origin ; 
dividing the Concha into two parts. Tab. LXXVII. 
Fig. 1. a, a, a. 

The Antihelix, Anthelix, or inner Bar or Margin, 
which is situated within the former, and is composed 
euperiorly of two Ridges, uniting together below. Tab. 
LXXVII. Fig. 1. b, b. 

The Tragus, which is a small Eminence lying over 
the Meatus Externus, and is connected to the under and 
fore part of the Helix. Tab. LXXVII. Fig. 1, c. 

The Antitragus, placed below the posterior extremity 
of the Antihelix. Tab. LXXVII. Fig. 1. d. 

The Cavitas Innominata, situated between the Helix 
and Antihelix. Tab. LXXVII. Fig. 1./,/. 

The Scapha, or Fossa Navicularis, situated between 
the two limbsof the Antihelix. Tab. LXXVII. Fig. 1 .g. 

The Concha, which is a large Cavity under the Anti- 
helix ; divided by the Helix into two parts, the inferior 
of which leads to the Meatus Auditorius. Tab. LXXVII. 
Fig. \.h,h. 

The back part of the External Ear exhibits only one 
considerable Eminence, which is the convex Surface of 
the Concha. Tab. LXXVII. Fig. 2. b, b. 

The Lobits, which is the inferior soft part of the Ear, 
is composed of Cellular Substance, with a small quantity 
of Fat. 

The Ear is covered by a continuation of the common 
Integuments, which are thinner here than on the rest of 
the Body, and ii perforated in many parts by the mouths 
of Sebaceous Ducts placed immediately under the Skin. 

The motions of the Ear, which are very limited, are 
regulated by several fl/w/e*, some of which are com- 
mon to the Ear and Head, and others proper to the Ear 
itself. The former have been already described. The 

• acute part of the Helix 

Origin : From the ; 
ipon which it ascends. 
Insertion : Into the Helix. Tab. LXXVII. Fig. 3. ■ 

Origin: From the under and fore part of the Helix. 

Insertion : Into the Helix, near the Fissure in tlie 

Cartilage opposite the Concha. Tab. LXXVII. Fig.3. b. 


Origin : From the middle and outer part of the Con- 
cha, at the root of tlie Tragus, along which it runs. 

Insertion : Into the point of the Tragus. Tab. 
LXXVII. Fig. 3. c. 

Action : To pull tlie point of the Tragus a little for- 


Origin : From the iuternal part of the Antitragus, 
upon which it ascends. 

Insertion : Into the tip of the Antitragus, as far n= 
the inferior part of the Antihelix, where there is a Fis- 
sure in the Cartilage. Tab. LXXVII. Fig. 3. d. 

Action : To turn tlie tip of tlie Antitragus a little out- 
wards, and depress the extremity of the Antihelix. 


j Aums, vel Tn 

■ .luriaihc. 

Origin : From the prominent part of the Concha, on 
the back part of the Ear. 

Insertion : Into the outside of the Antihelix. Tab. 
LXXVII. Fig. 4. a. 

Action : To draw the pai 
towards each other, and t 



g ; and is furaJahed with Ligamentous Mem- 
l fix it to the root of the Zygoma and of 
■^"-•Ki-U Process. Tab. LXXIXB. Fig. 4, 5. 

'»'!. Auricle collects sound, and conveys it to the 
Hc-rtu- I'Vernus,— the Muscles giving tension to it, so 
as to render the sound more distinct. 

The Meatus Auditor!™ Externum leads inwards from 
:!]c l'<wha, and in its course proceeds somewhat for- 
wards and upwards, turning a little downwards at its 
• arthest extremity, and terminating at the Membrana 
Tympani. Tab. LXXVII. Fig. 5. The turns, how- 
ever, are so inconsiderable,- the bottom of the pas- 
.:!!;- can be readily seen in a clear light, upon pulling the 
Fir backwards. 

It is rather of an oral form, a little contracted in the 

rwddlc, aid from an inch to an inch and a half in length. 

Its outer end, which is a continuation of the Concha, 

is Cartilaginous, and lias two or three Interruptions or 

r.mirei, in it. Tab. LXXIXB. Fig. 5. 

On the upper and back part of its circumference, there 
is a Large Interruption terminating in an oblique Mar- 
gin, which is fixed to the rough edge, at the under part 
Si' the Osseous Portion of the Meatus. Tab. LXXVII. 
under part of Fig. 4. 

At the upper and back part of the Meatus, the Carti- 
lage has but little connection with the Bones, being there 
ih.-il by the Skin which linos the Canal. 

The Osseous is continued from the Cartilaginous part 
of the Canal, and is the longer of the two, particularly 
at its upper and back part. 

The Meatus is lined with a continuation of the Skin, 
which fills up the Interruptions in the Cartilage, but, like 
the Skin covering the Auricle, it is thinner than on the 
rest of the Body. Tab. LXXIXB. Fig. 5. 

Between the Skin and Cartilage of the Meatus, there 
.ere numerous small Glands, of a yellowish colour, placed 
in a Reticular Substance formed of the Corpus Muco- 
suiu, and termed Glamluiw Ceritminosar. These dis- 
charge the Wax of the Ear, through small excretory 
Ducts. Tab. LXXVII. Fig. 5. e. 

The Wax lubricates the Passage, and defends it from 
the injuries of the air, and, being of a viscid and bitter 
-quality, assists in the exclusion of insects. 

The Arteries of the External Ear come anteriorly from 
the Temporal, and posteriorly from the Occipital ; both 
of which are Branches of the External Carotid Artery. 

The Veins pass partly to the External, and partly to 
the Internal Jugulars. 

The iVtnw which supply the fore part of the Ear, 
are derived from the third of the Fil'ih, and from the 
Portio Dura of the Seventh Pairs.. Those which supply 
the under and back part come from tiie first and second 

The Meatus Externus conveys sound from the outer 
towards the inner Ear, and is supposed in do this to 
greater advantage on account of the winding nature of 
the Passage. 

In the Pectus, the Meatus is entirely Cartih^innus, 

EAB. [Part IV, 

and only adheres to an imperfect Bony Circle, m which 
the Membrana Tympani is fixed- Tab. LX\I\U 
Fig. 22. 

At the inner end of the Mnhn Lxtcmue, the Mem. 
brand Tympani is situated, which is thin but firm, some, 
what dry and elastic, almost transparent, and of an oval 
form ; the longest diameter of the oval being about fiwr- 
teulhs of an inch in length. 

It is fixed in a Groove uhkh divides the Meatus from 
the Tympanum. Tab. LXXVII. Fig. 6. d. 

It is very tense, but has a small Depression in the 
middle next the Meatus, with a corresponding Convexity 
towards the Tympanum, where the extremity of the 
Malleus is fixed to it. 

Its situation is somewhat oblique, the upper part being 
turned outwards, and the under inwards, so that the 
lower side of the Meatus is a little- longer than the upper. 

It forms a complete impervious Septum, though die 
contrary has been maintained by some Authors. 

It is formed partly of a continuation of the lining of 
the Meatus, but chiefly of the Periosteum. 

The Membrana Tympani has numerous small Vessels, 
from the Temporal audStylo-mastoid Arteries, which run 
in a radiated manner, and which arc most abundant in 
the Fortus. 

This Membrane serves, by its form and tension, to 
collect the vibrations of sound, and to conduct them from 
the Outer to the Inner Ear. 

In the Foetus, the Membrana Tympani is fixed in an 
imperfect Ring of Bone, being open above, and, along 
with tin' Meatus, is covered with a Mucous Membrane, 
which defends the parts from the too strong impulse of 
Sound. The Mucous Membrane sloughs off by degrees 
after birth. Tab. LXXIX. Fig. 1. 

The Internal Ear comprehends the Tympanum, La- 
byrinth, and certain Passages leading into these. 

The Tympanum is situated 'at the inner side of the 
Membrana Tympani, approaches to a hemispherical fi- 
gure, and is abtml half an inch in width. Tab. LXXVII 
Fig. 7.— 11. Tab. LXXIX. Fig. 15. 16. 

Between the Tympanum and Cavity called Labyrinth, 
there is an Osstous Septum, which forms the bottom of 
the Tympanum, where there arc sevt nil Eminenres, viz. 

The I'romont'm,, which forms the beginning of the 
Scala T\mpani, and divides the Tympanum into anterior 
and posterior Unions. Tab. LXXVII. Fig. 11. b. 

A Protuberance at the upper and back part of the 
Tvinpaimm, ionm ■! hv the Aqurednctus FaLLOPII- 

A Prf'j.Ttitn, c:i11m1 Eminentia Fyramidnlis Tym- 
pani, si United behmd the Fenestra Ovalis, in which is «» 
Passage for die Stapedius. 

An Emm nc, at the upper and fore part of the Tym- 
panum, containing :i semi-canal, for lodging p ait of the 
Tensor Tympani. Tab. LXXVII. Fig. II. A. 




In the Tympanum there are various Passages, which 
communicate with the neighbouring parts, viz. 

The Iter a Pulato ad Anrem, or Eustachian Tube, 
which goes off from the upper and fine part of the Tym- 
panum, and, rooning obliquely forwards and inwards to 
the posterior Opening of the Nostril, tcriuiuatcs at its 
outer edge, above the Arch of the Palate. Tab. 
LXXIXB. Fij. t. G, H, I. Tab. LXXVI1I. Fig. G. 
g* ^ ••• 

The posterior part of the Tube is Osseous, being 
formed in the Pars Petrosa, at the upper aud outer part 
of the Canal for the Carotid Artery. 

The anterior portion is formed above, by the Spinous 
Process, and root of the Pterygoid Process of the Sphe- 
noid Bone ; — and below, by Cartilage and Membrane. 

It is narrow next the Ear, where it can only admit 
the point of a Surgeon's Probe, but becomes gradually 
wider towards the Nose, where it terminates by an ob- 
lique Opening with prominent sides, siillieientlv large 10 
admit a Goose-quill. Tab. LXX1XB. Pig. 7. D, E. 

It is lined by a Membrane similar to that of the N< 

mi win 

. add 

between the Outer and Inner Ear, and prevents it from 
pressing too forcibly upon the different Membranes placed 
in the sides of the Tympanum. 

It has been supposed to convey the sound of a Person's 
own Voice to the Inner Ear ; but experiment does not 
favour this opinion, nor is it found to render Sound more 
distinct when the Mouth is open ;— though Persons who 
have a degree of deafness are observed frequently to listen 
after this manner. 

The Cells of the Mastoid Process, which open into 
the upper and back part of the Tympanum, opposite to, 
but a little higher than, the Eustachian Tube. Tab. 
LXXLXB. Fig. <>. D. 

They are very irregular, Varying in number and size in 
different persons, have many windings and turnings, w liich 
communicate with each other, and are lined, like the 
Cells of Other Bones, by the Periosteum Internum. . 

They assist the Tympanum in reflecting Sound, in in- 
creasing its strength, ana i onvej Lag it to the Labyrinth. 

In Quadrupeds which hear acutely, there are large 
Cevitier, connected with the Tympanum, which seem to 
supply the place of Mastoid Cells. 

Above the Promontory, a I Jute called Fenestra Oralis, 
the npper and under edges of which are convex upwards, 
—for lodging the Base of the Stapes. Tab. LXXVII. 
Fig. 11. e. The long diameter of this Fenestra is pla- 
ced transversely, and near double the length of the short 

The inner edges of this Hole are contracted by a nar- 
row Border, upon which the end of the Stapes rests. 

Below the Fenestra Ovalis, and at the under and 
back part of the Promontory, a Hole, smaller than the 

former, called 1'ciintra Rotunda. Tab. LXXVII. 
Fig. 11. d. 

It is placed oblique!)' backwards and outwards, lead- to 
the Cochlea, but i; shot by a Membrane wfeiflfe assist* 
in communicating Sound to the Labyrinth. The two Fo- 
ramina are placed opposite to the Metnbrana Tympani. 

The Sides or Jf alls of the Tympanum, which likewra 
assist in conveying Sound to the Labyrinth, are lined 
with Periosteum, which is reflected into the different 
Passages leading from it. 

The Cavity of the Tympanum contains air, and four 
small Boner, tailed 0,,u„/„ ./„,/,/„,■, which foim aChain, 
stretching iin; >!■.!. li.-.m tin: Mcrnbrana T)inp:mi to tin 
Labyrinth. Tab. XIV. Fig. !■. 

The Omki-'k Judith a-., -the Malleus, the /,«■>/*, 
the 0.v Orbiculare, and the Stapes, — these names being 
derived from Substances which they are supposed to r' 
.-i.-iiiUr in shape. 

The Mallet!*, or Hammer, consists of a round Head, 
a small Neck, a Manubrium or Handle, and two small 
Processes ; one in the Neck, long and very slender, and 
therefore called Gracilis ,- the other in the upper end of 
the Handle, called Processus Bretis. 'Ia'b. X11I. 
Fig. 9. B. Tab. LXX1X Fig. 4. 5. ti. 

The Handle is by .some Authors considered as one of 
the Processes, and is thru called the longest of the three. 
It forms an Aaigle with the Neck, is slightly compressed, 
becomes gradually smaller, and is beut at its extremity 
towards the Menibrana Tympani. 

.In the natural situation, the Head is mined upwards 
and inwards, ami the Handle down upon the Menibrana 
Tympani, to which it adheres. Tab. LXXVI1L Tab. 

rrscmblim;; one of the Dentes Molai 
widelv sejiarau'ii, i -:!u,.u:.l behind the Malleus--, audi-: 
firmed of a Jlwh/ and fuv Crura, one of which is termed 
the Short or Superior, and the other the Long or Inferior 
Crus. Tab. XIV. LXXV11I. LXMX. 

The Body has a Cavity and two Eminences, corre- 
sponding to the back part of the head of thi iMallens, 

turned downward ■., with the point a little flattened, aud 
bent inwards. 

The Os Orbiculare, or Len'tictilare, is the smallest 
Bone of the I'odv, being coiwdcralilv l< ss. than a grain 
of Mustard-seed/ Tab. XIV. Fig. !>. D. Tab. LXXIX. 
Fig. 10.11. 

It is articulated with the point of the long Process of 
the Incus, and is so firmly fixed to it, that it has been 
frequently considered as a Process of that Bouei 

The Stapes is named Irani a striking resemblance It 
has to a Stirrup. It is divided into Head, Crura, and 
Base. Tab. LXXIX. Fig. l'- J . 1.*. 




r IV. 

The Head is placed upon a small flat Neck, and is ar- 
ticulated with the Os Orbiculare. 

The C'ntra, like those of the Incus, are unequal in 
length, and have each a Groove on the inside, which 
gives insertion to the Membrane stretched between them. 

The Base is of an oval, or rather semi-oval shape, 
and has no Perforation in it ; its edges correspond with 
those of the Fenestra Ovalts, with which it is articulated. 
Tab. LXXIX. Fig. 27. Tab. LXXIXB. Fig. 28. 

The Stapes is placed horizontally, being nearly at a 

This Muscle is so small and tender, that its nature is 
known with difficulty. — Haller denies the existence of 

Muscular Fibres in it Sabatiek describes it, but 

doubts of its Muscularity. 

The Laxator Tympani of Albikos, a minute Sub- 
stance, arising from that part of the Meatus Auditoriu9 
to which the upper edge of the Membrana Tympani is 
fixed, and inserted into the Superior Extremity of the 
Handle of the Malleus, is considered by many Anatomists 
as a Ligament. 

The small Bones of the Ear are articulated with each 
other by Capsular Ligaments proportioned to their size, 
and are covered by Periosteum, which likewise fixes them 
to the Mcmbraua Tympani and Fenestra Ovalis. 

The small Bones have the following Muscles fixed to 
them, which serve for their different motions. 

Tensor Tympani, vel Interims Mallet. 

Origin ; From the Cartilaginous extremity of the Eu- 
stachian Tube, near the entry of the Artery of the Dura 
Mater. From thence its Fleshy Belly runs backwards, 
in a Canal peculiar to it, at the upper and inner parts of 
the Osseous Portion of the Tube, being covered only by 
u thin Plate of Bone. It sends off a slender Tendon, 
which makes a turn in the Tympanum, and passes out- 

Insertion : Into the inner and back part of the Handle 
f\ the- Malleus, a little below the root of its long Process. 
Tab. LXXVH.Fig.10. Tab. LXXVIII. Fig. 1. Tab. 
LXXIXB. Fig. 19. <-,/. 

Action: To pull the Malleus and Membrana Tym- 
*i.mi inwards, by winch the Membrane is rendered more 
tense, and more 'concave towards the Meatus F.xternus, 
and thereby better adapted for the impression of weak 

Laxator Tympani, vtl Exter/ius Mallei, 

Origin : By a very small beginning, from the e 
mity of the Spinous Process of the Sphenoid Bone 
hind the entry of the Artery of the Dura Rfater ; 
which it mos backward . and a little upwards, along 

i Chorda 

she outside of the Eustachian Tube, in a 
Os Tcmporis, near the Fossa which lodges 
t the Lower Jaw. 

Into the long Process of the Malleus, which 

the urn . 

LXXVU. Fig. 6. g. Fig. 9. b. Ts 

i lodged in a small ( anal at tlic upper part of the Ty 

VU. Fig. 6. g. ~ 

LXXIX. Fig. 19. 

Action : To thaw the Malleus nblifpicly forwards and 
wards, and thereby to render the Membrana Tympani 
convex, or to relax it when Sounds are loo sarong. 

Origin: By a minute Fleshy Belly, from a small 
Cavern in the Pars Petrosa, near the Cells of the Mas- 
toid Process, before the inferior part of the Fallopiak 
Aqueduct. Its Tendon passes forwards through a Perfo- 
ration in that Cavern, and goes into the Tympanum. 

Insertion : Into the posterior part of the Head of the 
Stapes. Tab. LXXV1L Fig. 10. c. Tab. LXXIX- 
Fig. 21. b. Fig. 28. i. 

Action : To draw the Head of the Stapes obliquely 
upwards and backwards, by which the posterior part of 
its Base is moved inwards, and the anterior part out- 
wards, and the Membrana Tympani thereby put upon the 

and is formed of the 1't.vtihh; Cmhltti, and Semicircular 
Canals, together with the Canalis Faxlopii and Meatus 
Auditorium Intcrnus. Tab. LXXIX. Fig. 19.21. 22.23. 

The Vestibk t named from its forming a Porch or En- 
try to the Cochlea and Semicircular Canals, is of an oval 
figure, nearly of the size and shape of a decorticated 
grain of Barley, and is situated at the inner side of the 
Base of the Stapes. Tab. LXXIX. Fig. 23. d. Fig. 
25. g. Tab. LXXIX. Fig. 28. 

There are three contiguous Cavities in tiie Vcstiblr, 
one of which, the Semi-wal, is situated above ; another, 
the Hemispherical, below ; and the third, or Su Inform, 
which is- the Orifice of the Aquxductus Vtslibuli, is pla- 
<ul bil.imt. Tab. LXXVU I. Fig. 10. 

In the Vestiblc there are several Holts which commu- 
nicate wilh the neighbouring parts, viz. 

The Fenestra Orr.V/.-. bunted at the onlside, by win. h 
it communicates with the Tympanum. Tab. LXXVU- 
Fig. 11. Tab. LXXIX. Fig. 1. 

A round link; .situated at the lore and under part, I V 
which it communicates with one of the Canals of iiic 
Cochlea. Tab. LXXVIII. Fig. 5. g. Tab. LXX1XA. 
Tig. 1. 

Five Similar luniwuin lulnnu. In wl ich w < onmmiii- 
cates with the Semicircular Canals'. Tab. LXXVIII. 
Fig. 5. Tab. LXXIX. Fig. 1. 

Part IV.] OF TILE EAR. 69 

Towards the Meatus Auditorius Iuternus, it has four they are performed b y numerous Holes. Tab. LXXIXA. 
or five Cribriform Perforations, for the transmission of Fig. 2. 
Nerves. Tab. LXXVIII. Fig. 2. t. The termination of the Lamina Spiralis, and of the 

The Cochlea is placed obliquely, next the anterior ex- Scala Tympani, forms a Hamulus, or small Hook, 
tremity of the Os Petrosum, and at the fore part of the which projects into the Infundibulum. Tab. LXXIXA. 
Vestiblc, in such a manner as to have its Base towards Fig. 1. 2. 

the Meatus Auditorius Interims, and its Apex in the op- One of the Canals or Scala; of the Cochlea opens into 
posite direction, or facing outwards. Tab. LXXIX. the under and ion: part of the Vcstiblc, and is termed 
Fig. 25. A, *. Kg. 19. &c Scala Vestibu/i; Tab. LXXVUI. Fig. 5. g. Tab. 

It has two Canals or Gyri, called Scala, from a sup- LXXIXA. Fig. 1.— .J. ; this is not shut by any Mem- 
nosed resemblance to a stair-case ; one of which is placed branc : The other, which is tin- smaller of the two, coin- 
on the outer and fore side, the other on the inner and municates with the Tympanum by the Fenestra Rotunda, 
back part. The Gyri are very close to each other, and but is shut in the Subject by a Membrane, and is called 
run in a spiral direction, like the Shell of a Snail, from Scala Tympani. 

which the part has obtained its name. Tab. LXXIXA. The Partition between the two Gyri or Turns of the 
Fig. 2. Cochlea, like the Osseous pan of the Lamina Spiral ic. 

The Cochlea forms two Circumvolutions or Turns and is formed of two Plates, with a small Cavity between 
a half, the first of which is much larger and wider than them. Tab. LXXIXA. Fig. 2. 

the other turn and a half, which become suddenly The Volute, or Spiral of the Cochlea, begins below, 
smaller, the whole approaching to a globular form. Tab. runs forwards, then upwards; and round, so as to form, as 
LXXIX. Fig. 25. Tab. LXXIXA. Fig. 1. 2. has been already mentioned, two Circles or Turns and a 

The two Canals are upon the same level, the inner one half, the direction of the Gyri corresponding with those 
next the Base, and the outer next the point of the Coch- of the Shell of a Snail. Tab. LXXVIII. Fig. 5. 
lea. Tab. LXXIX. Fig. 25. The Canals of the Cochlea are Conical, becoming gra- 

The Gyri go round a Nucleus, Axis, or Central Pil- dually smaller towards the Apex, where they communi- 
lar, which is nearly horizontal, and is formed of two cate with each other, through the medium of the Infun- 
hollow Cones, with their points turned to each other, dibulum. Tab. LXXVIII. Tab. LXXIXA. Fig. 1. 2. 
the one termed Modiolus, from its resemblance to the This communication is called by Cassebohm, who gives 
Spindle of a winding Stair-case, the other Lifundib-ulum, the fullest Treatise upon the Ear, CanaJa Scatarttm Co/n- 
or Funnel. munis. 

The Modiolus forms the inner and larger portion of the The Semicircular Canals are three in numbers—the 
central Pillar, and is that Cavity seen in the bottom or Superior or Vertical, — the Posterior or Oblique, — and the 
outer extremity of the Meatus Auditorius Internum. Tab. Exterior or Horizontal. Tab. LXXIX. Fig. lit.— 26. 
LXXIXA. Fig. 1. — 3. The Superior is placed transversely, in the upper pan 

It lodges the Branch of the Portia Mollis of the Se- of the Pars Petrosa, with its convex side upwards, 
venth Pair of Nerves which goes to the Cochlea, and is The Poskrivr is farther back than the i'muier one, and 
Cribriform, or full of small Holes, for the passage of the is parallel to the length of the Pal's Petrosa, with the 
Twigs of that Branch. Tab. LXXIXA. Fig. 2. 4. convex side turned backwards One of its extremities is 

The Modiolus consists of two Plates, with numerous placed above, and the other below, the upper extremity 
Cells and Passages between them, and terminates in the joining with the internal one of the Vertical Canal, by 
middle of the second Gyrus of the Cochlea. Tab. which a common Passage is formed. 
LXXIXA. Fig. 2. The Exterior is less than either of the other two, which 

The Infundibulum is an imperfect Funnel, the Apex are more of an eijual size, is placed next the Tympanum, 
of which is common with that of the Modiolus, and the and has its extremities and curvatures nearly upon the 
Base is covered by the Apex of the Cochlea, which is same plane ; — with the convex part of the curve placed 
termed Cupula. Tab. LXXIXA. Fig. 2. 3. backwards. 

Between the Scalte of the Cochlea there is a Partition, Each of the Cai 
called Lamina Spiralis, or Septum Scales ,- the larger a Circle, can admi 
portion of which, next the Modiolus, is formed of Bone ; slight Dilatation, an Ampulla, or Cavitas Elliptica, a 
the remainder, or that part next the opposite side of the one end, the other extremity being mark of the sami 
Scabe, is composed of a Cartilaginous Membrane, and size with Lhe rest of the- Canal. Tab. LXX1XB. Fig 
termed by Valsalva Zona Cochlea:. — This drops out by 2!). Tab. LXXVIII. Fnj 
maceration, so as afterwards to leave only a partial Sep- The Orifices are only ti 
turn. Tab.LXXTXA. Fig. 2. 3. nals having a common tt 

The Osseous part of the Lamina Spiralis is composed three arc situated at the- inside, and two at the outside of 
of two extremely thin Crib) if.i m Plates, which gradual- the Vestible, into flit posterior p;irt of which the different 
ly approach each other at their opposite edges, where Canals open, without being closed bj any Membrane. 

rii OF THE EAR. [Pari IV. 


In the bottom of the Meatus Audi tonus- Internus, In the Vestible, tUo Pulpy Membrane forms a Sac, 
which is situated in the posterior Surface of the Pars called Sacatlus Vestibvfi, in shape resembling that of 
Petrosa, there is a large under, and a small upper jRw- the Osseous Cavity which contains it, and which is de- 
w/a, separated by a sharp Ridge. Tab. LXXIXA. scribed and beautifully delineated by Scarpa. Tab. 
rig-.l. • LXXVIII. Tig. 13. a. 

The fore part of the inferior Fossula leads towards the When the Sac is laid open upon the upper and outer 
Cochlea, and i: 
through which 

seventh Pair of Nerves pass to the Cochlea. Tab. voso-membranaceum, 

LXXIXA. Pig. I. In the Cochlea, the Pulpy Membrane is in contact 

One Hole in the Centre, larger than the rest, trans- with the Periosteum, hut can be separated from that 

mils a Branch of that Nerve to the Infundibulum. Tab. Membrane without much difficulty. 

LXXIXA. Fig. 1. This Hole, however, is frequently In the Semicircular Canals, it is at some distance 

enlarged, in consequence of the Bone, which is extreme- from the Periosteum of these Bones, and is considerably 

ly thin, being broken while preparing it. smaller ; but, like them, it forms distinct Tubes, which 

In the back part of the inferior Fossula, four or five communicate with the Vestible. Like the Osseous, each 

Cribriform Holes appear, for the transmission of Branches of the Membranous Canals also forma an Ampulla, or 

of that part of the Portio Mollis destined for the Vestible Elliptic Cavity, at one end. Tab. LXXVIII. Fig. 13. 

; ,n.l Semicircular Canals. Tab. LXXLXA. Fig. 1. Tab. b—g. 

LXXVIII. Fig. 12 14. The Arteries of the Labyrinth arise by one or two 

In the upper Fossula of the Meatus Internus, there are small Branches, chiefly from the Vertebral Artery, and 

Two Passages, one posterior and smaller, transmitting pass through the Cribriform Plate, at the bottom of the 

Nerves into the Elliptical Cavity of the Vestible. Meatus Internus which belongs to the Labyrinth. Tab. 

The other, the anterior and larger, is termed Canalis, LXXIXE. Fig. 30. 

\-i I . ■■ttjitirtiuctus Fallopii, — from a resemblance it bears From the Labyrinth one or two Veins return, and 

to an Italian Aqueduct ; and serves for the transmission terminate in the end of the Lateral Sinus. 

of the Portio Dura of the Seventh Pair of Nerves. Tab. The Cavity of the Vestible is constantly filled with a 

LXXIXA. Fig. 1 . Tab. LXXVIII. Fig. 2. Watery Fluid called Aqua Labyrinthi, supposed to be se- 

The Canal of Fallofius goes through the upper part creted from the Arteries of the Periosteum, and which 

of the Pars Petrosa, passes dowuwards and backwards is found to resemble the Aqueous Humour of the Eye. 

between the Fenestra Ovalis and external Semicircular The Aqueous Fluid fills the Vestible and Seals of the 

Canal, and terminates in the. Foramen Stylo-mastoideum. Cochlea, and likewise surrounds the Membranous Semi- 

In -its passage through the Pars Petrosa, it communi- circular Canals, 
catcs with the Foramen Iimominatura, situated on the The Aqua Labyrinthi is considered as a medium by 
upper and fore part of the Petrous Process. Tab. V. «. which sounds are communicated from the Membrane fill- 
in Children, the Labyrinth is almost as large as in A- 'ing the round and oval Holes, and from the Base of the 
dults, its Substance complete and hard, while the Bone Stapes to the Pulpy Membrane placed in it. 
which surrounds it is soft and spongy ; on which account The superfluous part of the Aqua Labyrinthi is sup- 
it is easily separated from the rest of the Pars Petrosa. posed by Cotunnius to be carried oft" by two small Co- 

The different Cavities and Passages of the Labyrinth nical Dttcts, more particularly described by him than by 

. are lined with the Periosteum, which in the Vestible fills some preceding ■ViraUmiist'-, who ui.ii. partly acquainted 

(he Fenestra Ovalis, and of consequence covers the Base with them, but considered them as Blood-vessels, 

of the Stapes. One of the Aqueducts of Cotunnius, called Aqueduc- 

Thc Periostea lining the two Canals of the Cochlea, tun CockfeO>, begins at the under part of the Scaia Tvm- 

hy their union, form (lie Membranous Portion of the La- puni, near the Fenestra Rotunda, and, after puatafl 

mina Spiralis, which, together with the Osseous part, through tlie Pars Petrosa, is seen, in thr Figures he gives 

completes the Septum between the two Scake. ' ■ of it, terminating by a wide triangular Opening, upon 

The Periosteum of the Cochlea ;<lso assists that of the the Surface of the Dura Mater, between the parages of 

Tympanum informing the Membrane of the Fenestra the Seventh and Fighth Pair of Nrrvcr. Tab. LXXVIII. 

Rotunda, which is sometimes called Mcmbrana Tympti- Fig. IK. Tab. LXXIXA. Fig. 7. q. 

n* Secundaria from a resemblance to the Mcmbrana The other Duct, called Aqua ductus I't.-tibuli, begins 

Tympani, and from being also, like it, a little concave under the termination of the common Canal, in the Yet'- 

on the outer, and convex on the inner Surface or where tible, from which it descends, and terminates by a Tri- 

•t fices the Scalar to which it belongs. angular Opening between the Layers of ti.e Dura Miter, 

Besides the Periosteum, the Vestible, Cochlea, and behind the M.-atus Internus, ar.d half way between the 

Semicircular Canals, contain a I'vly... \ttmbrum\ or there upper edge of the Pars Petiosa iind Diverticulum of the 

h a Membranous Labyrinth, upon which the Portio Mol- Internal Jugular Vein. Tab. LXXVIII. Fig- ?■ & 

lis is irregularly dispersed. , 'fab. LXXIXA. Fig. 7. v. 


The Serves of the Labyrinth ait.' derived entirely from 
(be Seventh Pair. 

The Auditory Nen-e is composed of two Branches, 
one of which is called Portio Dura, and is harder than 
the other, termed Portio Mollis. 

The Trunk of the Auditory Nerve passes into the 
Meatus Interims, covered by the investing Membrane of 
the Brain. 

The Portio Dura goes through the Canalis Fallopii, 
Tab. LXXVIII. Fig. 14. *, sending off Branches 
through Perforations, in the sides of the Canal, to the 
Stapedius, and to the Mastoid Cells. 

One reflected Branch, passing through the Foramen 
Innominatum in the Pars Petrosa, forms a connection be- 
tween the Portio Dura and the second part of the Fifth 
Pair. Tab. LXXIXA. Fig. 7. t. 

Another, called Chorda Tympani, passes across the 
Cavity of the Tympanum, between the inferior Cms 'of 
the Incus and Handle of the Malleus, and, after running 
along the outside of the Eustachian Tube, joins the Lin- 
gual Branch of the Fifth Pair. Tab. LXXIXA. Fig. 6. 
In its passage it supplies the Muscles of the Malleus, and 
Membranes, &c. of the Tympanum. 

The remainder of the Portio Duia is dispersed upon 

— one to the Cochlea, the other to the Vestible and Se- 
micircular Canals. Tab. LXXVIII. Fig. 11. 13. 14. 

The Branches of the Cochlea pass through the Cribri- 
form Plates of the Modiolus, to the Pulpy Membrane 
lying on the Seals. 

The Branches run bet \t*n, .mil likewise on the out. 
side of the Partition.- wlmli divide tin Cochlea into Gyri, 
and the Gyri into Scalar, and are large and 
porportion to the part they supply. 


The largest a 

of these Branches 

dispersed upon ih<- C.uuma Spiralis, where tlicy 
intricate Plexiu, the I breads of which are at first 
but are afterwards of the colour of the Retina of I 
Tab. 13.14. Tab. LXXIXA 
The Brandies terminate, and appear also to me 
that part of the Pulpy Membrane which is most distant 
from the Modiolus. 

Through the Cribriform Plate, common to the Modio- 
lus and Infruidibuluro, the last Branches of ibii- Portion 
of the Nerves pass to be spread out upon the Membrane 
lying within the Infundibulum. — For a particular de- 
scription of that part of the Portio Mollis distrihuii </ to 
the Cochlea, and of the, Cochlea itself, see Da Monro's 
Treatise on the Ear. 

Of that part of the Portio Mollis destined for the Ves- 
tible and Semicircular Canals, one Branch goes through 
the posterior Hole in the upper part of the Meatus Inter- 
ims ; the rest pass through the Holes in the under and 
back part of i lu Meatus, already pointed out in the de- 
scription of that Passage. 

Having perforated the Foramina, the Nerves are seen 
first in distinct Plexus, after which they become transpa- 
rent, and are lost upon the Sac contaiued hi the Vesiihle, 
and upon the Ampulla: of the Membranous Semicircular 
Canals. Tab. LXXVIII. Fig. 11. 13. 

The Portio Mollis is the Primary Part of the Organ 
of Hearing, to which all the other parts are subservient, 
and may be regarded as being of the same service to the 
Ear, as the Retina is to the Eye- 
Sound is conveyed to the Portio Mollis, by the Exter- 
nal Ear, by the small chain of Bones in the Tympanum, 
by the Membrane Tvinpnni Secmidarii, by the walls of 
the Tympanum and Labyrinth, by the Bones of the Head 
in general, and by the Anna Labyrinthi, which commu- 
nicates the tremor directly to the Pulpy Substance of the 

C 66 ) 


i Views of the Oegan of He 

all from the Left Side. 

FIG. I. 

The Anterior Part of the Outer Ea 

«, „, „, The helix. 
b, b. The antihclix. 
t, The tragus. 
i. The antitragus. 
e, The lobe of the 

g, The scapha. 

FIG. 2. 

The Common Muscles of the External Ear. 

rt, The helix pressed a little forwards, that the postei 

muscles roay be more distinctly seen. 
6, 0, The posterior part of the concha, 
r, The attollens aurem. 
,/, The anterior aims, 
c, r, c, The retrahentes aurem. 

ditorius extemus.— </, Part of the 
) which the posterior part of the in- 

minosae, placed in a reticular sub- 

uithout glands. *«• 

wthe Membrana Til 


> the Anterior Part of the Cab- *' The laxator ^P" 
;e of the Ear. 

n, Tlie mastoid process. 

b, The styloid process. 

c, The bony part of the meatus extemus, half of which 1 
^ is cut oft - . 

(/, The membrana tympani in situ, viewed externally.' \ 
e. The long branch of the incus, which appears across 

this membrane, but is at a little distance from it. 
/, The handle of the malleus, which is joined to the back 

part of the membrana tympani. 

a, The helici-i major. 

to shew the Ossici 

'i/, attd bottom of the Tym 

o. The traiisvtvsus ami 

the antihclix and sou] 

h. The part belonging t 

situated on the parts opposite 
the scapha, composed of shorter 

i7. The malleus. 
b, The incus. 

f, The stapes been in front ; it; 
of the long branch of the in 
up the fenestra oval is- 
The fenestra rotunda. 
The bottom of the tympamu 

,/i fij The 
mtUts Gi-jinds, ** , the 

di-a-h, ;<„/■. , andthcp« 
..'■, 1 lie bony [■ 

which is the surface of 

-i .mil v.likh incloses the internal nnfficT^^ 



FIG. S. 

Beprcsents the Back or Inner Part of the Temporal 
Bone, os much of it being cut off as wits necessary to 
obtain a View <>f the Mumdkana Tympani, upon uhich 
the Back Part of the Malleus and Incus is shewn, 
uith the small Branch of the Nerve catted Chorda 
Tvmpani, and the Cavity upon Which the Head of the 
Malleus and the Body of the Incus rest, all in situ. 

a. The inner part of the squamous process. 

6, The mastoid process. 

<:, c, A section of the pars petrosa. 

d. The malleus. 

f, The incus, with its short branch resting upon the en- 
trance of the passage into the cells of the mastoid process. 

/, The chorda tympani passing between the long processes 
of the malleus and incus. 

g, The inside of the membrana tympani. 

FIG. 9. 

Be present* the Muscles of the Internal Ear, with the 
Ossicula and Temporal Bone in their natural si- 
tuation ; also Part of the Os Sphenoides. 

a, The laxator tympani of Albinus, arising from the up- 
per part of the edge of the tympanum. — It is inserted 

canal in which it i.-> lodged, to be iixed to the lovg 

process of the malleus. 
, The muscle of the stapes. 
; The incus. 
, The stapes. 
\ The malleus. 

, The aqueduct of Fallopius. 
, The foramen rotunduin. 
, The osseous canal placed above the EUSTACHIAN &be, 

for containing the tensor tympani. 
, '] in* ■ in pari of the Eustachian tube. 

, /, The places from which the membranous part was cut 



; of i 

the handle 

shorter process. — By 

merely as a ligament. 

b, The laxator tympani. 

c, The tendon of the tensor tympani coming 
small opening of the bony channel in which 

d, The .stapedius. 

e, The handle of the malleus. 

f, The long process of the incus. 

g, The stapes. 
A, The foramen rotunduin. 
i, Part of the auditory passage left entire, w] 

the squamous and mastoid processes. 
A, The under edge of the tympanum. 
/, The squamous process. 
in. The zygomatic process. 

0, Part of the os sphenoides. 

FIG. 10. 

The Tensor Tympani and Stapedius, with the Small 
Bones and the Temporal Bone in their natural si- 
tuation i also Part of the Soft Portion of the. Eusta- 

FIG. 11. 

Bepresentsthe Temporal Bone, the Squamous Process 
and Part of the Bony Passage being removed, and, 
in general, all the Parts of the Tympanum which 
might obstruct the vie if if the Pars Petrosa, uhich 
forms the bottom of the Tympanum. 

a, Part of the meatus externus. 

b, The promontory on the surface of the pars petro=a, 
which covers the scala tympani of the cochlea. 

c, The fenestra ovalis. 
d, rotunda. 

e, The osseous canal which incloses the muscle of the 
stapes, from which the tendon is shewn extruded, to 
be inserted into the head of the stapes. 

f, The circumference which was occupied by the mem- 
brana tympani. 

g, h, The semi-canal which incloses the tensor tympani. 
/, Half of the bony passage of the Eustachian tube. 

, '1 he i 


o. The teudon of that muscle coming < 


The Temporal Bone, pi 
to shew the Cochlea ai 
situ, and part of them c 

, The vault of the vestible. 

, The fenestra ovalts. 

, The fenestra rotunda open. 

, The lamina spiralis divested of the spiral canal whii 

covers it, and of the membrane which connects it 

the surface of the canal. 
,/, g, The three semicircular canals in situ. 
, t\ k, The tympanum. 
, /, The styloid, and, 
n, The mastoid process. 

( C8 ) 


Various Views of the I-V 

, Organ of Hearing. 

flcprr.:r-/f's the Far viewed Anteriorly, or where it looks 
towards the Face ; but inclined a little to the Occi- 
put, to obtain a more distinct I'icic nf the Four Small 
Bones of the Tympanum. 

a. The meatus auditorius externum. 

A, Thai osseous portion from tlie wall of the mastoid 
sinuosity, to which the shorter process of the incus is 

o certain length, to obtain t 
Rotunda, Membrana Tym 
the Four Small Bones. 

e. The circumflex r 

« , The osseous part of the Eustachian tube. 

rf, The anterior side of the cartilage of the Eustachian 

tube, from which the fleshy fibres of the tensor tympani f> l » c posterior semicircular canal 
take their origin. ft ,j, ie Ba ?^ m senucircuJar canal. 

r. The extremity of the Fallopian aqueduct, through "* J he exterior sen 

ich the poitio dura of the ; 

, The stapes, between which and the r 

i pair of nerves 7 > The ve stible, in the arch of which, from this part of 
the view, three of the five small holes are seen, which 
transmit nervous twigs into the vestible. — Under these 
is the fenestra rotunda. 

cus the os orbi- ^* *^' ie Dase °^ *' ie cocn ' ea i perforated by i 
small holes for the 

. alsc 

FIG. 3. 

Represents the Sacculus Vestibuxj, also the Zone or 
Lamina Spiralis of the Cochlea, and the Membra- 
ntift'nu.f St/iiicirrulnr C 'an als, joined to the PoHTIO 
Mollis of the Auditory Nerve -,—of the natural 

/, The posterior semicircular canal. 
vi. The superior semicircular canal. 
n. The exterior semicircular canal. 
(., The vestible, in the arch of which, according t 

part of the view, only two of these holes are seen 

which transmit nervous twigs into its cavity. — The 

three remaining boles are seen in the following figure. 
p, The canal of the cochlea. The Labyrin' 

(/, The fleshy part of the circumflex muscle of the palate. which looks 1 

r, The tendinous part of that muscle. the Fenesti 

,-, The- fleshy bell) of the int. rnal muscle ot the malleus. Parts are m 

t. The external muscle of the malleus. 

ft, The ehon!:i tympani. a. The poster" 

U>, The portiii mollis' of the auditory nerve, one part of l>, The superior semicircular canal 

which gne.-, to the cochlea, and (lie oilier, which is <li- r. The exterior semicircular canal 

vided into five twigs, to the vesiible , — two of these ( ', 'I In: tenesmi rotunda. 

twiu'- arc cut oil*, to obtain a view of the two boles in <-. ovah's. 

the arch of the vestible, through "Inch they entered. J\ The cochlea. 

FIG. 4. 

h inverted, so as to be viewed o 

i the Cavity of the Tympani 
a Ovalis and Rotunda are 

i- semicircular canal. 


ek. m. 2. 


FIG. 5. 

Shews the Labyrinth «f« on the side next the Brain, 
the Upper Part of the Vestible removed, fa obtain a 
View of its Cavity, and in it the Orifices of the Fenes- 
tra Ovalis, and the Scala Vestibuli, in sit it. 

a, Tlie posterior canal. 

b, The superior canal, 
r. The common canal. 

d, The exterior canal. 

e, e, e, The cavity of the vestible. 
/, The fenestra ovalis. 

g, The orifice of the scala vestibuli. 

FIG. 6. 

a, a. The condyle- of I In.- ur< ipital bone. 

b, 4, Holes for the transmission «\' ilic nmi li pair of nerves. 
e, The styloid process of the right side. 

d, d, The holes for the transmission of the internal jugu- 

a, The concave squamous portion. 

b, The extremity of the zygomatic process. 

c, The pars petrosa. 

rf, The meatus of the common canal of the nerves, called 
Men-tun Auditorim Internm. 

e, e, The upper portion of the superior semicircular ca- 
nal, which, in the foetus, is obviously elevated above 
the os petrosum. 

f, The superior portion of the posterior semi, irrnl.iv • 

nal, which, in the fectus, is in liken 

i- frequently 

g. The osseon-. tube of ihc aqueduct of the vestible. 
h, A cavity imprinted in the hone, receiving the cxtr 

niity of the osseous tube of (he aqueduct. 
if A bristle introduced into the foramen of the aqm doi 


e, e, 'Die holes for the entrance of the internal carotid 

f, The interior membrane of the nostrils, extending from 
thence to the pharynx ; — left in situ. 

g y k, g, k, The Eustachian tubes - t — g, g, Their osseous 

i, i. Their mouths, or large extremities opening into the 
back part of the nose. 

k, k, The internal plates of the pterygoid processes of the 
sphenoid bone, over tin inferior pur! of which the cir- 
cumflex muscles of the palate transmit their tendons. 

/, /, The external plates of the pterygoid processes. 

■#«, hi, The circumflex muscles of the palate, the tendon* 
of which run over the inferior part of (lie plates k, P, 
to be inserted into the velum palati and semilunar edge 
of the ossa palati. 

n, n, The levatorea palati muscles, the left of which re- 
mains in situ ; but the right is separated from its fel- 
low, and removed out of its place, that the progress 
and termination of the tube, and the insertion of the 
circumflexus palati muscle, may be distinctly seen. 

0, o, The foramina spinaliu, for tin entrance of the arte- 
ries of the dura mater. 

p,p. The foramina ovalia, through which the third 

branches of the fifth pair of nerves pass out. 
y, The temporal plate of the sphenoid bone. 

r, The ossa palati. 

#, s. The dentes sapiential. 

t, t, The internal or posterior foramina of the nose. 

FIG. 7. 

Shews the Os Temforis of a Foetus of nine months, en- 
tire; viewed from that part nhuli fbofts fa the Cavity 
of the Skull. 

/, The entrance, or arched margin of (lie inferior orifice 
of the aqueduct of the cochlea. 

m, A bristle introduced into this aqueduct. 

n, The foramen innominatum which leads to the Vidian 
canal, through which a leticcud branch pusses from 
the second part of the fifth, to the portio dura of the 
seventh pair of nerves. 

o, A part where small bluod-vc^els penetrate the sub- 
stance of the bone. 

p, A cavern found iu the fectus, under the superior semi- 
circular caual, which, in the adult, is contracted into 

q, The anterior wing of the upper side of the os petrosum 

covering the cerium of the cavity of the tympanum. 
r, /•, The joining of this plate with the pais squamosa. 

ificiev the Left Laeyiiintii entire, with the Common !■ Ca- 
nal of the JVekves, and the Aqueducts, seen on t he- 
Part which look* to the Occiput, mid laid oikii % the 
removal of the surrounding Bone. 

, The orifice of the i 

b, The tuber, under which part of the vestible and coch- 


, The posterior sc 

mi. irrular . 


Part of the cxte 

rior canal. 

this attitude of the, 


Tlie common caual formed 

by i!k 

union of the supe- 

riim anil jiosterioi 

■ canals. 


, The first part ol 

the- :n|ncili 

ici ofl 

te vestible, the size 

of the cavity of 

ultull does 

:eed that of a small 



, Part of the sail 

ie aoueduct 

, gradually increasing into 


ame p] a 

The broad cxlici 

cornn of the aque- 


, Tlie arched enll 

aaec of the 


ct of the cochlea. 
f. The 


»/, The inferior orifice of the aqueduct of the cochlea. 
«, The semi-canal descending through the anterior aiic 

inferior part of the above orifice. 
0, A small foramen through which the vena cochlea; passes. 

a, The roembr 

d, The ampulla of the membranaceous tube of the supc- 


e,f, The ampulla; of the other two membranaceous tubes. 

£, The sacculus vestibuli, or alveus communis of the 

"B . '»™ br » na « 0,,B tubcs ' . . . 

Figure, but here viand torn the Anterior Part, A, The membranaceous tube, entering, 

. s .' . .. . A -. V Thp rand cmiimnn n ip siinei'inr a! 

t the preceding 

vihere it is turned towards the Tei 
o, The anterior part of the common canal of the r. 
6, Part of the superior semicircular canal. 
e, The posterior semicircular canal, 
tf, The exterior semicircular canal. 
e, The vestible. 

/, The orifice of the common canal. 
g. The orifice of the aqua duct us vestibuli. 
h, The broad extremity of the same duct, corresp 
to Fig. 8. A, i. 
, The cochlea. 

., The canal common to the superior and posterior canals. 
k\ The sacculus vestibuli opened. 

/, Branches of the portio mollis of the seventh pair of 
nerves, to the ampullae of the superior and exterior 

7/i, A nervous expansion on the sacculus vestibuli. 

n, A nervous expansion on the ampulla of the posterior 

o, A pulpy expansion of the nerve in the bottom of the 

spherical sac. 
p, The sinus of the fenestra rotunda, at the beginning 

of the scala tympani 

ft, Part of the first circle of the cochlea opened from the o, The scala vestibuli, separated from the scala tympani 

vestible, to obtain a view of the lamina spiralis and scala:. by the lamina spiralis. 
i, The lamina spiralis, with the scala; on each side of it. 
to, The orifice of the aqueduct of the cochlea. 
?7, The broad extremity of this duct, answering with ± I O. 1-. 

Fig. 8. k, /. 

u. The can all s sup' rinr. 

- post 

rf, The elliptical cavity of the superior canal. 


_/, The orbicular' cavity of the posterior canal. the exteri 

£, The common opening of the superior and posterior h, The fenc: 
-canals. /, The cornr 

A, The other orifice of the exterior canal. internus. 

i, The osseous pyramid.- of the vestible. 
*, The semi-oval cavity of the vestible 
i, The hemispherical cavity of the vest 

rf, The elliptical cavity of the superior canal. 
f, That of the exterior canal. 

f, The orbicular cavity of the posterior canal. 

g, The common canal ; and before g, the other orifice of 

a oralis. 

i canal of the n 

to, The aulciibrm cavity of the vestible, or the orifice of /, The niarul 
the aouseductus vestibuli. «!, The foran 

n, The cochlea. 

o, The sinus of the fenestra rotund; 
p, The scala tympani. 

The foramina in the small fossula at the bottom of the 
meatus internus, for the passage of branches of the 
portio mollis 

brosa vestibuli. 

behind the hemispherical cavity of the 
estibte, for the passage of branches of the portio 

which goes to the ampulla of 

A View of the Labyrinth as in the former Fig> 

nified; with the addition of the Contents of the Ves. 
tible and Semicircular Canals. 

m, A canal for the ne 
the posterior canal. 

o, The cribijfuriii spin.! plate, through which branches 

of the portio mollis pas.' into the cochlea. 
p. The centre of the modiolus. 
mag- q, The beginning of the lamina spiralis of the cochlea. 
-, The beginning of the aqueduct of FALLOFIUS. 
', The cochlea. 



"lit vane. Section of (he Labyrinth with that represent- 
ed in the /firmer Figure, with the add it inn of the Al- 
veus Communis, the Membranaceous Tubes, and 
t/te Auditory Nerve. — The Parts much magiiijh d. 

The membranaceous tube of that canal. 

, The meatus interim.-, m common canal of the uervc 

, Tin portio mollis of tin.' se\entli pair of nerves. 

, Tlic anterior fasciculus of the |iorlio mollis. 

, A plexus formed by that fasciculus. 

, A guiHililVino L-isliir^cineiit of that fasciculus. 

, The larger branch of that fasciculus. 

, Tin.' smaller branch. 

i Filaments behind the bottom of the hemispherical i 

vitv of tin' 



, The posterior fas. 
, Filaments passing through tli 
forms the modiolus of the cot 

igh the begian 
he portio mollis 

i, t. The trunk of the seventh pair, or auditory nerve. 

,, Filaments (if llie purl to niolli-. of the seventh pair, to 
the spherical sac of the vestible. 

', The smaller branch of the portio mollis, to the am- 
pulla of the posterior membranaceous tube. 

W, I'llauients to the cochlea. 

'i, The larger branch of the portio mollis, to the ampulla; 
i>f the superior and cMerior membranaceous tubes. 

), The portio dura of the seventh pair. 

), The beginning <>\ the I :<m in. i spiralis of the cochlea. 

/, Tiie meatus auditorium interims, or common canal of 
the nerves. 

/■, The cochlea. 

/ I'ieivnf th,> Labyrinth and Seventh Pair nfS. 
of the Bight Sitlc. The Cochlea iscut oh its 
Part ; the Semicircular Casals are left entire, 
whole, as in the former Fignn , is much magnified. 

i of these nerves upon tlie soft pan 
is, in the first turn of the cochlea. 
.' above, in the second turn of tin 

nation of the scala tvmpani in the iufundi- 
' bulum. 

vcstibuli in the inlundi- 

l dura of the seventh pair of nerves, part of 

urn of ih<- 

n, The superior semicircular t 
6, The posterior canal. 
c„ The exterior canal. 





Additional Views of the Ear ; — all from the Right Side 

FIG. 1. 


the Membrana Mucosa, which covers it in a Foetus. 

a, The membrana tympani. 

e, The manubrium of the malleus, adhering to the mem- 
brana tympani, and shining through it. 

c, The membrana mucosa, separated from the membrana 
tympani, and turned upwards. 

(7, The ring of bone in which the membrana tympani is 

a, The caput mallei, i 
rounded by two emii 

b, The cervix. 

r, The processus hrevis. 

rf, The processus longus, in this specimen, as often hap- 
pens in the adult, terminating in the form of a spa- 

e, The manubrium, with its apex turned outwards and 


FIG. 2. 

FIG. 6. 

The Malleus of a new-born Child, 

( *Js 

c, A portion of the pars squamosa of the temporal bone, 

b, The annulus of the membrana tympani. 

c. The fissura Glaseb.1. 
</, The malleus. 

e , The incus. 

Two small arterious trunks are observed ; one emerging 
under the loug process of the malleus, arises from the 
ramus tympanicus of the temporal artery ; The other, 
which runs between the manubrium of the malleus 
and the long crus of the incus, springs from the arte- 
ria stylo-mastoidea. They join together by various 


The Arteries of the Perios: 

FIG. 7. 

The Incus of an Adult, of the Natural Size. 

FIG. 8. 
The same Bone magnified. 

a, a, The body. 

A, The foveola which receives the head of the malleus. 
r, The long crus which joins the os sub-rot undum. 
d y The short crus. 

The Incus of a Foetus of the Fifth Month, cut and 

FIG. 4. 

The Malleus of an Adult, of the Natural Size. 
FIG. 5. 

The same Bone magnified: The Surface which cot 

Sponds to the hug trm of the Iiittt'^, is a little < 

e ; that which answers to the Afcx of the Stajit 

ng.2 ***■/*■ 


The Stapes of an Adult of the Natural Sizt 

FIG. 13. 

The same Bone magnified. 

c. The basis. 
6, c, The crura. 

d, The apex which joins the ossiculum sub-rotundum. 
c, The membrane which occupies the space between the 

, The Under Part of the Temporal Bone, seen from the 
Outer Side, after the Annulus and Small Bones of 
the Ear have been removed. 

a, n, a, The edge to which the annulus and pars squa- 
mosa were connected. 

b-f, b-g, TiTe tympanum. 

6, The prominence between the vestible and cochlea. 

c, The promontory or prominence over the cochlea. 

<7, The prominence over the canal of Fallopius. 

c, The prominence over the sheath or receptacle of the 
muse nl us stapedius. 

/, Part of the tympanum belonging to the pari squamosa. 

ni-canal of tht 
A, The fenestra ovalis. 

£, Part of the Eustachian tu' 
/, The foramen styto-mastoideu 
rn. The canalis carolicus. 
n, The fossa of the jugular vei 

Pars Petrosa, and viewed from the Anterior and ^he Bottom of the Tympanum, with the Canalis Fal- 
Inner Side. lopii, and Receptacle of the Musculus Stapedius 

cut longitudinally. 

i groove of the 

G, The annulus membranae tympani. 
by The membrana, tympaiu adhering 

c, Part of the tympanum formed by the pars squamosa. 

d, The malleus ; its long process is placed in a groove of 
the annulus. 

f , The incus. 

f The basis of the stapes, the other parts of the bone 
not being seen in this view. 

g, The part where the pars squamosa joined the petrosa. 
h. The pars squamosa. 

(", The zygomatic process. 

FIG. 16. 

nanubrium, and long and sh 

c. The long process of the incus. 

d, The staptt fixed in tht fenestra ovalif. 
c. The fenestra rotunda. 

g, The exit of the canalis Fallopii. ^ 

A, The part which gives origin to the styloid nroo'-sp. 

e, Part of the Fallopian canal, which passes by the 

6, The exit of this canal, or the foramen stylo-mastoi- 

c, The receptacle of the stapedian muscle, or the emi- 

nentia pyramidatis tympani. 

FIG. 19. 

The Bone in the Bottom of the Tympanum, incrusting 
the Labyrinth, is removed with the Canalis Fal- 
lopii mid Eminentia Pyramid alis, that the La- 

byrinth may entirely appear. 


a —c t The labyrinth. • 

a r b, c, The semicircular canals ; ( 

exterior ; c, the posterior. 
d, TheVes^ble. 
c, The cochlea. 
f. The fenestra ovalis. 
.§, — rotunda. 

r, the 

superior ; 


FIG. 20. 

i", Part of the Eustachian tub.;. 
Vol. II. 


, A projection of the superior semicircular canal. 

, ■ posterior semicircular canal. 

, The meatus auditorius in t emus, or common canal of 

FIG. 21. 

The Ear, seen from its Outer and Fore Part, i 

The Pahs Squamosa, and the Bone which incrusted 
the Labyrinth and Common Canal of the former 
Figure removed. 

a — P, The labyrinth. 

a,b,c, The osseous semicircular canals ; «, the superior ; 
b, the posterior ; c, the exterior. 

d, The vestible. 

e, The cochlea. 

f. The meatus auditorius in t emus. 

i, A portion of the squamous part of the temporal bone. 

i, The mastoid, and, 

-, The styloid processes.' 

f, The under end of the condyloid or articular cavity, 

concealing the cavity of the internal carotid artery, 

and internal jugular vein. 
: — /;, The outer ear ; e, the helix ; f, the antihelix ; 

g, the lobe of the ear ; A, the concha. 
', i. The meatus auditorius, laid open to its bottom. 

a of the cartilage of the ear to the os- 

s part of the i 

3 groove, : 

satus extemus, and holloi 
connected to the under end of 
en shining through it. 

FIG. 22. 

A Section of the Canalis Nervorum d 
:, a, The longitudinal section of the canalii 

b — ■/, The bottom of the common canal divided into two 
unequal -si zed cavities, by an intermediate spine. 

b, The spine separating the two cavities. 

c, d. The larger cavity, the back part of which is op- 
posed to one of the gyri of the cochlea ; the fore part 
forms the base of the modiolus. 

e. The smaller cavity. 

f\ A foramen in the smaller cavity, which is the begin- 
ning of the canalis Fallopii. 
The other parts are nearly the same as in the former 
Figure— See also Tab. LXXIXA. Fig. 1. 

' : FIG. 23. 

/, The membrana tymp: 

the inner end of the 

its middle, where it : 

the malleus, which is 
m, A section of the ca: 
«, The point of the pars petrosa. At the underside of 

the membrana tympani, the labyrinth is exposed, with 

o, The superior, and, 

p, The exterior semicircular canal. 

q, The vestible. 

r, ;-, The cochlea. 

s, The beginning of the canalia Fallopii. 

FIG. 25. 

The Tympanum and Labyrinth, viewed from the Upper 
and Fore Part, after removing the Osseous Sub- 
stance which covered them, 

a, a, The membrana tympani, with the light shining 
through it from the outside ; shewing at the same time 
the boundary of the tympanum. 

b, The incus, with the os orbiculare at its under extre- 
mity ; the stapes being removed to procure a view of 

s and to the membrana 

.?—<•, The labyrinth. 

«, b, c. The semicircular canals ; a, the superior ; b, the 
posterior; r, the exterior. 

d, The vestible ; the letter points also at the bottom of 
the canalis nervorum communis, which forms the basis 
of the modiolus. 

c, One of the gyri of the cochlea. 

e, The cochlea ; the e under d is placed over part of the 
cochlea opposed to Hie fenestra rotunda. 

/', The beginning of the Fallopian canal. 

the vestible. 
, The malleus, joined to the i 

', e,f. The three semicircular canals laid open ; d, the 
vestible; e, the horizontal ; and/, the oblique canal. 

, The vestible, also laid open. 

, h, A section of the meatus auditorius internus. 

, The beginning of the canalis Fallopii. 

;—p, The different turns of the cochlea ; k, k, the scalar ; 
/, the lamina spiralis, complete behind ; the osseous 
part only is represented before ; m, the modiolus ; 
n, the partition between the first and second gyri of 
the cochlea; o, the second gyrus, in which are seen 
the two seals, with the lamina spiralis between them; 
/>, the infundibulnm, with the hamulus, or termination 
of the liimina '.piuli- pi'ojtctin;; into it. 

a, The 


q, The passage of the internal carotid artery, 
r, The point of the pars petrosa. 
s, t, The passage of the lateral siai 

it goes through the cranium. 
«, i', The cells of the bone. 

FIG. 26. 

/, /, A section of the bone, 
tn, The mastoid process. 
t, the part where «, A s 

, The r:un!i-. c-arotiaiH. 

A Section of the Temporal Bone nf n Can 
the Tympanum, with the Ossicula Tymp 
from the Fore, Liner, and Back Part. 

, The fenestra ovalis, the rotunda being concealed i 
this oblique view, 
rf, e,K A bristle put into the aqueduct of Fallofii 

n, The squamous process. 

/', The pari wliii h forms the. i'u'.urc ni.isKud process. 
c, The zygomatic process. 
</, A section of the pars petrosa. 
*?, The l'inj; of bum- which .surrounds, 
s entrance at the bottom of the meatus interims ; J, The incmbraiia tympaui. 
e, its continuation at the inner and back part of the g, The malleus, with its handle fixed to the membrana 
tympanum ; f, its exit at the foramen stylo-masloidcum. tympani. 
g, A section of the coihlea. /t, The incus articulated with, 

A, 7, 4, The three semicircular canals ; /;, the superior, i, The stapes, by the intervention of tlie os orbicular? . 
and i', the exterior, cut open ; k, the interior. J:, The vestible laid open. 


Views of the Organ of Hearing, continued.— All the Figures belong to the Right Side 
of the Head. 

Shews the Passages for the Branches of the Portio 
Mollis into the Cochlea and Vestible ; and the Ca- 
vity of the Vestible laid open, by removing a Portion 
of the Inner and Back Part of the Os Petrosum. 

a, o, A section of the os petrosum. 

b, b, The bottom of the canal, which contains the right 
branches of the auditory or seventh pair of nerves. 

e, The beginning of the canal for the portio dura of the 

d, e 7 A cribriform plate, through which the branches of 
the portio mollis of the seventh pair pass into the 

, The osseous septum between the first ami Mcond gynu 

of the cochlea, composer! of two plates. 
-, The osseous septum which separates the second gyrur. 

from the infundibulum. 
, The first turn of the osseous part, or root of the lami- 
na spiralis. 

slis cut, to -hew that it is com- 
ween which branches of the 
which afterwards pass through 
the edge of the under part of 

us part of the lamina spi- 

of the lamina spiralis?*!™ 

n, The second turn of the c 

n of that plate, forming the centre and 

bottom of the cavity of the modiolus. 
g y A, Cribriform plates, through which branches of the 

portio mollis pass into the vestible. 
?', i, The cavity of the vestible laid open by cutting away 

the bouc which covers its posterior part. 
/", The foramen ovale. 
/, A probe passed from the vestible into the scala vesti- 

buli of the cochlea. 
M, The anterior, and, n, the posterior opening of the 

superior semicircular canal. 
o, The upper, and, j>, the under end of the posterior se- 
lf, The termination of the tube which is common to the 

superior and posterior semicircular canals. 
r, The anterior, and, s, the posterior extremity of the 

exterior semicircular canal. 

, The hamulus, 

, The infundibulum. 

, r, The first and second scala of the tympanm 

, /, The first and second scala of the vestible. 

Represents the Cochlea, from the Fore and Outer Part, I 
after removing a Portion of the Os Petrosum. -^ 

c, The fore and outer side of the os petrosum. 

6, The basis of the cochlea. 

c, The scala tympani. 

</, The outer edge of the osseous part of the lamina spi- 
ralis, perforated by innumerable holes for the passage 
of nerves. 

mpose it. 
/, The scala vcstibulL 
g, The osseous septum which divides the first from the 

second gyms of the cochlea. 
h, The second gyrus of the cochlea. 
i, The hamulus of the lamina spiralis. 
*, The infundibulum. *. 

a, fl, A section of the os petrosum. 

A, Part of the canal for the internal carotid artery. 

c, c, The side of the cochlea viewed somewhat obliquely, 

d, e,f, £, The outer part of the modiolus, which is cri- 
briform or pierced with holes, for the passage of the 
branches of the portio mollis. 

ft, A wire passed between two lamellae of which the ino- 


;cr and softer part of f, The rise of the chorda tympani. 

lis. g, h. Small nerves connected with the chorda tympani. 

,(?,_/; The outer part of the lamina spiralis dividing /, The termination of the chorda tympani in, 

into its two constituent membranes ; rf, the part con- fr, The lingual branch of the third portion of the fif 
tinued to line the scala vestibuli ; and, /, the part con- pair of nerves. 

tinned to liue the scala tympani. /, The trunk of the third pair. 

FIG. 5. 

The Eak of a Child, so prepared as to shew the Nerve 
contained in the Canalis Pterygoideuso/ZAc Sphe- 
noid Bone, which joins the Second Branckof the Fifth 
Pair to the First Ganglion of the Great Sympathe- 
tic Nerve, and to the Portio Dura of the Seventh 

n, 6, c, The side of the nose and upper lip. 
d, The outer ear. 

f. The meatus externus laid open. 
/, The membrana tympani. 

g, The three semicircular canals. 
A, The cochlea. 

?", The tympanum. 

I; The internal carotid artery. 

/, The trunk of the fifth pair of nerves. 

m, «, o, The three branches of the fifth pair, the first 

and third of which are divided. 
p, The infra- orbit ar branch of the second or the fifth. 
q, Descending branches from the second of the fifth, 
r, The nasal branch of the second of the fifth running 

towards the inner part of the nose. 
^-, A branch reflected from the second branch of the fifth 

through the canalis caroticus. 
f, A branch from the branch s, which joins the portio 

dura of the seventh pair. 
n, A branch descending from s, to terminate in, 
t\ The uppermost cervical ganglion of the great sympa- 

FIG. 7. 

The Bight Posterior Part of the Liner Side of the Base 

of the Skull, covered, u-ith the IJi.'Ra Mater, in u hie li- 
the Membranous Cavity of the Aqujeductus Vesti- 

arisefrom it, and the Trun ks of all the Nerves which 

proceed from the Brain,_/>wj the Third to the Ninth- 

a, The principal artery of the dura mate 

b, The beginning of the spinal marrow 
the medulla oblongata. 

c, e t The right lateral sinus opened, the 
cut off. 

/, The remaining broader part of the lateral sings de- 
scending behind the right os petrosum, covered with 
the dura mater. 

g t The part under which is the extremity of the lateral 
sinus, terminating in the diverticulum of the jugular 

A, The triangular orifice of the superior petrosal sum?, 

by which it communicates with the lateral sinus, 
f, The posterior artery of the dura mater, 
i, The right nerve of the third pair. 
/, The nerve of the fourth pair, 
in, - fifth pair. 

FIG. 6. 

Vhe Chorda TtWTAVi joining the Por 
Seventh Pair to the Lingual Branc 
Portion of the Fifth Pair ; the Bon. 
it externally being removed. 


[o VvnA of the 
of the Third 
which covered 

, The portio dura of the s 

i, The portio mollis of the seventh pair. 

i, The nervus glosso-pharyngtus of the eighth pair, pe- 
netrating under tin tiHi.nKi of the inferior orifice of 
the aqueduct us cochlese. 

', The pars vaga of the eighth pair. 

, The nervus accessoiius of the eighth pair. 

, Its root from the spinal marrow. 

i, The nerve of the ninth pair. 

, The membranous cavity of the aquarductus vestibuli 

j, «, Small lymphatic veins, according to the author of 
the figure, filled with quicksilver, arising from the 
membranous cavity of the auueduct, and spread over 
the lateral sinus. 

( 78 ) 


Different Views of the Organ of Hearing, in addition to those exhibited in the former Table*,. 

Represent* I he Bet L I\rt of the Ear, the parts which 
connect it to the. Head) and the M< mhiavc ir/t it k line, 
the Meatus Externus: 

FIG. G. 

The Under and Back Part of a Portion of the Tempo. 

A, The squiii 11 on:- prm 

B, The st) kml ptnti;- 

C, The para petrosa. 

s fore part. 

FIG. 1. 

Represents MeEjSTERMAL Ear, with the Parotid Gland 
and its Ducts. 

TIil- letters of this figure, from A to H, point out the 

same parts shewn in Tab. LXXVII. Fig. 1. 
I, I, The parotid gland. 
K, L, The lymphatic glands. 
M, The duct of the parotid gland. 
N, The orifice of the duct opening into tlie cavity of the 


FIG. 2. 
Gives a View of the Posterior Part of the External 

Ear, the Meatus Externus, the Tympanum, with 

its Small Rones, and the Eustachian Tube of the 

Right Side. 

A, The glandule cerrnnhiosa?, with their reticular sub- A, The tympanum. 

stance. B, The fenestra ovalis, and, 

E, The incus. C, The fenestra rotunda, leading from the tympanum ti 

C, The malleus. the labyrinth. 

D, Part of the mastoid sinuosity, to which the short pro- D, The osseous part of the Eustachian tube; 

E, Its cartilaginous extremity ; 

F, Its membranous pail turned back. 

E, The chorda tympani. 

F, The membrana tympani. 

G, H, I, The Eustachian tube 

FIG. 8. 
Represents the Outer Part of the Temporal Boni of a 

A, The cartilage of the ear. 

B, The carl omewhat flattened. 

C, That part of the cartilage n li:< h Forma the beginning 

1. 2. 3. The three fissures of the cartilaginous passage. 

FIG. 4. 
The Back Part of the Ear, and the Upper Part of the 
Caktilaginous Passage, with the Ligament which 
ties the Concha to tlw Temporal Bone. 
I A, A, The back part of the ear. 

B, B, , concha, divested of the skin. 

C, C, The which terminate the cartilage in 

A, The pars squamosa. 

B, The zygomatic process. 

C, The para petrosa. 

D, D", The bony ring which x 

K-, The ligament of the e 

Represents the Temporal Bone, cut perpatHctdar^t 

downwards, in such a way as to shew the depth of the 
Tympanum, and the f esseh spread out upon the Mem- 
brane which lines it, together with the Cells of the 
Mastoid Process. 

A, B, The tympanum. 

C, The posterior extremity of the Eustachian tube. 

D, An opening from the cells of the mastoid piocess. 

i ■■■, * 
.^w J V.J 6 


FIG. 10. 

The Malleus, with the Eminence and Cavity which 
serve for its Articulation. 

a, Its head ; 

1. Its first 

2. Its seco: 

3. The cavity betw 

c, Its long branch, articulated with the stapes, by t]i<- 
Liifervt'iiiion of the os orbiculare. 

d, The handle of the malleus. 
i', The base of the stapes. 

FIG. 18. 

The small Bones of the Ear, viewed Anterior!} . 
(i, The head of the malleus ; 
A, Its handle , 

c, The long branch of the incus. 

d, The base of the stapes. 

e Malleus with that 

a, Tl»e body of the incus, witl 

for articulation, 
ft, The short branch, fore-shortened. 
c, The long branch. 

FIG. 13. 

A Lateral View of the Incus. 
a, The short, 
by The long process, 

c, The os orbiculare adhering to the long process, 
rf, The cavity for articulation with the malleus. 

FIG. 14. 

a, The long process of the incus. 

b, The os orbiculare. 

c, The head of the stapes. 

FIG. 15. 

Shews the Base, Crura, and Head of the Stapes. 

a, The head of the malleus ; 

b, Its handle. 

c, The external muscle of the malleus , 

d, Its insertion. 

e, The internal muscle, with its sheath opened. 

f, The curvature of the internal muscle, before its biii-r 
tion into the handle of the malleus. 

g, The large process of the malleus. 
A, The small process, into which the external muscle i 

FIG. 20. 

a, The malleus. 

b, The external muscle of the malleus. 

c, The internal muscle. 

FIG. 21. 

The Stapes, with its Muscle. 

FIG. \7. 

The small Bones of the Ear, articulated with each other, 

and viewed Posteriorly. 
a, The body of the incus ; 
6, Its short branch, seen in front ; 

A, The squamous process, the small bony fibres of which 
are easily distinguished. 

2. 3. The sides of its circumference, which are yet car- 

B, The zygomatic process. 

C, The mcinbrana tympani. 

D, The bony ring which receives the membrana tympani. 

E, The styloid process, as yet cartilaginous. 

F, The 


G, This letter marks an obscure line, which is the part 
where the squamous is separated from the iiMi-nm! pro- 
cess. These two bony parts are firmly united in adults. 

II, The ranLi! wlu.-ii im.-los-.fs the internal carotid. 

J, The foramen, where the tube which goes from the ear 
to the palate is connected. 

FIG. 23. 

Represents the Temporal Bone, front which the Squa- 
mous Part and Membrana Tympani are cut off, and 
an much of the Body of the Bone as is necessary to 
give* a View of the Tympanum and Small Banes, of the 
Jiar.—pw Tab. LXXVII. Fig. 7. 

FIG. 24. 

Represents the Inner Side of the Temporal Bone, '.nth 
as much of it cut of as' was necessary to shew the 
Membrana Tympani, upon which the Malleus and In- 
cus arc seen, with the Nerve called Chorda T.wpani, 
and the Tendon of the External Muscle of the Mal- 
leus s — all of them in situ. 

1— F, Point out similar parts explained Tab. LXXVII. 

Fig. 8. 
G, The meatus auditorium interims. 

1 . The tendon of the external muscle of the malleus. 

2. 3. The chorda tympani. 

FIG. 25. 

The Temporal Bone prepared, so as to shew the Cochlea- 
I'estih/e, and Semicircular Canals in situ— See Tab. 
LXXVII. Fig. 12. 

FIG. 28. 
The Internal Eah opened transversely 

, Fart of the meatus cxtenius. 
- membrana tympar 

, The base of the stapes, fixed in the foramen ovale. 
, The muscle of the stapes. 

, The orifice proper i'i I In.: .superior semicircular canal. 
, — — .i — i of the posterior canal. 

, The superior orifice of the exterior c; 
The inferior orifice of that canal. 
A section of the aqueduct of Fallot. 

a. The orifice of the superior semicircular canal. 
/', ■■ posterior canal. 

The orifice common to the superior and post trior CBBflls. 

rf, The o 

ifice of the exte 

ifice of that canal. 
/, The foramen ovale. 
g, The orifice of the scala vestibuli. 
h, The lamina spiralis. 

t\ The membranaceous part of the lamina spiralis. 
k, The perforated part of the cochlea, for the passage of 


FIG. 30. 

FIG. 27. 

A Section of the Mastoid and Petrosal Procet 

several Parts belonging to the Tympanum. 

a. The canal for one of the muscles of the malleus. 

b, A section of the Eustachian tube. 
- aqueduct of Fa'llopius. 

lamina spiralis, the membranaceous part being removed. 
ft, The ixlremilv, or hamulus, of the lamina spiralis. 
?', That portion of the pars petrosa which covers the 

/, The canal for the muscle of the stapes. 

g. The styloid process. 

h. The foramen stvlo-m.istoiiVnm ; the dotted lines run- 
ning from it mark the canal of the portio dura of the 
seventh pair of nerves. 

FIG. 31. 

The Cochlea, cut from its Base to i 

, a. The hone which incloses the cockles 


b, b. The modiolus, ornucteu-. 
c t The cavity of the modiolus. 
d, d, rf, d. The scala tympani ; 
<?, Its extremity. 

"a vestibu 

f the first t 
— the same is seen in the other tun 
A, The meatus auditorius internus. 
i, The aqueduct of Fallopius, 

The Temporal Bone of a Foetus of four Months, with the 
small Bones of the Tympanum, in their natural si- 
t nation. 

A, The malleus. 

b, The iucus. 

c, The os orbiculare. 
rf, The stapes. 

e. The canal for the muscle of the stapes. 

/, The foramen rotundum. 

£, The canal for the internal muscle of the malleus. 


k, The osseous ring, to which the membrana tympani i 

A Back View of the Temporal Bone of a Foetus. 

A, Thenars squamosa. 

B, B, The part where it is separated from the pars pe- 

Of The superior semicircular canal, seen without any 

D, The posterior semicircular canal. 

E, The point of communication. 

F, A considerable fossa, which in situated under the mi - 
pcrior canal, and which [■, lilied up and cllaced as the 
t'cutus grows older. 

G, The foramen in the j>a'=aqe oT [lie portio dura. 
H, — — — ^— ^ of the auditory nerve. 

FIG. 34. aud 35. 
See Tab. LXXVIII. Fig. I. 2. 


The Nose is divided into the External Prominent Part, 
and the Internal Cavity, which is separated by the Sep- 
tum Narium into two smaller Cavities ; — or it is divided 
into hard and soft Parts. 

The External Part, or Nose properly so called, is 
composed superiorly of Bones, interiorly of Cartilages, 
and lias a partial Covering from the Muscles, and a gene- 
ral one from the Common Integuments. 

On the outside of the Nose are observed, — the Badir, 
or upper part ; — the Dorsum, or middle prominence ; — 
the Apti, ur point ; — the Ala; or lateral moveable parts ; 
and L'-ihmuia, or interior pari of the Partition next the 
Tipper Lip. 

The Osseous Part of the Nose is formed by the Ossa 
Nasi, Ossa Maxillaria, and Os Front is; which form the 
upper and fore part : 

By the Os Ethmaides and Ossa Unguis, which form 
the upper, inner, and lateral parts : 

And by the Ossa Mai ilf aria Superiora, Ossa Palati, 
Os Split-mules, Ossa Spongiosa hiftriora, and Vomer, 
which form the under, inner, and back parts. 

The too Cavities, or Nostrils, terminate anteriorly in the 
Pace, and posteriorly in the Fauces, and are much enlarg- 
ed by the different Sinuses which communicate with them. 

The under and fore part of the Nose i moists of Fire 
Cartilages, of a somewhat regular figure, and of some 
smaller pieces, which arc more irregular, and of an iu- 

and the other four laterally. 

The middle I ;.i hinge i- tin; most considerable, and sup- 
ports the rest : It constitutes the Cartilaginous part of the 
■eptum Narium, and is joined to the anterior edge of the 

cess of the Superior Maxillary Bt 

Of the lateral Cartilages, two arc placed anteriorly, 
forming by their curved union the Tip of the Nose; and 
two posteriorly, which form the Alte Nasi. 

Between the anterior and posterior Cartilages, are 
Spaces tilled wilh the additional Cm tila;;i :-. the number, 
size, :md li-iire, \arving in different Bodies. Tnb.LXX. 

Fig. 6.4. 

The Elasticity of the Cartilages contributes to the de- 
fence of the Nose against external injuries. 

The Nose is covered by the Common Integuments, and 
licrfoiMted in its under and outer parts by the Ducts of 
Sebaceous Glands, the contents of which may be readily 
squeezed out bv the pressure of the Fingers. 

The Cartilages of the Nose are moved in different direc- 
tions, by the following Muscles on each side, which huvc 
liecii already ilesi lilicd ; viz. the Cotiiprcs.w Xiiriinn, the 
Nasal part of the Frontal Muscle, and the Levator and 
Depressor Lalni Supcrmris A/ayae W?,w'.— The Nose 
may also be moved by the neigh bo uriug Muscles, which, 
in many instances, become assistants to the others. 

The Internal Nares or Cavities of the Nose extend up. 
wards to the Cribriform Plate of the Ethmoid, and to 
the Body of the Sphenoid Bone. 

At the inner side, they are bounded by the Septum 
Narium, which is formed by the Nasal Lamella of the 
Ethmoid Bone, by the Vomer, and by the middle Carti- 
lage of the Nose. Tab. XIII. Fig. t. F, G, H, I. 

On the outside, or that next the Cheek, the Ossa 
Spouyio-a project a considerable way into the Cavities 
of the Nares, and increase the Surface of the Membrane 
of the Nose, for enlarging the Organ . T Smell ; and in 
Animals which smell acutely, the Ossa Spongiosa are re- 
markably large and complex. Tab. X11I. Fig. 1. a /. 

The bottom of the Nostrils runs directly backwards, 
or goes in a horizontal direction in the erect position of 
the Body, so that a straight Probe may be passed through 
either of them to the Throat. 

In the fore part of the Nostrils there are stiff Hairs, 
called ,' ibrissa; which prevent the Mucus from con- 
stantly flowing, and insects or other extraneous matter 
from entering. 

The general Cavity of each Nostril is divided by the 
Ossa Spongiosa into three Meatus; or Passage*, which 
run from before backwards, and arc described by Hal- 
L£R according to their situations, viz. 

The Meatus Narium Superior, placed at the upper, 
inner, and back part of (he Superior Spongy Bone. Tab. 
XIII. Fig. 1. between K and I. 

The Meatus Malms, situated between the Superior 
and Inferior Spongy Bones ; Tab. XIII. Fig. 1. o,p, and, 

The Meatus Inferior, situated between the Inferior 
Spongy Bone and Bottom of the Nose. Tab. XI1L 

Fig. 1.M- 

The inside of the Nose is lined with a thick Spongy 
Substance, termed Membrana Mucosa, or Membrana 
j-'itui/ariiiot' m-hneideji, or Mi mbrana SuineidEIUaWA, 
which adtieres to the Periosteum, and is also continued 
to Ihe different Sinuses, to the Lacrymal Sacs and Pala- 
tine Ducts, to the Pharynx, Palate, and Eustachian 

This Membrane is very Circular and Sereous, and is 
the Primary Organ of Smelling. It is constantly lubri- 
cated and preserved in a proper degree of moisture by 
the MilCUS of ' - 

lace of that Membra. .. 

The Passages of the different Sinuses of the Bones of 
the Head, after having run obliquely backwards in a. 
short winding din ction, terminate bv small openings in 
thi Candtyof the Nose. 

The Frontal M/.u.-c- -end Paiges downwards to the 
anterior Ethmoid Cell.-, which terminate in the upper 
part of the N""c, behind the beginning of the Lacrymal 


the posterior Ethmoid Cells, which terminate in the upper Tears to the Nose. 

nd, which corn- 
Tab. XIII. Fig. 3. G. 

and back, part of the Nose, 
Sphenoid Sinuses. . 

The Sphenoid Sinuses open, behind the Cells of the 
Ethmoid Bone, into the upper and back part of the Nose. 
See Fig. with Nerves of Nose, Vol. Ill . Tab. CLXXXI V . 
Fig. 1. O. 

The Maxillary Sinuses open at their upper and inner 
sides, each by one, and sometimes by two Passage, into 
the middle of the space between the Superior and Infe- 
rior Spongy Bones, nearly opposite (o the under edge of 
the Orbit. Tab. XIII. Fig. 1. y. 

At the upper part of the Maxillary Sinuses, Appendices, 
described by Hallek, are sometimes I 
municate with the Ethmoid Cell! 

The Sides, or Walls of thi 
formed of tliiu Plates of Bone, excepting where the Pro 
cesses project and give them additional strength ; aii( 
below, the Bone is so thin between them and the Dentei 
Molares, that the roots of these Teeth are sometime: 
found to perforate the Septum. 

The different Sinuses are lined witli a continuation o 
the Membrana Schneideriana ; but in these it is muc! 
tlmiiRT, ami less Vascular and Nervous, than that par 
of it which lines the general Cavity of the Nose. 

They are constantly moistened, but not filled with ; 

Their Passages being directed backwards, prevent ex 
traneous matter from getting into them. 

Lacrimal Groove. — This is formed by the Superio: 
Maxillary, Lacrymal, and Inferior Spongy Bones. In it; 
descent, it runs a little obliquely backwards to the lowei 
and lateral part of the Cavity of the Nose, where it ter. 
minates at the inner and fore part of the Antrum Maxi!. 
lare, under the Os Spongiosum Infer! u>. :l liuic Ixlnm 
the anterior extremity of that Bone, and in a direct liiu 
upwards from the second Dens Molaris. Tab. IV. No. 8. y 

The upper part of the Groove forms only a semi-canal 
the under end a complete one. 

The Lacrymal Sac is a Membranous Canal, situate*, 
in the upper part of the Lacrymal Groove, behind tin 
Tendon of the Orbicularis of the Eye-lid-; , about afourtl 
part of it above the Tendun, and forminu; a kind of In. 
testinum Cscum, and the rest below it. Tab. LXXIV 

Towards the inner Angle of the Eye, behind the Ten- 
don of the Orbicularis, the Sac is perforated by the La- 
crymal Ducts. 

The lower part of the Sac becoming a little narrower. 
but without forming any Valve, passes into the Nose. 
under the name of Canalis Nasal (>, Ductus nd Na.sui>:. 
or Lacrymal Duct, and terminates at the inferior i xtr< - 
mity of the Osseous Canal, by a round Aperture, largt 
enough to admit the blunt end of a Surgeon's Probe. 

The Structure of the Lacrymal Sac and Duct is similar 
to that of the Membrana SchneidehiaNa. They are 
defended by the same kind of Mucus with which this Mem- 
brane is lubricated, and are firmly connected to the Pe- 
riosteum of the Osseous Canal. Tab. IV. No. 8. y. 

The Use of this Passage is,— to convey the superfluous 

a prevent them from parsing 
over the Cheek. 

The Ductus Jiu^ivus^x-l Swato- Palatums ofSiEKO, 
is a small Canal, which, as has beep already observed in 
the Description of the Bom.^, is only sunselnnt-s met with 
in the Human Body, and even then it is very minute, 
though it is alwavs to be found, and of considerable size, 
iii the Ox, Horse, Sheep, &c. 

md Branch of the 

e. The Mucus defends tl 
inked, from the Air whkl 
ey are kept moist, and frt 
g acrid, it irritates them, 
sin oval. 
\ir, Hllcd with subtle Efflir 

( 84 ) 


MOUTH. The Nerves come from the first and second Branches 

of the Fifth Pair, and also from the Portio Dura of the 

The Osseous Parts of the Mouth are, — the Ossa Seventh Pair. 

Maxi/laria Superiora, the Ossa Palati, the Maxilla In- The Palate, or Roof of the Mouth, is divided into 

ferior, and the Teeth ,— all of which, except the Teeth, the Palatum Durum and Palatum Molle. The former 

have been already described. is composed of the Palate-Plates of the Superior Maxil- 

The Soft Parts of the Mouth consist of the Lips and lary and Palate Bones, and is covered by the Periosteum 

Cheeks, the Gums, the Palate, the Velum Palati, the and common Membrane of the Mouth, which prevent the 

Uvula, the Tongue, the Membrane liuing the Mouth, Bones from being injured, 

and the Salivary Glands. The Membrane which covers the Bones of the Palate 

The Lips and Cheeks, which are principally composed has a middle longitudinal Line, and numerous transverse 

of Muscles, are covered on the outside by the common<v, which assist in the division of the Food. 

Integuments, and lined within by the Membrane of the It is nearly of the same structure with that of the Gums, 

Mouth, under which there are numerous Mucous Glands, but perforated by the Ducts of the Palatine Glands, for 

obtaining their names from their situations. the excretion of Mucus, which serves to lubricate the 

The Lips possess but a small proportion of Fat, much Palate, mid assists in dissolving the Food, 

more of it is found in the Cheeks ; and the intervening The Palatum Molle, Velum Pendulum Palati, or Soft 

space between the Masseter and Buccinator is occupied Palate, is that part which projects from the posterior 

by a large quantity of it, which, while it gives shape edge of the Ossa Palati, and from the Pterygoid Processes 

to the Face, forms a sort of Cushion about the Mucous of the Sphenoid Bone, over the root of the Tongue, and 

and Salivary Glands. forms a Musculo-Membnmous Partition between the Nose 

The Membrane of the Mouth is covered with fine and Mouth. Tab. XLVII. Fig. 10. d,d. Tab.LXVIII. 

Villi ; but these are most conspicuous upon the edges of No. 47. 

theLips,asmay be distinctly seen after a minute Injection, It is compiled of the Membranes which line the Nose 

or after mamvini,; ihc paris till the Cuticle can be &e- and Mouth, and of the Kxpan-imis of the Circumflexi 

parated. Tab. LXXVI. Fig. 13. and Levatores Palati, and likewise of numerous Mucous 

From the edges of the Lips, the common Internments, Glands which serve fn InhncaU tin Mi'tnh and Throat, 
now become extremely thin, are converted into the Mem- 
brane which lines the Mouth, and which, opposite to the 

Dentes Iocisores of the Upper and t'nder Jaws, forms The Palatum Molle 

two Doublings or Frana, which /fix the Lips more firmly into the Mouth, and acts like a Valve 

to the Jaws. we swallow From passing into the Nose 

The Lips are serviceable iu the general purposes of InJhe middle of the 'Posterior edge of the Velum IV 

Speaking, rating, Drinking, &c. kti, the Uvtllr. or Pap of the Throat takes its origin. 

The Gums cover the sides of the Alveolar Border of and hangs pendulous from the Velm 
both Jaws, pass in between the different Teeth, ' 
round and adhere firmly to the Collar of each. 

The Substance of the Gums is of a nature, and It is of a Conical form, and js covered bv the Mem- 
very Vascular, und the Vessels arc united bv a compact Wane of the Mouth. Numerous Mucous Glands are 
Cellular Texture. found in its Substance, and it has a small Mu-clc within 
They may be said to consist of the common Membrane it, bv which it is elevated and shortened ;_its other mo- 
ot the Mouth and the Periosteum of the Jaws intimately lions depending upon the Muscles of the Palate. 
connected. The < -i o! lis- t\nla, in Speaking ;n;d in Ue-lutitior. 

. They serve as a Covering to (he Jaws, and icntribnlc is evidf nt !. ■ . t ■ * i v « ni..nee> which result from its 

to the security or the Teeth. being!!, troyedl disease, 

The Arteries of the Lips, Cheeks, ami Gums are hum The hh r t - ef llie 1'alatc, &c. conic from the Facial 

the Facial, Temporal, and lutepial Maxillaries, which and internal Maxillary, 

are derived from the External Carotids. The Veins ; -o to the External and Lift rnal Jngulars 

The Veins-go chiefly to the External, and partly to The ,Vmw are elmilv linn the ■•• eond of the Fifth, 

the Intisrnal Jugulars, with some Twig- from •!.'-■ Fl^/h I'.dr. 


The Tungue is of an oval firm, and is divided into 
Base, Body, and Apes. 

The Base, or posterior part of the Tongue, is sup- 
ported by, and connected lo, the Os Hyoides, and, by 
the medium of this Bone, it is counected to the adjacent 
Bones and Muscles. 

The Body, or middle part of the Tongue, terminates 
anteriorly in the loose moveable point. 

On the Dorsum or Upper Surface, there is a Jjinea 
Media?ia, or middle Groove, naming longitudinally, and 
dividing it into two lateral Convexities. 

The inferior Surface, which reaches only from tiie 
middle of the Tongue to the point, is connected to the 
parts below it by the Sublingual Ligament, or Framum 
Lingua; which is a Doubling of the Skin or Lining of 
the Mouth. 

The sides of the Tongue are fixed to the Lower Jaw, 
and to the Styloid Processes and parts adjacent, by Mem- 
branous Ligaments. 

The Tongue is chiefly composed of the Fibres of the 

Muscles, which serve for its motions These Fibres are 

disposed in various directions, and intermixed with Me. 
dullary Fat. 

The upper and lateral parts of the Tongue arc com- 
posed of the Stylo-glossi. — Its middle portion, between 
the two former Muscles, is formed of the Linguales. — 
The lower port is chiefly formed of the Genio-glossi ; — 
and behind, the Stylo-glossi enter into its composition. 
Tab. XLIX. Fig. 4. 

The Tongue is covered by a continuation of the Com- 
mon Integuments, which are preserved soft and moist 
by the Saliva. 

The Cuticle of the Tongue forms Vagina; for receiving 
the Substances called PapilitB, and is here BO remarkably 
thin, as to be properly adapted to the office these Bodies 
have to perform. 

The Corpus Mucosum of the Tongue is thicker than 
in other parts of (he Body, but more moist. 

The third Covering of the Tongue, the Cutis Vera, 
is plentifully supplied with Nerves.— The Papilla;, which 
take their origin from it, are very Vascular, espeeraliv 
near the Apex of the Tongue, but are wanting on its un- 
der Surface. 

The Papilla- an- dividtd into three kinds, the Maxi- 
ma*, Media?, and Minima. 

The first class, called Papilla Maxima-, Ltnticnlares 
I'rtpi/nt,.; \.\ I ctlata; are by much the largest, and of a 
Lenticular form, having round Heads and short btwi.i". 
Tab. XLIX. Fig. 5./. 

They arc placid at the base of the Tongue, in suprr- 

3 point back« 


ihem l»as a small Perforation in the middle of its convex 

Besides the Papilla; Capitata;, there are numerous 
Mucous Follicles, which cover the greater part of the 
Surface of the root of the Tongue. 

At the root of the Tongue, and behind the Angle 
formed by the Papilla: Maxims, there is a Hole called 
Foramen Cacum of Morgagni, by whom it was first 
described. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 8. m. Tab. LXXXI1. 
Fig. 20. 

It penetrates only a small way into the Substance of 
the Tongue, and receives the Mouths of several Excre- 
tory Ducts which terminate in it. 

The second class, called Papilla; Media; Semi-lent i- 
cufares, vel Ftmgtformes, are much smaller than the 
former, and are scattered over the upper Surface of the 
Tongue, at some distance from each other. Tab. 
LXXXII. Fig. 20. 

They are of a cylindrical form, supported on a small 
Pedicle, and terminated by a round extremity. Tab. 
LXXXII. Fig. 17. 20. 

The third class, called Papilla; Minima, vel Conic*, 
vel Villosa, are by much the most numerous, but very 
minute. They occupy almost the whole upper Surface 
of the Tongue, becoming gradually shorter at its sides, 
and are most abundant towards the Apex, where the 
seusation of taste is most acute. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 8. 
Tab. LXXXII. Fig. 20. 

This and the second class have been supposed to be 
formed chiefly of the extremities of Nerves, and to con- 
stitute the real Organ of Taste. 

The principal Blood-vessels of the Tongue are large 
in proportion to the size of that Organ. 

rhey are called Linguales, vel Ranin<z, on account 
of the dark-coloured Branches which uppe.u- under :\ ■■ 

The Arteries, which are Branches of the External 
Carotids, are not found to communicate so freely on the 
opposite sides of the Tongue, as they do ia other pans of 
the Body. 

The Veins open chiefly into the External Jugulars. 

The Nerves* like the Arteries, are large and numerous, 
and have little connection on i]u- opposite sides. 

They come from the Fifth, Eighth, and Ninth Pairs. 

The first set supply the parts next the point of the- 
Tongue, and are therefore con-idercd ;>.s Inang principally 
concerned in convcv in;'- the sens-i'-iou of Taste. 

The second set "supply the root, and the third the 
middle of the Tonrue, and arc diiellv dispersed upon its 
Mu-eles. There is a considerable intermixture, however, 
between the three sets on the same side. 

Besides being the principal Organ of Taste, the 
Tongue is the chief in-trumui: of Snetch, ai.d of the ar- 
ticulation of tin- \oicc— It also assists in Munducation, 
Deglutition, Spilling Sucking, &. 

"When a Sapid Huh is anrlied to :!.<■ Papilla-, they arp 


[Part IV. 

supposed to be erected, and thereby to render tins sense 

more acute; and, by being constantly moistened, the;, 
,„ ..f,.,ni, (he office of Touch more exquisitely than the dry 
(.'ut uncoils Papilla; of the other parts of the Body. 

Though the Tongue is the principal Organ oi Taste, 
other parts, as the Palate, and even the Pharynx and Eso- 
phagus, possess the faculty of Taste in a certain degree. 

Salivary Glands. 

The Salivary Glands consist of three large Glands on 
each side of the Face, viz. — the Parotid, the Submaxil- 
lary, and the Sublingual, — besides many small Glands 
named from the parts to which they belong. 

They are of a pale red and yellowish colour, and irre- 
gular ou their Surface, being of the Conglomerate kind. 
They arc divided into Lobes, and each of these into mi- 

The Parotid Gland, which is the largest of the Sali- 
vary Glands, is named from its situation near the Ear. 

It occupies the whole space between the Ear, Mastoid 
aad Styloid Processes, and Angle of the Lower Jaw- 
Tab. LXXX. Fig. 1. m. Fig. %. P . 

It extends superiorly to the Zygoma, and anteriorly to 
ilu: M.i'-iifr, part of which it covers, though by a thin 
expansion only. 

The uuder end of it lies contiguous to the Submaxillary 

It is somewhat of a triangular form, but longest from 
above downwards ; is flattened externally, and is covered 
by a condensed Cellular Substance, which gives it a whit- 
ish appearance. When the Gland is removed, the Trunks 
of the External Carotid Artery, and corresponding Vein, 
the posterior Beliy of the Digastricus, and part of the 
Sterno-iuaHtuitleiii, are exposed. 

From the different Lobes of the Glaud, numerous 
small Branches arise, which join together to form a 
large Duct, sometimes called Steno's Salivary Duct, or 
Ductus Si-ptrior, which passes from the upper and lore 
part of the Gland. 

The Parotid Pi;< t ii of a white colour and large size, 
but, from the ihi. kucss of ith Coals, the Cavity is small, 
in proportion to the general size of the Duet. 

It traverses the Masseter about its middle height, 
where the Muscle ;•. Tendinous, in consequent e of which 
it is free from compression ; and descends a little to per- 
forate obliquely the Buccinator, and Membrane of the 
Mouth, by an Orifice without any Papilla, opposite to 
the second or third Dens Molaris of the Upper Jaw. 

In crossing the Masseter, it occasionally receives one, 
sometimes two minute Ducts, from an equal number of 
small Glands, called by Hallek Glandultc iccessoria; 
Tab.CXXXV. O. 

In the vicinity of the Parotid, some Lymphatic Glands 

Jer ext 

frequently swelled in Scrofulou: 

The Submaxillary Claud is .-mailer and rounder than 
the Parotid, and is situated on the inside of the Angle of 
the Lower Jaw, between it and the Tendon of the Di. 
gastricus, and direct Iv under the Plalysma Myoides. Tab 
LXXX. Fig. 1 -'..*. Tab. CXX-XI. D. Tab.CLXXXVD. 

From the upper and fore part of this Gland, a Duct 
arises, culled by some Authors hiatus Whartoni, vel 
Dtwtu.t />'frri>.-r, which is much thinner in its Coats than 
the former Duct, but longer. 

It passes forwards between the Mylo-hyoideus and 
Genio-glo3sus, along the under and inner edge of the 
Sublingual Gland, to the side of the Fraenum Lingua, 
and terminates behind the Denies Incisorea, by a small 
Orifice in form of a Papilla. 

The Sublingual Gland is smaller, longer, and softer, 
than the Submaxillary, and is flat, and of an oval form. 

It is situated under the anterior lateral portion of the 
Tongue, its upper edge projecting into the Cavity of the 
Mouth. It is placed above the Duct of the Inferior 
Maxillary Gland, and under the Gustatory Nerve, near 
the Lower Jaw, between llie M yio-hyoideus and Geaio- 
hyo-glossus ; the former of which sustains it. Tab. 
LXXX. Fig. "4. /. 

Its extremities are turned forwards and backwards, 
and the edges obliquely inwards and outwards. 

It is covered by a continuation of the Skin of the under 
side of the Tongue, which fixes the Gland in its place. 

It opens by several Orifices arranged in a line near the 
Gums, a little to the outside of the Franum of the 

Sometimes this Gland sends off a Duct which commu- 
nicates with that of the Submaxillary ; but generally it ia 

In many Quadrupeds, there is a distinct duct belonging 
to tliis Gland, like that of the Submaxillary. 

The smaller Glands of the Mouth are in great num. 
hers, iviui; between ilie inner lining of (he Mouth audits 
Muscles, and deriving their names from their situations. 

They are much inferior in sue to the former, each 
funning a simple little Lobe, which is somewhat flattened, 
or Lenticular. F'.ach Gland sends out a Duct, which 
perforates the Skin of the Mouth, and opens into its 
Cavity. They consist of — 

The Bitccales, which are dispersed over the whole ftf 
the Cheek, but most plentifully near the termination of 
the Parotid Duct ; 

The Molares, which are in a group, and are part of 
tted opposite to the large superior Denies 


The Labr'ates, lying on the inside of the Lips ; 
The Palatina; upon the Palate j and, 

The Lingua/es, at the root of the Tongue. 

The Arteries of the Salivary Glands are from diffe- 
rent Branches of the F.xternal Carotids. 

The Parotid Gland is supplied from the Temporal, the 
Inferior Maxillary Gland from the Facial, and the Sub- 
lingual Gland from the Lingual Artery. 

OF THE MOUTH, &c. 8/ - 

ng Edgo= and grinding Surfaces of the Bodies, but 
ed at the sides of these, with the convex part turned 
Fifth, and from the Fori io Dura of (he .Seventh Pairs, towards the Fangs of the Teeth, which hotter enables thein 
The latter Nerve perforates the Parotid Gland in such to resist the impression of hard Substances placed between 
a maimer, that it must unavoidably he divided in the ex- Ihem during manducation ; nor are they, from this struc- 
tirpation of the Gland. ture, so apt to exfoliate bydisc;i-e, imr'sg L . a -,jlv fc-clured 

The Salivary Glands serve for the secretion of the Sa- by the inordinate motion of the .laws. 
liva, which they pour out in large quantity, and which Near the point of each of the Roots cf the Teeth, 
is promoted by the motion of the Lower Jaw during there is a Foramen, and a parage leading IVoin it into a 
nianducation. 'The Saliva is found to consist of water, common Cavity in the Body of the Tooth, for lodging 
in which are dissolv.d Albumen, Mucus, and certain Sa- the Substance c ailed iVy; of liicTeeih. Tab. LXXIXBB. 
line Sub! mees, in various [import ions. Fig. 1. 2. 

The Saliva assists in the solution of the Food in the The Foramen is placed towards one side of the point. 
Mouth, in lubricating the Throat for its passage dovwi- which prevents the Vessels and Nerves entering from bc- 
wards, and in the digestion of it in the Stomach. ing injured by pressure here. 

In old people, the Foramen is sometimes obliterated , 
OF THE TEETH. ni sucn C3ses lne Vessels and Nerves are destroyed. 

The shape of the Cavity resembles that of the Body 
Of the Structure of the Teeth in the Adult. °f the Tooth, being narrow next the Fangs, and gra- 
dually expanding towards the opposite extremity. Tab. 
The Teeth are situated in the Alveoli or Sockets of LXXIXBB. 
the Jaws, and are sixteen hi number in each Jaw, though, The Cavity has no Cancelli nor .Marrow, being filled 
in some instances, one or two Teeth more or less thau with the Pulp, which is inclosed in a fine Membrane, 
this number appear, and chiefly at the fore part of the connected to the Tooth by Cellular Substance. 
Jaw. Tab. XIV. The Pulp consists of minute Vessels and Nerves, in- 

Each Tooth consists of a Base or Body, and one or termixed with Gelatinous Matter, the remains of that 
more Hoots or Fangs ,- the former appearing without, the which gave origin to the Tooth. 

latter within the Sockets. Tab. XIV. The Arteries of the Teeth, called Dental, are Braiich- 

Around the Surface, where the Body ends and the es of the Internal Maxillary ; the Veins returning from 
Root begins, the Tooth is a little contracted where it them pass into the Internal Jugular Veins. 
forms the Cervix or Collar of the Tooth. The Collar is After the Arteries have entered the Teeth, they are 
connected to the Socket and Gum, which closely em- dispersed upon the Membrane which lines their Cavity, 
braces it ; and which being destroyed, from whatever Tab. LXXIXBB. Fig. G. as may be seen by injecting 
cause, the Teeth are apt to drop out. Tab. XPV. them.— Then 1 \ a-eulavity j- ;d*o proved In i lie appearance 

The Boots are of a Conical form, Tab. XIV. becom- produced by age, the Cavity in old people often tilling up 
ing gradually smaller as they recede from the Body of with Osseous Matter, and the Teeth acquiring a horny 
the Tooth, in consequence of which, pressure is removed transparency ; — by accident, as when a Tooth is Joo.ened 
from the tender parts placed at their points, and divided by a blow, the Tooth being sometime; lixed again in its 
equally over the Surface of the Fangs. The Hoots are Socket, ;>t other times Incoming bia< k, from its nouri sh- 
ine rusted by a thin covering, harder than the rest of their ing Vessels being destroyed ; — bv disease, as Fxo t isis, 
Substance. or in Anchylosis of the 'Roots of the Teeth, <-r iu s -e 

Upon the Body of each Tooth, there is an additional rare cases, of the Roots of one Tooth to those nex' it ; 
covering, termed Cortex Striata, or Enamel, which is but especially by the Blood which is observed by Deniis s 
spread over all that part of the Tooth chut, in the healthy to issue from the Cavity of the Teeth in sawing them li- 
st ate, is not covered by the Gums. Tab. LXXIXBB. cross, for the purpose of fixing other Teeth. 
Fig. I. 2. The Nerves of the Teeth arc from the Fifth Pair, 

The Enamel is of a white colour, and insensible, and those of the Teeth of the Upper Jaw being from the Se- 
so hard, that a Saw or a File impresses it with difficulty, cond, and those of the Teeth of the Lower Jaiv from 

The action of Fire does not much affect its colour. It the Thud Branches of that Pair. 

is almost completely dissolved in the Acids. In the Upper Jaw, the Nerves enter through various 

It is thicker towards the cutting and grinding Surfaces, parts of the OssaMaxillam Superlora, Tab. LXXIXBB. 

and becomes gradually thinner towards the Cervix of the Fig. 5. In the Under Jaw, the Trunk which furnishes 

Tooth. the Dental Nerves is lodged in the inferior Maxillary 

It is composed of Fibres so disposed as to form Radii Canal. Tab. LXXIXBB. Fig. 4. 
round the Body of the Tooth ; or they are nearly per- The Nerves which supply ihe Teeth, though small, 
jK-ndicular to its Surface. Tab. LXXIXBB. ' can be observed to cuter the Foramina at the points 

The Fibres are remarkably Email and ptraiglit on ihe of the Fangs, and by properly preparing the Teeth, can 

p ' * i in m 

or THE MOUTH, fee, 

[Part IV. 

be distinctly traced in their Osstous Canals. Tab. 
LXXIXBB. Fig. 5. 

The Absorbents of the Teeth have not been seen, but 
their existence is proved, — by the Absorption of the 
I'angs of the Temporary Teeth during the second Den- 
ial of part of the Teeth in eoni-eipicnce 

: been for some lime discontinued ; — by the 
.welling of the Lymphatic Glands from a Carious Tooth ; 
— and the disappearing of part of the internal Substance 
of the Teeth of such large Animals as the Elephant, 
where the Tusks have been found with extraneous .Bodies 
forced into, and lodged within them. 

The Substance of the Osseous part of the Teeth is 
like tha! of Bone in other parts of the Body, ditlering 
-.'illy in being harder ami mure detw, in having its Fibres 
seneraHy in a longitudinal direction, and in having a par- 

/. e. like a Nail in a Board, nod attached to the Alveoli 
by a strong Periosteum. The Periosteum lines the 
Sockets-, and is reflected upon the Fangs as far as the 
Necks of the Teeth, where it is intimately connected 
n-kh the Gums ; but all that portion of the Teeth that 
appears beyond the Gums is destitute of this Mem- 

The Teeth serve to masticate the Aliment, to assist in 

jiroiiouiifing several of the Letters, and are ornamental 

o the Fa. 

. of the Teeth, as made by Mr Pepys of 

100 parts of Enamel yielded, 
Phosphat of Lime, - J"Q 

Carbon at of Lime, - 6 

Mater of composition and loss, 16 


100 pans of the Osseous Substance yielded, 

l J iio.-phat of Lime, . 5ft 

Carbouat of Lime, - 4 

Gelatine, ... 2« 

Mater of composition and loss, 10 



The Morale, or Cutting Teeth, Tab. XIV. arc placed 

in the fore part of the Jaw, and have their Bodies formed 
into U edges, doped out behind. Viewed anteriorly, their 
cutting edges appear broader than the rest of the Tooth • 
win ii ten in a lateral direction, they appear thicker to- 
wards their roots. Their Fangs, when taken laterally, 
appear broader than when examined in their anterior and 

F»sterior Surfaces. Each of these Teeth has a single 
ang, and this, in the Upper Jaw, is the longest of any 
excepting those of the Canine Teeth. 

Their Enamel is thicker on their anterior and poste- 
rior Surfaces than at the sides, where it is remarkably 
thin, and thicker before than on the back part of the 

The middle Incisores of the Upper Jaw are broader 
and longer than the lateial on< ■-, and larger than 
the Incisores of the Under Jaw, the lateral of which 
are larger than the middle set. Tab. III. 

The Incisores of the Upper Jaw overlap those in the 
Under one when the Molares are worn down, and act 
then like Scissars. 

The Cuspidate vcl Canini, Tab. XIV. are placed a 
" the Incisores, are larger than these 
their Bases in form of Wednes. but 
the middle. 

The Enamel covers more of these Teeth than of the 
Incisores, and is more equal in thickness all round the 

The Fangs are thicker, larger, and more depressed at 
the sides, than those of the lucisores, and appear broad- 
est when viewed in a lateral direction. 

The Hoots of the Canini are the longest of any. 

The Fangs being the largest of any of the Teeth, pro- 
ject more in the Jaw, as is obvious both to the sight and 
touch ; hence the Incisores and Canini are almost in a 
.-ii -.ii;dit line, e-peciallyin the Under Jaw. They have 
each commonly but one long root, though in some rare 
cases two, which is crooked at the poiut. They s 


t their s 

The two of the Upper Jaw are a little larger and 

longer, and have their roots more crooked than those of 
the under one. 

In the upper .Taw, tliev are placed immediately under 
the Orbitar Plates, and are termed Et/cTteth, from a 
supposed connection with the I'.ves. The two below are 
placed almost as dei |> as the Base of the Bone, and are 
called Angular Teeth, from supporting the Angles of the 

The Bitu.y/ilnti, formerly u rmed Small Molares, or 
First and Setvuil Crimltrs % Tab. XIV. Tab. VI. are 
.situated behind the Cuspidati, and bear an intermediate 
resemblance between these and the Molares. 

Viewed in the .laws, they arc somewhat like each 
other, and not unlike the Cuspidati. The Body of each 
has two points upon its grinding Surface, one external, 
the other internal ; and those in the Upper Jaw arc nearly 

Part IV.] 


upon a level. In the Under Jaw lite points project 
on the outside of the Teeth. 

The Enamel in nearly rqiiul in thickness rouni 
Body of t lie Tooth, but is thinner at the sides tha 
the t'uspidali. 

The Fangs resemble two Faugs 
sion between them ; sometimes, h< 
of the Upper Jaw have distinct 

Upper Jaw being smaller than those of the Under, allow 

the Bicuspidati of the Teeth immediately opposed t 

: Temporary Teeth. 

t slight mclinatio 
Their - 

id the Teeth themselves lur 
the Jaws, 
nrmerly termed Large M 

Soeke; -, 

there are Grooves running along the Jai 

previous within tin in, forming the origins of the future 

Alveoli.^ Tab. EXXIXBB. Fig. 7. 0. 

9 and deep at the fore part oi 

The Grooves i 

which arc the mosl 
Tab. VI. Tab. XIV. are behind the Eicuspidat 
the largest of the Teeth, and have broad Bases 

points. The roots divaricate from each other, and have the Jaws, and become wider and more shallow t 

partitions of the Sockets between lliein, which assisi in their posterior extremities. 

lessening the pressure on their points during Manduca- In the bottom of the Groove of the Lower Jaw, the 

tion. They have thinner Enamel than the other Teeth. Inferior Maxillary Vessels and Nerves are placed, which 

The first of the Molares of the Under Jaw has Eve, have afterward* a. Canal peculiar to themselves. 

and each of the oilier has lour points. Within the Alveolar Grooves, there are, at this t i. 1 1 ■ - -, 

Each has two roots, one placed forwards, the other Ridges across, which gradually extend from the bottom 

backwards, and these are flat and broad, their Hat Sur- and inner sides, forming Arches ; and the Cavities becom- 

faces facing anteriorly and posteriorly. Sometimes there ing deeper, their external Opening- contract, till, at llic 

are three roots. time of birth, they are almost dosed, fab. LXXIXBIJ. 

In the Upper Jaw, the first Molaris has four, and each Fig. 16. In consequence of this, considerable pressure 

of the others only three points. can be made in the time of Suction, without injuring the 

In the two anterior Molares of the Upper Jaw, there teuder Teeth they contain, 

are generally three roots, of which two are on the outer The Alveoli of the Molares are produced directly be- 

side; the third is on the inner side, and placed oblique- fore the roots of the Goronoid Processes of the Under 

ly, and is the largest and roundest of the three. The Jaw, and in the Bulges or Tubers of the Upper Jaw. 

roots of the two anterior Molares of the Upper Jaw are and come forwards as the Jaws increase in length and 

shorter than those of the under one, on account of their size. Tab. LXXIXD. Fig. 12. 

situation under the Maxillary Sinus ; sometimes they pro- In a Foetus of about four Mouths, small Pulpy Pro- 

ject a 

Sometimes, though rarely, 

Tab. XIV. Fig 

The Molares above have a perpendicular direction in 
respect to the Jaw, those below have an inclination in- 
wards, which should be attended to by Dentists hi the 
etfraction of the Teeth. 

The backmost Molares are termed Denies Sapi'entia\ 
from appearing later than the rest of the Teeth. 

They are smaller than the other Molares, and have 
■jenerallv fewer roots ; these are often quite indistinct, as 
if squeezed together; and frequently there is only a single 

The Dentes Sapientiae of llie Under Jaw have frequent- 
ly curved roots, and are sometimes placed so obliquely 
inwards, ;is scarcely to appear b'-vond the Gums. 

The Incisores of the Upper Jaw being for the most 
part ninth broader than those of the under one, the other 

■aell-fmined Teeth, when the Jaws are shut, the Teeth 
of the Upper Jaw are opposed to the Interstices of the 

found to proceed from the 
Gums, and to be lodged in the AlvecJaa' Grooves of bnih 
Jaws. These are the Rudiments of the future Teeth. 
Tab. LXXIXBB. Fig. 8. 

At this time they are of a Gelatinous or Pulpy nature, 
resembling in shape the Bodies of the Teeth which are 
to be formed in them ; each contained in a ,li< nibrnnons 
Capsule proper to itself. Tab. LXXIXDU. Tig. IX 

By degrees the Pulp becomes hrmer, and extremely 
Vascular; and having mcrea-ed to near the size of the 
Body of the Tooth, lioue is depo-iud upon its extreme 
points by tile Blood-vr-scls, I lie Pulp it -elf coul inning to 
grow for some time after tills. 

About the fifth or sixth month. Bone begins to appear 
i that part of the Surface which i 

an begins in the Incisores at tin 
the other Teeth at points corresponding 
of the future points of the Teeth. 

d the thud Molares of the The Osseous points gradually 


a Layer of Bone, which extends over the Surface of the 
Pulp to the Necks of (he Teeth. 

Between the eolith am! ninth Month, Ossification is 
ron^iderabh ..di.uictd in all the Pulps, ami, 

In the nill-niwii Fo-tiis, ||k- outer Mull, of live Tcrth 
in each m.Ic of each Jaw are found, which are termed 
T< mjwary, lJtritlnni(v, Sin Hding-, or Milk Ttetk. Tab. 
1/XXIXBB. Tig. 20. 

Of these there are in each side two Incisores, one Ctts- 
pidtdns, :nid two Mo/ares; besides, there is the Shell of 
the Anterior Permanent Molaris ; but the whole of the 
Temporary Teeth are much smaller than the correspond- 
ing classes of Teeth in the Adult. 

In the Upper Jaw, the points or eminences of the 
Shells correspond with the depressions in the Teeth of 
the Under Jaw. 

Alter the outer Shell of a Tooth is formed, the Osseous 
Matter gradually pcm-iraUs the greater part of the Pulp, 
and, having completed the Body, it contracts, and forms 
the Cervix of the Tooth. 

Having formed the Cervix, the Cavity of the Tooth is 
bv degrees diminished, and in proportion as it is lessened, 
part of the Fulp is pushed out or elongated, and assumes 
the part of the respective Fang. Upon this Pulp also 
Bone is deposited. 

-While the Fang is e\ tending, the Socket is found to 
■u ■commodate it-clt' to it, by extending along with it till 
the Fang is completed. 

Where there are two or more Fangs, the Osseous 
1'ibris shoot across at the Cervix, and form the beginning 
of these, after which the Ossification of each Fang ad- 
vances in the same manner as that of a Tooth with a single 

At birth, the Capsules containing the Pulps of the 
Teeth can be separated into two Membranes, the external 
of which is of a Spongy and somewhat Vascular nature, 
,'.ud adheres to the Gnms, while the internal, smoother 
.oid firmer than the other, and extremely Vascular, ad- 
heres to the Pulp. 

The Membrane of the Pulp derives its Vessels from 
those of the Gums ; the Pulp receives its Vessels from 
ilio^e which enter the Foramina at the points of the 

The Membrane containing the Pulp is firmly attached 
to the inside of the Gum, and to the Basis of the Pulp, 
and has the same form with the Tooth it incloses. Tab. 
J.XXIXBB. Fi-. 12. 13. 

The Vascularity of the Pulp is shewn by injection, as 
i- also that of the Membrane by which it is covered; 
mid this appearance is rendered still more evident by exa- 
mining i be growing Teeth of large Animals, as those of 
the Elephant. 

That part of the Pulp has the most Vascular appear- 
n.ire which is covered by Bone; but the Osseous Shell is 
found to adhere so slightly to the Pulp, as to be readily 

[Part IV. 

one Lavcr being added within another, till the Tooth is 

■ ompleted. Tab. LXXIXBB. Fig. 2. 

After the Osseous Substance is formed, the Enamel 
is added, which increases in thickness, till within a little 
while of the time at which the Tooth begins to pass 
through the Gum. 

The Enamel is secreted by the Capsule which contains 
the Pulp, soon after the Osseous Shell has begun to be 
formed. It is always thickest where first deposited ; of 
course, it is thicker upon the Body than upon the Cervix 
of the Tooth. 

The Enamel is secreted in the form of a pure white 
earthy Substance, moistened with a Mucilage, and has 
much the appe;n':mce of crystallization. 

The deposition of the Enamel continues nearly as long 
as the Teeth are contained in their Capsules. It is at 
first, and even for some time after birth, so soft, as to be 
little firmer than Chalk, being easily scraped by the Nail, 
but soon acquiring a flinty hardness and a striated appear. 

After the Bodies of the Teeth have attained their full 
size, no addition of Substance is made to the Enamel, the 
Membrane which produces it being destroyed previous to 
the appearance of the Teeth beyond the Gums. The 
Osseous part of the Teeth, on the contrary, continues to 
grow for a considerable time afterwards, one third of the 
length of the Fangs being added, after the Teeth have 
first appeared in the Mouth. 

While the Teeth arc extending in their Sockets, they 
press upon their Capsules, and occasion an absorption of 
them ; the remains of the Capsules surround the Necks 
of the Teeth, and are gradually removed as the Tooth is 

Origin c 


r Teeth". 

The Permanent Incisores andCnspidati succeed to tho 
Temporary Imi-ores and (.'n-pid:tl i ; they are similar ill 
form to these, but much larger ; but the Temporary Mo- 
lares are succeeded by the Bicuspidati, which are much 

When the Rudiments of the Temporary Teeth are 
somewhat advanced, a New Sac is sent off at the under 
and inner part of the Sacs of the Temporary Teeth of the 
Upper Jaw, and at the upper and inner part of the cor- 
responding Sacs of the Under Jaw, the new Sacs lying 
between those of the Temporary Teeth and the Internal 
Alveolar Plate, each being on the inner side of the Tooth 
it is to succeed, and connected to the Gum. See Dr 
Blake's Thesis, Edin. 1798. Tab. LXX1XC. Fig. 2.3- 

These Sacs are at first contained in the same Sockets 
with the Temporary Teeth, and are loosely connected 
with the Membranes of these. 

By degrees, little N itches are formed in the internal 
Alveolar 1'late, and these gradually form a distinct Socket 
round each of the Sacs. 

When the Temporary Teeth have advanced in their 

Part IV.] 


Sockets, the Sac; of die lVninmnl IViii become elon- 
gated, but still remain attached 10 the Sits and Cuius at 
the Necks of the Temporary Teeth, by means of Pro- 
cesses which pass through small Foramina at the inner 
edge of the Jaw. Tab.LXXIXC. Fig. 7. H, 

At the time of bin li, Os-tlicaikni ha-, commenced upon 
the anterior Permanent Molaris, and there are small 
Membranous Sacs, contain in i; li Pnlpwilli llie Rudiments 
of the other two Molares. Ossification commences upon 
their tips some Lime after, but always first iu the lower 

The second Permanent Molaris is formed from the first 
in the same manner as the other Permanent Teeth are 
Ion i icd from the Temporary Set. A snmll Sac is sent 
back, which is at first contained in the same Socket with 
the Putp of the first Molaris ; a new Socket is afterwards 
formed, in which the Pulp of the second Molaris becomes 
perfect ; (his, in a similar way, sends oft' another Pro- 
cess, in which the third Molaris is formed. 

: Appearing c 

3 Temporary Teeth. 

At the time of bail., Unification 1m, commenced upon 
the anterior Permanent Molares ; and there are 
Membranous Sacs containing a Pulp, with tiic Rudiments 
of all the other Molares. Ossification comment es upon 
the tips some time after, but always first in the Under 

By degrees, as the Alveoli increase in size, the Per- 
manent Teeth get Sockets of their own, as is secu by ; re- 
moving the outer AUeolar Process in a Child of about 
four years of age. Tab. LXXIXC. Fig. 2. 3. 0. 

At this period, tlie Ossification of the Incisores, Cus- 
pidalus, lirsi UicusjiidLilui, n nt! lir-t Mol.ui-, in each side, 
is much advanced ; the second Molaris is also partly form- 
ed, and soon after the Ossification of the second Kiciu- 

About six years of age, all the Permanent Teeth, ex- 
cepting the Denies Sapicntia;, iia\e made considerable 
progress. Twenty now are commonly seen without tlio 
Gums, which are to be succeeded by twenty-eight, that 
at this time lie concealed in the Jaws. Tab. LXXIXC 
Fig. 10. 

The Temporary Teeth generally begin to appear be- 
tween the sixth and eighth Month after Birth, the cor- 
responding Teeth commonly appearing about the same 
time, first in the Under, then in the Upper Jaw, though 
they frequently appear a little sooner, and often consider- 
ably later than this period. 

They commonly appear in the following order : First, 
one of the Central loci sores of the Under Jaw, and soon 
after the other one ; a few weeks afterwards, the Central 
Licisores of the Upper Jaw pass through ; these are soon 

eighteenth Month, the anterior 
Molares of the Under Jaw appear, and are succeeded by 
those of the Upper Jaw. 

The Cuspidati come nc\t in order, and first those of 
the Under Jaw, which are soon followed by those of the 
Upper Jaw. 

About the end of the second year, or a little later, the 
second, or posterior, appeal, \t Licit complete llie first Set ; 
though to the above rule -there are many exceptions. 

:d their Teeth, though soi 
er, others considerably kit 
l miliujiicntly happens, th 

i ih. J.. 

) adult, C 

Permanent Teeth. 

formed, the 

The anterior Permanent Molares 

Pulps Vim; found in the Fret us previous to iis birth, and 
are situated in the back part of the Jaws. 

The Permanent Inckuics ami Cuspidati are formed on 
the inner side of tlie Temporary Incisores and Cuspidati, 
in Capsules peculiar to themselves, but in the same Sockets 
with the Temporary Set. 

The Bicuspidati are formed at the roots of tlie Tem- 
porary Molares, small Osseous Partitions being found 
between the two Sets. 


The anterior Permanent Molares first appear, suun 
after the Temporary Central Inckoies of the Lndtr Jaw 
are removed, and are succeeded by the Permanent Cen- 
tral Incisores, one coming a liulc while In lore the other ; 
then the Central Incisores of the Upper Jaw come out, 
and the Permanent Central Inei-iores succeed them. 

Next the Lateral Incisores are succeeded by the Per- 

Then the first or anterior Temporaiy Molares come 
out, and are succeeded by the anterior Bicuspidati. 

Then the second Temporary Molares and Cuspidati 
Live niKcceik.l bv the posterior Bicuspidati and the Per- 
manent Cuspidati ; tlie whole shedding of the Teeth oc- 

ia do 


■en li". 

The number of the Teeth dot 
the sixth and eighth year, » 

02 OF THE RIOTJTH, &c. [Part IV. 

made their appearance through the Gums are shed, and however, by pressure on the^second Set,Js Mndercdpro- 

replaced by others, and mure soon begin to appear farther bable, from the instances where one or more of the 1 

lii. k in the Jaws. porary have been observed remaining in the Jaws 

The second Set of Teeth, it is Found, contrary to the for many years, and where, upon examination, no Per- 

opinion of former times, do not push out the iirst, the maneut Teeth have been found to be formed. 

second Set being formed in Sockets of their own, and In some very rare instances a third Set of Teeth ap- 

the Fangs of the first Set gradually decaying as the sue- pear at a very advanced age. 

reeding Teeth grow ; the decaying of the Fangs of the 

first Set being in proportion to the decay of the first Set <>F THE Growth OF THE Jaws. 

of Sockets. 

The Permanent Teeth arise in Sockets appropriated to After all the Temporary Teeth have appeared through 

themselves, and are inclosed in these Sockets after the the Gums, tin Jaws are observed to grow little in the 

Temporary Teeth have been shed. parts the Teeth occupy. 

During the growth of the Permanent Teeth, absorp- The Lower Jaw receives its greater increase between 

tion proceeds in the Fangs of the Temporary Set, which the second Temporary Molaris and the Coronoid Process, 

facilitates their removal from the Sockets, and affords a the lengthened part being destined for the Permanent 

Passage for the Permanent Teeth. Molares. Tab. JLXXIXD. Fig. 10. 

While the Permanent Teeth increase in size, they The Temporary Incisores and Cuspidati being much 

occupy more space, come forwards, produce a pressure smaller than the Permanent, while the Temporary Mo- 

-tgauist the Bony Partitions placed between them and the lares are larger than the Bicuspidati which succeed them. 

Temporary Toeth, and then against the posterior Surface space is gained I'm- 1 1 1 . ■ l-'rimt Teeth, which otherwise 

of the roots of these Teeth, till at length the greater would be distorted in the Jaws. 

portion, or the whole of the parts pressed against, are The Jaws grow uniformly throughout for about a year 

absorbed. after birth, and as far as the Teeth extend, form nearly 

The Permanent Teeth now come forwards under the half of a circle ; after all the Temporary Teeth have ap- 

Temporary Set, which, by the pressure being continued, peared, the Jaws elongate, so that iu the Adult they form 

toon drop out. half of a long Ellipsis. 

Besides the causes mentioned above, with respect to The extension which takes place between the last 

the shedding of the Teeth, others contribute ; for now Temporary Molaris and the Coronoid Process, and in 

and then the Temporary Teeth drop out long before the the corresponding parts of the Upper Jaw, continues to 

Permanent Teeth appear, and sometimes where they increase till the eighteenth or twentieth year, the anterior 

never appear. part of the Jaw adapting itself to the Permanent Teflh, 

. That absorption of the first Set is much influenced, but scarcely receiving any additional size. 


m k 

v f t 

7aB. 7.9B. 

I n 


( 93 ) 


The Structure of the Teeth in the Adult ; their Origin in the F<etus, and Progress i» 
the Child. 

FIG. I. 

Longitudinal Sections of the Teeth, in which the Dis- 
tribution of the Enamel is distinctly seen ; particular, 
ly in the first of the Ron; where the Osseous Part is 
affected by the Tooth liaving been exposed to the action 
of Fire. 

FIG. 2. 

; the most distinct. 

A Section of the Tinder Jaw of a Child of fifteen months 
to shew the Course of the Alveolar Artery. In thi. 
Section arc seen tif-> the Anterior 7< mpurai i, M"Uiri* 
the Socket of the Posterior Tepyp/vry Moiarie, am 
the Anterior Permanent Molaris. 

The Pulps contained in the Alveolar Processes of the 
Left Half of the Upper Jaw nf a Foetus of the same 
age as in Fig. 9. 

Tie Left Half of the Under Jaw of a Ftrtits of s 

months, in which the Alveolar Processes are more a 

A Section of the Inner Side of the Left Half of the 
Lower Jaw, with the Trunk of the Inferior Maxillary 
Nerve, which A a little disp/tiad, to .■•hew the Nerves 
which enter the Cavities of the Teeth. 

the Nerves in the Ossec 

FIG. 6. 

An Artery entering a Tooth, magnified. 

Half of the Lower Jaw of a Foetus of three or four 

months. In the .Interior Part ■ ■/' the Jaw, Processes 
of Bone are s/tooting across to form the Alveoli for the 
Temporary Incisores. 

FIG. 13. 

The Gums, with the lita'tiuu <t>*ofthe I\ i ,'.'/ in their Mem- 
branes, reaovtd from fi„ Half of the Lower Jaw, in 
a Foetus of about four mouths. Of the Teeth, the In- 
cisores, Cuspidal lift, Mohires, and .Interior Ptrmunaif. 
Moluris, are seen. The small Figures below tftcw the 
Shells removed from the Meml-ranes of the Incisures, 
Cuspidalus, and two Malares. 

FIG. 14. 

Half of the Under Jaw of a Foetus of five months, with 
the Inner Alet olur Piute n moreil , .-//, wing the Mem- 
branes of the Incisores, Cuspidal its, and Molans, with 
the Membrane of the Anterior Permanent Molaris 
and Blood-vessels. 



An Internal View of the Gums, with the Budiinents of 
the Teeth in their Membranes; in one Side of /he L p- 
per Jaw, in a Foetus of eight months; .shewing the 
Incisores, Cuspidatus, tiro Molares, and the Anterior 
Permanent Molaris. The Figures below shew the 
Shells of these Teeth removed from their Membranes. 

FIG. 19. 

The Fore Part of the same Jaw seen from the Inntr 
Side, in which the Sacs of the Anterior Permanent 
Incisor and the ( /"./>n/,itiis ti/ip, or, the former tmtarik 
the left, and the latter towards the right hand Side. 
Between these, the Sac with the Lateral Incisor i< 
raised find inverted, by which the Sac of t hi La/trn/ 
Deciduitis Incisor is vvposed. 

A J'u w from below, of the Upper Jaw of a For/us of nine 
months ; shewing the Alveoli of the Deciduous Teeth, 
and the Sock, ts of the P, rmanent Teeth beginning to 

a, a, The ossa maxillaria superiora -, 

b, b, Their nasal processes. 

c, c, The ossapalati. 

</, d, e,f, g. The alveoli of the temporary teeth, and the 

same are seen in the opposite side of the jaw. 
In g, the membrane of the anterior permanent molaris 

The small perlbniliim- behind the alveoli of the anterior 
deciduous teeth are the origins of the alveoli of the 
permanent incisores and cuspidati. 

FIG. 17. 

Half of the Lower Jaw of a Foetus of seven or eight 
months, seen from the outside, the External Plate be- 
ing cut to shew the Nerves entering the Pulps of the 
Teeth. The Parts are contracted by their having been 
kept in Spirit of Turpentine. The Figure shews the 
Central Incisores almost through the Gum, the Late- 
ral Incisor, the Cuspidatus, the two Mo/ares, and the 
Anterior Pernuuniit Mn/nri-;. The Nerve is seen in 
the Maxillary Canal, sending Branches to the Teeth. 

of this, and F I G. 1. of next Table, 
the Progress of Ossification oj the Teeth 

presented as taken out from the Sockets of one Side of 
the Jaw, but so placed, that the back ground in some 
measure points out their depth with respect to the Jans 

FIG. 18. 

['he Liner Side of the Jaw represented in Fig. 17. Part 
of the Alveolar Process heiin> < ut, the Finure shews the 
Pulps, the Sacs, and connecting ProcesM-s of the Per- 
manent Incisores, Bight Cuspidatus, and two Deci- 
duous Molares, from the anterior of wh it h a small Pi 
cess, the beginning of the Anterior Bicuspis, is sent 4 

The Teeth at the time of Birth, when the Parts of them, 
ossified are only Shells, having the form of the Crowns 
of the Teeth. 

A, The deciduous teeth. 

B, The rudiments of the permanent incisores. 

Cj The rudiments of the anterior permanent molares. 

The Teeth of a Child six or eight months old. Now the 
Central Incisores of the Upper Jaw, and the Central 
and Lateral Incisores of the Loner Jaw, have made 
their appearance. 

A, The deciduous teeth. 

B, B, The permanent incisores. 

C, The cuspidatus of the lower jaw, 

D, The two permanent molares. 

The Teeth of a Child sixteen months old. The Iucm* 
res and first Molaris in eath Jaw have appeared -be. 
yond the Gums. 

A, A, The permanent cuspidati. 




( 9S ) 


Exhibits the Disposition of the First and Second Sets of Teeth, in Children fropi two to i 
Years of Affe. 

The Teeth of a Ckilil between two and three years of age. 
The whole of the Temporary Set have gut through tin. 
Glints ; and, in addition to the Permanent Teeth .see it 
in the three last Figures of the former Table, are, 

A, A, The points of the first bicuspidati. 

FIG. 2. and 3. 
From a Child about four years of age. 

An Inner View of the Left Half of the Upper Jam, with 
the Teeth. The Alveolar Processes, and Part of the 
Septum Palati, are cut. 

a, b, The temporary teeth. 

c—f. The rudiments of the permanent teeth inclosed in 
their capsules, and attached by processes to the mem- 
branes and gums of the temporary teeth c, The 

central, and, d, the lateral iucisor ; e, e, the bicus- 
pidati ; f, the cuspidatus deep in the jaw, yet connect- 
ed to the temporar, cuspidatus; g, the gum over the 
anterior and central molares, not yet cut. 

h, The septum palati. 

i, The pterygoid process. 

k, The posterior naris. 

k, The inferior maxillary trunk of vessels, nerve; 
periosteum, sending branches to the teeth, the re 

passing out by the anterior maxillary foramen, 
dispersed upon the under lip. 

The Deciduous Cuspidatus of a Child of about eight ecu 
■months, inclosed in its Membrane, and the Capsule of 
a Permanent Tooth firmly connected to it. 

a, The capsule of flic A< . iduous tooth. 

b. That of the permanent tooth, with its attachment to 
the other. The shell which was formed in it is re- 

3 by which they are connected. 

A Section of the Lower Jaw of a Child about four years 
old, representing a Temporary and a Pcrinaiunt 
Tooth in different Alveoli. 

a, b. The t 

c—i, The 

with thei 

tiw; /,/, the bicuspidati ; g, the anterior, and, A, the 

middle molarii, ; /, tin part when: tin: d' us sapiens 
i^ afterwards to he fotnu a. 

, ss descending from the gum through a foramen In, 

d, The capsule of a permanent tooth. 

e, The gum inverted to shew (Ills connection. 

FIG. 7. 

An ruder View of the Upper Jaw of a Child, to shew the 
Foramina through whit It the Processes passed, which 
made the Connection between the Temporary and Per- 
manent Teeth. In the Figure are seen all the Tem- 
porary Teeth, and tl&- Anterior Permanent Mulatts. 


Behind the Licisores and Ct'tpidati, the Forainii 

appear, with the {amuHs Incmvu* between them. 

FIG. 8. 

A View of the Upper and Inner Side of the Lower Jaw 
of a Child, with the Teeth removed, to shew the Fora- 
mina for the connecting Membranes of the two Sets of 
Teeth. Of these Foramina, five are seen on the edge 
of the Alveolar Plate, at the Inner Side of the Alveoli 
jit each Side of the Jaw. 

FIG. 9. 10. 11. 

TJte Jaws and Teeth of Children at different ages. The 
Jaws are cut to shew the Teeth, the while unshaded part 
of which is considered to have passed through the Gums, 
and to be appearing in the Mouth. 

a,-b, a, b, The temporary set of teeth, consisting of the 
two incisores, the cuspidatus, and the two molares in 
each Jaw. 

c — h. The permanent teeth. — e. The central, and, d, t], t 
lateral incisor ; e, the cuspidatus ; f, the first bicus. 
pidatus, the formation of the second not yet having com- 
inenced ; g, the first, and, //, the second molaris. 

In the Right Side of the Head, a View of the two Sets of 
Teeth in a Child of six years of age. 

a, I, The temporary set of teeth. 

c — h, The permanent set. — c. The central, and, d, the 

lateral incisor ; e, the cuspidatus ; f,f, The two bicus. 

pidati; g, the first, and, h, the second molaris. 

A View of the Teeth, from the Left Side, in a Child of 
eight or nine years of age. The Temporary Incisora 
have been shed, and replaced by the Permanent Set, and 
the first Permanent Molarcs have appeared. 

a, b, b, The remaining temporary teeth. — a, Thecuspi- 
datus, and, b, b, the molares. 

c — f, The permanent teeth. — c. The central, and, rf, the 
Literal incisor ; e, the cuspidatus ; J\J, tin. bicuspidsti \ 
g, the first, and, /;, the second molaris ; ;', the com- 
t of the third uioliu'is, or dens sapiens. 

Tab. 7.9 a. 

')))) Jf'f rrr j^& B k ' : ' 

/ ^ ■■; O 




W it. 

3 fc > OQ S j QQfl ,./ ,.) 

( 9V ) 


Shews the Increment of the Teeth, the Absorption of the Fangs of the Temporary Set, and 
the Disposition of the Teeth in the Jaws at different Periods. 

FIG. 1. /, A tooth where the pulp is n 

Represents a Series of the Increment of an Anterior ' ° 

Permanent Malar is of the L inter Jaw, /'ram the com- 

meneement of Osmfu at/on h, ike perfect State. * ' *-*■ 

«, Five points of ossi 

C, tilt tilll!.'. k-llllli 

FIG. 6. 

same thing seen in the Temporary Molara 
; the other fang has a- single FIG 7 

e, The pulp advancing more rapidly than the ossifica- 
f, The mots almost compli 

. t Se, 

Sections of the Lower Jaw, representing the Progress 
FIG. %. in the Formation of the Permanent Teeth, and the 

.Absorption of the Fangs of the Temporary Teeth. 

«, Five points of ossification not vet perfectly conjoined ; , t , .. r r ,^-r. . ™ ,, ■ 

h. the shells united, c, the incipient mot, , </, the A S " >'«". "{ /™«< "1>^"'"'" ,""' I "»"f"' T « "' 
: perfect , e, the pulp advancing lastor than K'""' 1 '" """' '"'" i ° ct " , '> "'"' '"""" "' ' toe °f ,he 

r i .,* ,. r r „„ -9 ' . .-.rani Teeth. 

(he membrane of the tooth which is drawn over the 

/, A perfect tooth, with an opening in the point of each 


of the jaw 

rf, where the membranes were connected ; e, a central 
The same Series of Increment in a tiit ,/.«>iV. •!<■, idnous incisor retaining its root:. 

/, A permanent incisor which has appeared in the inner 
' , on account of the resistance of g, a 

r, A bicuspis of the lower jaw with a single fang. side of the 

/i The same in the upper jaw wifh two fangs, as not un- temporary cuspidal 

frequently happens. h, One of the permanent: Dim 

*• socket of a deciduous molaris, which had btin t\li,ut- 

FIG. 4J lt ' ' '' the osseous .svptiini inn yut, /, the 

socket of one of the molares. 
c wasted by 

FIG. V. P 

c. A tooth in which the enamel is imperfectly formed. Other F.eamples of Set/ions of the Lower Jaw, sharing 

there being several grooves and pits in it, t/ie Progress in the Format it- a of the Permanent' 

Vol. II. J* Teeth,. 


Teeth, and the Absorption bfthe Fangs of the Tempo- A, From a child at six years of age, when only the tern, 

rary Teeth. porary teeth have passed through the gums. 

B, From a child of eight or nine years of age. The 

FIG. 10. temporary in ci sores and cuspidatus have been alicd; 

Represents the Left Half of four Lower Jaws, viewed the permanent incisores, and the first permanent mola. 

from the Inner Side, shewing the Disposition of the ris, nave grown up. 

Teeth at different Periods, the change of the Temporary C, The first temporary molaris has been shed, and is 

Teeth Jbr the Permanent, and the addition of the Per- succeeded by the first bicuspidatus ; the cuspidatus and 

■manent Molarc' ; that the Permanent Incisores and the second permanent molaris are appearing. 

Cuspidati are larger than the Temporary Incisures and D, Shews the appearance in the adult state. The ser 

Cuspidati, while the Bicuspidati are smaller than the cond temporary molaris is shed, and its place supplied 

Temporary Molares,ir/iich theytucceed; and that the by the second bicuspidatus. The third molaris, ordeoi 

Extension of the Jaw is chiefly jormed between the last sapiens, has appeared. 
Temporary Molaris and the C'oronoid Process, 



The Throat consists of the Arches of the Palate, of 
the Pharynx and Larynx, with the Muscles, / 'wsWs, 
Nerves^ &c. which surround them. 

The Arches of the Palate are two in number in each 
side of the Throat, one of which is termed the Anterior, 
the other the Posterior Arch, 

They are formed of a Doubling of the Skin, with a 
few scattered Muscular Fibres. 

The Anterior Arch arises from the middle of the Ve- 
lum Palati, at the side of the Uvula, and is fixed to the 
edge of the Ease of the Tongue. Tab. XLVII. Fig. 15. 
b. Tab. LXVUI. No. 52. 

The Posterior Arch lias its origin likewise from the 
side of the Uvula, and passes downwards, to be inserted 
into the side of the Pharynx. Tab. XLVII. Fig. 15. a. 
Fig. 10./. Tab. LXVIH. No. 53. 

The Anterior Arch contains the Circumflex Palati, 
and, with its fellow on the opposite side, forms the open- 
ing into the Throat, called Isthmus Faucium. 

The Posterior Arch has within it the Levator Palati. 

Between the Anterior and Posterior Arches, and close 
by the sides of the Base of the Tongue, the Amygdala; 
Tonsil.-; or Almonds of the Ears are situated. Tab. 
LXVUI. No. 54. Tab. XLIX. Fig. 5. g. Tab. XLVII. 
Fig. 10.— 13. 

They are of a reddish colour, of the figure of Almonds, 
full of Cells, which communicate with each other, and 
have large irregular Openings, which convey Mucus into 
the Throat ; the discharge of which is promoted by the 
motion of the Arches of the Palate and surrounding parts. 


The Pharynx^ so called from its conveying Food to 
the Stomach, and Air to the Lungs, is a large Muscular 
Bag, somewhat oval, or in form of an irregular Funnel, 
with the Tube termed Esophagus descending from it, and 
forming the under end of that Funnel. Tab. XLVII. 

It is bounded above by the Cuneiform Process of the 
Occipital Bone, and by the Pterygoid Processes of the 
Sphenoid Bone, and back part of the Jaws ; with all of 
which it is intimately connected. 

The anterior Margins of its Fleshy parts are connected 
to the edges of the Larynx, and i(s sides arc- covered by 
the great Blood-vessels of the Neck. Tab. XLIX. 
Fig. 6. 

The fore part of the Pharynx is formed by a Mem- 
brane common to it and to the back part of the Larynx. 

Behind, it lies flat upon the Cervical Vertebra:, and 
upon the Muscles which cover the fore part of the sides 
of these Vertebra-, to both of which parts it is so slightly 
connected, that it may he rradiK separated from them. 

Tab. LXVUI. No. 42.— 48. 

It has several Openings, by which it communicates 
with the neighbouring Cavities. 

Two of these lead upwards :<: i foi-v.avd.: by the poste- 
rior Nares into the Nose, Tab. LXVI. G. Tab. LXVHi 
No. 4H. t two go laterally bv the Eustachian Tubes to 
the Ens, Tab. LXVHI. No. 40. ; one passes forward. 
through the large Opening termed Fauces, or Top of the 
Throat, to the Mouth, Tab. LXVUI. No. 52. ; one 
goes downwards aud forwards through the Larynx and 
Trachea, to the Lungs, Tab. XLVII. Fig. 10. /. ; and 
another directly downwards bv the Esophagus to the Sto- 
mach, Tab. LXVIH. No. 42. 

The Pharynx is surrounded by a loose Cellular Sub- 
stance, aud consists of different Layers of Muscles, cull- 
ed Coitstrictvren Vhttryngis, which li:ue been already de- 

On the inner side, it is lined by the continuation of 
the Membrane of the Mouth, which is perforated by the 
Ducts of numerous Glands, tor the secretion 'of Mucus. 

The lower end of the Pharynx, opposiie to the under 
edge of the Cricoid Cartilage, and Fifth Cervical Verte- 
bra, describes a complete Circle, which forms the begin- 
ning of the Esophagus. 

The Pharynx is supplied with Blood by the Pharyngeal 
Brunches, which come directly or indirectly from the Ex- 
ternal Carotids.— It returns its Blood to both Jugular 

The Laiynx, so-called from its being the principal Or- 
gan of Voice, is situated al the upper and lore part of the 
Neck, immediate!* under (lie (Is llvcides, which is placed 
at the root of the Tongue. Tab. XLIX. Fig. 5. 

In the Male the Larynx is proportionally larger than 
in the Female; before l'ubirtv, however, and in cases of 
early castration, the size of the Larynx is more nearly 
similar in the two Sexes. 

It is composed of Cartilages, Muscles, Ligament;-. 
Membranes, aud Mucous Glands, and is connected above 
to the Tongue and Os Hvoides, Tab. L\XX. Fig. S. 
and behind to the Pharynx', Tab. XLIX. Fig. 3. l>. 

The Cartilages of the Larynx are generally considered 
as being Five in number, though, beside? these, some 

cd with them. 

The Five Cartilages arc,— the Thyroid, the C, icoid, 
the Tien Arytenoid, and the Epiglottis. 

The Thyroid, Seiitform, or Shicld-lihc Cartilage, i 

-laeecl at the tt 


OF THE MOUTH, &c. {Part IV. 

tlie largest of the whole. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 3. g. Tab. of the Trachea, constitutes the Base of the Larynx, ami 

\^\l. i-'i.-. l.i.k. gives a firm support to the Arytenoid Cartilages. 

When spread out, it is of an oblong shape, Tab. The two Aiyt<noui Cai tihi&i.. aic much smaller than 

LXXX. Fig- (i. a, « ; but in the natural situation, it the other Cartilages, and are plactd upon the upper, poa- 

consists of two lateral Wings or Portions, of a quadran- terior, and lateral parts of the Cricoid Cartilage, at a 

,.-,Wr form miitin" before in a longitudinal Angle, which small distance from each other, 'lab. LXXX. Fig, 7. 

can be readily felt in the fore part of the Throat, and e, e. Tab. XXXI. Fig. 2. G, G. 

which, from its being larger and projecting more in Men They are of a triangular form, and a little twistajj 

than in Women, has obtained the name of Bmium A- and are bent hack, so as lo have a broad concave Surface 

dami. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 3. g. behind, which is occupied by the Arytenoid Muscles. 

The upper part of the Angle is formed into a Notch, Tab. LXXX. Fig. 6. k, /. 
from which, and from the upper edge of the Cartilage in The anterior Surface of these Cartilages is convex, but 

general, a broad Ligament ascends, to fix it to the under upon each convexity there is a small Depression, which 

part of the Os Hyoidcs. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 3. c. is occupied by Glands. 

From the posterior corners four Processes project, call- Their upper Extremities, or Corona, are turned to- 
ed Cornua, two of which, termed Superior, are long, and wards each other, and arc now and then found loose in 
ascend to be joined by round Ligaments to the extremities the form of Appendices, winch are considered by name 
of the Cornua of the Os Hyoides. Tab. XLIX. Fig. 7. Authors as distinct Cartilages, and termed Cuneiform or 
Tab. LXXX. Fig. 3./,/. Tuvenulated. 

In the middle of these Ligaments, one or two small Their Cases are broad and hollow, where they are arti- 

Cartilaginous, or even Osseous Substances, of an oval culated by Capsular Ligaments with the Cricoid Cartilage, 

form, are frequently found. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 7. k, fc. upon which they are moved in different directions, by the 

The other two Cornua, called Inferior, are shorter action of various Muscles. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 4. i, t. 
than the Superior, and curved backwards, to be fixed by They are connected to each other, and to the adjacent 

smooth articulating Surfaces to the sides of the Cricoid Cartilages, by different Muscles and Ligaments. Tab, 

Cartilage. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 3. i, i. Fig. 6. b, b. LXXX. Fig. 4. 6. ?. 

The Thyroid Cartilage series for the protection of the The Arytenoid Cartilages form a part of the Opening 

other Cartilages, for the attachment of the Vocal Liga- called Gfott ,s, and give attachment to its Ligaments, 
ments, and, along with the Os Hyoides, preserves the pas- The Epiglottis, obtaining its name from its situation 

sage open, for the transmission of Food to the Stomach. above the Glottis, is of an oval form when surrounded 

In old age, this Cartilage is frequently ossified. by its Ligaments and Membranes ; but when divested of 

The Cricoid, Annular, or Ring-like Cart-Huge, is these, it is found to be narrow below, broad above, and 

placed below, and also behind the 'J hvruiil. and,, rounded, and slightly notched, at Hs upper extremity. 

may be rendiiv fell in the forepart of the Throat. Tab. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 7. a. Fig. 4. d. 
LXXX. Fig. 3. k. Fig. 4. g. Tab. LXXXL Fig. I. p. It is convex towards the 1 ongue, and concave towards. 

It is narrow before, when- it lies under the Thyroid the Glottis, with its point reflected a little forwards. 
Caitilage, ami llii* k, broad, and strong posteriorly, where It is placed behind the upper part of the Thyroid Car- 
it is placed behind that Cartilage. 'lab. LXXX. Fig. (J. tilagc, is situated obliquely over the Glottis, and may he 
/, g. seen and examined in the living Body, by pressing down 

Its posterior Surface is divided by a Ridge into two the root of the Tongue. 
lateral Defircsion.'; for the reception of the posterior Its under end is fixed by a broad and short Ligament 

Crico-arytenoid Muscles. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 4. A, A. to the middle Notch of the Thyroid (arlil age ; laterally 

Its under edge is horizontal, and fixed to the whole it is attached by two Ligaments to the whole length of 

circumference of the beginning of the Trachea. Tab. the Arytenoid Cartilages, forming, at this part, the Su- 

LXXX. Fig. 6. perior Openings of the Larynx. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 

The upper edge (.hints < onsideiably, or rises between 4. — 7. 9. 
the wings of the Thyroid* artilage, and has its anterior It is fixed to the roofs of the Os Hyoides and Tongue 

narrow part fixed to the under edge of thai Cartilage, by another Ligament, which is a Doubling of the inner 

Tab. LXXX. Fig. 3. 6. Membrane running along the middle of its anterior Sur- 

It has four small 'ulieiila.r Surface-, with distinct Can- face, and forming the Framun Epiglottitis. Tab. 

sular Ligaments, of which two arc placed above, for the LXXX. Fig. 3. d. Fig. 8. c. 

articulation of the Antcnmd ( artilages, and two at the Jt is vcrv elastic, and is much innrc pliable than the 

under and lateral parts, for the cornice t ion of the inferior other Cartilages, beii -i ; < .<-, .:■■..- ligamentous ua- 

Cornuaof the Thyroid Cariilaj.e. Tab. LXXX. Fig. C. ture. 

it A - It is found to have a number of Fissures, in which 

The Cricoid Cartilage forms part of the general Tube Lacuna; are placed, and to be perforated by numerous 



Foramu-ii which are the Mouths of so many Mucous 
Follicles, and which arc in a great measure concealed by 
the Membrane which covers it. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 7. 

It breaks the current of the Air coming from the 
Mouth and Nose, and prevents it from rushing too for- 
cibly into the Cavity of the Lungs. Pressed aud drawn 
doun by the Tongue and bv mi. all Muscles, it defends the 
Glottis, and shuts it completely in the time of Swallow- 
ing. After the action of !-i wallowing, it is raised by its 
MWti elasticity, and by the root of the Tongue, to which 
it is fixed ; returning to its former position. 
- Ligamenta Thyreo-arytenoidta, or Ligaments of the 
Glottis. — From the fore part of the Body of each of the 
Arytenoid Cartilages, a Ligamentous Cord, about three 
quarters of an inch in length, passes horizontally forwards, 
to be fixed by its other extremity, at the side of its fel- 
low, to the inner Surface of the anterior Angle of the 
Thyroid Cartilage. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 4. k, k. Fig. 5. 
e, e. Fig. 6. «i, m. 

The Opening formed between these Ligaments is call- 
ed Glottis, Mouth of the Larynx, and Rim a G/ottidis, 
and is of a triangular figure, the Ligaments being in con- 
tact before, but at a considerable distance from each other 
at their posterior extremities, the Cricoid Cartilage form- 
ing the back part of the triangle. 

Under these two Ligaments there are two others, larger 
and more distinct than the former, and which are com- 
monly considered as the local Ligament*; or the proper 
Ligaments of the Glottic. They arise from the Base of 
the Arytenoid Cartilages, and run in the same direction 
with the former, to be fixed also to the Thyroid Cartilage. 
Tab. LXXX. Fig. 4. /, /. Fig. 5./,/. Fig. 6. «, n. 

In the Interstice of the Superior and Inferior Liga- 
ments, on each side there is a Fissure, which leads to a 
small Membranous Cavity or Depression, that is about 
E of the point of the little Finger, and which Ik 

Tab. LXXX. Fig. 4. m,v 

its bottom turned ■ 
Fig. 5. g, g. 

These are the Ventricles of the Larynx of Galen — 
They are chiefly formed by the inner Membrane of the 

They differ in size in different people, have Mucous 
Follicles opening into them, and are found to be service- 
able in the modulation of the Voice. 

On the anterior Surface of each of the Arytenoid Car- 
tilages, there is a small Depression, filled by a Glandu- 
lar Body, which, not only covers the fore part of the Car- 
tilage, but is continued over the posterior extremities of 
thc^Ligaments of the Glottis. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 5. d, d. 

The Arytenoid Glands arc larger in some Subject ■* i ban 
in others. They were discovered, and are particularly 
described and delincainl, 1>\ MoilCAGNI. 

The Ligaments which connect die Epiglottis to ihe 


Notch of the Tbvroid Cartilage, and to the under side of 
the Os Hyoides, together with one which ties the Base of 
the Os Hyoides form a T> iangitiar vpace, which is also 
occupied by Cellular Substance and by Mucous Glands. 
Tab. LXXX. Fig. 3. between e and#. 

The Cavity of the Larynx is lined by a Membrane 
which is extremely irritable, and is every where perforated 
by the Mouths of small Mucous Glands, tor the purpose 
of moistening it. 

The Larynx has a number of Muscles, for its different 
motions, some of which are common to it and other pails 
of the Body, others are proper to itself ; all of which 
have been abrade described. 

The Arteries of the Larynx are the two Superior La- 
ryngeal, which come from the External Carotids, and 
the two Inferior Laryngeals, which are sent off from the 
Subclavian Arteries. 

The Superior Laryngeal Veins return to the Internal 
Jugulars; the Inferior to the Subelaviaus, or Superior 

The Nenvs are chiefly the Superior and Inferior La-' 
rvngeals, which are liramhcs of ilie Eighth Pair. 

'Ifae Larynx serves the purpose of Respiration, forms 
and modulates the Voice, ana is also useful in Deg/uti- 

It is the principal Organ of Voice ; — for, if a Hole be 
cut in the Trachea, of sufficient size to allow the Person 
to breathe freely through it, the power of producing 
Voice is destroyed till the cut is closed up. 

Voice is formed by the Air, in its passage through the 
Glottis, acting upon the Ligaments of the Glottis and 
Cartilages of the Larynx and Trachea, and thus produ- 
cing a Tremor;— and is different in different Persons, 
according to the form and -h in lure of the Larynx. 

The strength of Voice is in proportion to the quantity 
of Air expired, and the narrowness of the Glottis. 

A Tone is acute in proportion to the tension of (he parts 
of the Larynx and Trachea in general, of the Ligaments 
of the Glottis in particular, and to the contracted state 
of the Jtima Glottidis ; all of which circumstances are 
produced by the Muscles belonging to these parts. 

A Tone is grave in proportion to the reverse of the 

Speech is performed chiefly by the different parts of 
the Mouth, assisted by the Cavity of the Nose,— the La- 
rynx moving only in a small degree. 

When the Air passes through the Larynx without pro- 
ducing a tremor, it occasions a Wltisper. 

When a person speaks during Inspiration, the Voice Is 
thereby very materially altered, and, by practice, may be 
made to appear as coming from other places than the 
Mouth of the Speaker ; as is the case with those who 
tall themselves Vcntriloquixh: 

( 102 ) 


Views of the Salivart Glands, and of the Tongue, Larynx, and Trachea. 

A View of the Parotid GlaND. 

«, The frontal, 

A, The temporal muscle. 

c, The orbicularis of the eye-lids. 

d, The levator labii superioris. 

f, The zygomaticus major. 

g, The buccinator. 

/(, The depressor anguli oris. 

t\ labii superioris. 

Jc, The orbicularis oris. 
4, The masseter. 
mi, The parotid gland ; 

n, Its duct, running across the masseter, and j 
the buccinator muscle, to open into the moul 
0, The sterno-hyoid muscle. 
jj, The omo-hyoid muscle, 
y, The sterno-mastoid muscle, 
r, The cucullaris. 
s, s, The large pectoral muscles. 
/, t, The deltoid muscles. 

FIG. 2. 

m, The frontal, 

A, The temporal muscle. 

r, The orbicularis palpebral-!! 

rf, The compressor naris. 

«, The levator labii superior) 

/, anguli oris. 

£, The zygomaticus major. 

/i, The buccinator. 

/, The depressor anguli oris. 

p , The parotid gland. 

o, A gland, occasionally found, with a duct joining that 

of the parotid, 
r, The termination of the parotid duct in the mouth. 
5, The inferior maxillary gland. 
/, The sublingual gland, drawn a little down, from be- 

hind the lower jaw. 
V, v, «, The common integuments. 

a, 6, b, c, c, The os hyoides ;— c, its body ;— i, 6, its 
cornua ; c t c, its appendices. 

d, The epiglottis. — The letter is placed upon a ligament 
which ties it to the tongue and 09 hyoides. 

e, The ligament which fixes the os hyoides to the thyroid 

f,f> Hound ligaments fixing the cornua of the os hyoi 

to those of the thyroid cartilage. 
g. The thyroid cartilage ; the letter is placed upon Jnat 

part of it called Poinum Adami. 
A, A, The superior cornua of the thyroid cartilage. 

/, A hgauient fixing the cricoid to the thyroid cartilage. 

m, m. The two lobes of the thyroid gland. 

>i. Tin- isthmus of this gland. 

c, The cartilages of tbc upper end of the trachea. 

FIG. 4. 
A Bad View of the Larynx. 

ii, if, The cornua of the os hyoides. 

t>, A, The bmai! liniment which fixes the os h\ aides I" 
the thyroid, cartilage. 

r, r, Hound ligaments fixing the cornua of the o* Jjvoldes 
lo those of the thyroid cartilage. 

tt, The epiglottis. 

.-, -■, The lateral ligaments fixing the epiglottis to the ary- 
tenoid Cartilages. 



Fy i 



jt;/, The hollow cavity of the thyroid cartilage, 

superior and inferior coniua. 
g, The cricoid cartilage ; 
iiyhy Prints made upon it by the posterior crico- 

■l, i\ The arytenoid cartilages of the glottis. 
A, k. The superior ligaments (if the glottis. 
/, /, The inferior ligaments of the glottis, or ligaments of T 7 n 

the glottis vera, 
wi, «i, The ventricles of the larynx, 
n, The riina glottidis. 

1 the orifices of many 

FIG. 5. 

Part of the Larynx inclined forwards ,- 

natty behind, and eipmided, to shew the Appendages 
of the Ventricles of the Larynx. 

o, a, The upper part of the cricoid cartilage. 
/', The epiglottis. 

f, c, The arytenoid cartilages. 

*/, </, The long crura of the arytenoid glands. — The short 
crura lie under e, e, the superior, and j\f the infe- 
rior ligaments of the glottis. 

g, g, The ventricles of the larynx. 

FIG. 6. 

A lateral View of the Larynx, the Inferior Cornua 
of the Thyroid Cartilage being separated from the 
Cricoid, and turned aside. 

, Tht i 

posterior surface of the thyroid i 

4, by Its inferior cornua, separated from the cricoid car- 
tilage, and the right cornu turned aside. 

x, rf, rf, The epiglottis. 

t, e, Its lateral ligaments ; the right one is separated from 
the arytenoid cartilage, and turned hack, along with 
the corresponding side of the thyroid cartilage. 

ft The antenor narrow part of the cricoid cartilage ; 

-, Its posterior large and thick part. 

A, The articulating surface by which it is connected with 
the right inferior cornu of the thyroid cartilage. 

t, The articulating surface of the cricoid cartilage, for 
the connection of k, the right arytenoid cartilage, the 
capsular ligament of which is cut, and the cartilage 

FIG. 7. 
Ligaments of the Outer and Back Part of the Larynx. 

«, The epiglottis, in which a 

mucous glands, which exist here, 

membrane which covers the other cartilages, of the la- 

by A, The margins of the ala; of the thyroid cartilage. 

c, c, The cornua of the <>s hyuides, joined to the superior 
. cornua of the thyroid cartilage. 

d, The cricoid cartilage. 

c, e, The posterior concave surface of the arytenoid car- 

fif> Ligaments fixing the base of the arytenoid to the 

cricoid cartilage. 
g, g, Ligaments between the cricoid and thyroid car- 

hy A ligament fixing the arytenoid cartilages to each 

■i, i y The proper posterior ligaments of these cartilages, 
k, A, An osseous grmiula between each of the cornua of 

the thyroid cartilage and of the os hyoides. 
/, /, Lnpressious where the thyroid gland adheres. 
#», «;, Cartilages of the beginning of the trachea. 

A View of the Tongue, Larynx, Trachea, &c. 

(, o, The thyroid cartilage. 

>y The epiglottis. 

■, A ligament connecting the epiglottis to the tongue. 

f, One of the lateral ligaments of the epiglottis. 

•, The cartilages of the trachea. 

i The trachea and part of the bronchi cut length-ways, 
to shew the internal loi^ilinlinal bands of muscular 
fibres, and between these the orifices of excretory 

, g, The bronchi. 
, The esophagus. 

Tin: ph. trm 


a of the 

/, The left arytenoid cartilage in situ, 

tfty tit. The superior, and, 

n, «, The inferior ligaments of the glottis. 

o, o, The ventricles oi' the Ur\ n\, the right of whii 

displaced along with the thyroid cartilage. 
p. A section of the membrane lining the larynx. 
a, A parage leading down to the trachea. 
r. The trachea. 

ami, iniri-jxi-, ,1 : ( niui]g these, the papilla; media;. 
r, The foramen cacuin, surrounded by the third class of 

papilla;, called Majores. 
, The thyroid gland. 
, The isthmus ot this gland. 

, An appendix lVoni the thyroid gland eent upwards. 
i- thyroid musclei 

, r, The 
, The om 
, The sternohyoid i 

, The hvc-thyroid n 



A Bach fievrof the Larynx, Trachea 

f, o, Tbe thyroid cartilage. 

r, b, The right prominence, and left superic 

this cartilage. 
■, The cricoid cartilage. 
F, The arytenoid cartilages. 
', e, Tbe arytenoid glands. 
; The epiglottis. 
f, S, The 09 hyoides. 

A, A, The posterior crico-arytenoid muscles. 

/, The arytenoid muscles, as found In ilii, subject. 

A-, The thy ro- arytenoid muscle, occupying the lower re- 
gion of the ventricle of the larynx of this side. 

/, /, The sterno-hyoid muscles. 

m, m, The cartilages of the trachea. 

m, The soft or fleshy part of the trachea, stripped of its 
external coat, to -,Uir\\ it- numerous glands, the excre- 
tory ducts of which open into the trachea, between 
the muscular fibres seen in Tig. 8. 
. o, The glandular part of the trachea, separated and pi]U_ 

muscular fibres. 

( 105 ) 


The Thorax, or Breast, extends from ttic Neck to period when the Menses generally dtflappear,— tin 

the Diaphragm, and is divided inlo External and Inter- crease in size, and become soft and flaccid. 
nal parts. Under the Skin there is a large quantity of Fat, 


considerable portion of the bulk of the 
Mamma. It defend* tin- Glandular part, but is not found 
to pass into or communicate with the Lactiferous Ducts, 

The External Parts of the Thorax, besides the com- which some have asserted. Tab. CXXI. Fig. 12. <-, e, e, e, 

inon Integuments and Mammae, are, ft/if- 

The Muscles, consisting of the Perforates, Subclavii, Tb tue quantity of Fat in the Mamma, much of the 

and under end of each Platysma Myoides, which are hulk of the Breast depeuds ; from this circumstance, a 

situated anteriorly. ■ Woman with small Breasts frequently produces more 

The Serrati Magni, which are placed laterally. Millt m suckling, than those whose Mamma are of a 

The Trai>es,ii, Lttti*s'mi JJortn, and numerous other larger size. 
M'.i'ilt-;, placed posteriorly. The Glandular part of the Mamma is of a whitish 

The Liter-costates and Stemo-costates, which are si- colour, is of the Conglomerate kind, and therefore iri-e- 

tuated, the former between, and the latter on the inner 6 uliU ' ,n its Substance. Tab. CXXI. Tig. IS. G. 
side of the Ribs. It is composed of Lobes and Lobules, or of a number 

The Bones, consisting of Sternum, Bibs, and Dorsal of smaller Masses or Glands, which are separated by 

Vertebras.— All these parte, excepting the Mamma:, have ^ at » ;U1<1 tlK "«' :, K :iin are divided into still smaller parts, 

been already described. m which the Milk is originally secreted. 

Near the centre of the Mamma, but a little towards 

MammjE. the outside, is the Papilla or Nipple, which is of a Cy- 
lindrical form, and of a redder colour than the rest of 

The Mamma; are two Glandular Bodies, of a hemi- the Integuments of the Breast. It has a delicate Skin, 

>phericil form, situated on the anterior, and a Little to- and is extremely sensible. *" 
wards the lateral parts of the Thorax, adhering loosely It is of different sizes i 

by Cellular Substance to the Surface of the large Pecto- tions, and is always larger 

ral Muscles. Nursing. 

The term Mamma is peculiar (o the Breasts of Wo- It is capable of distension f™ .puliation, or when in- 

raen — In Men, they are called Mammilla ■ ;— ■in the fluenced by the Passions of th. Mind. 
Brute kind, Vbera. It is composed of a tough Cellular or Ligamentous 

In the Ape, and a few other Animals, these parts are Substance, which inclo-rs the Lactiferous Tubes, and 

placed, as in the Human Body, upon the Thorax ; but in which is so clastic, that after the part is drawn out or 

the generality of Quadruped's, they are situated under distended, it r:adily recover*, its former dimension, when 

the Abdomen, the cause of distension is removed. 

The Mammas vary in size in different Women, and in Upon the Apt 

the same Woman at different periods of life. tiferous Ducts a[ 

In Girls, previous to the age of puberty, they are re- those that enter its Base. 
markably small. Around the Nipple, there is a Circle or Disk, called 

About the age of fourteen, at which time the Menses, Areola,— nearly of the same colour with that of the 

in this (.li:: ■<; .^ist commonly begin to appear, they Nipple itself. Tab. CXXI. Fig. I"-'. ii, B. 
evolve and become prominent. The colour here, howev. r, varies at dill rent times of 

Near the commencement of each Menstruation, they life,— being Bond in Girl', of a pale biown in Women 

increase in size, ami diminish immediately after ibis [>e- mure advanced in life, and in old age livid ;uid dull, 
riod. During Pngnancv, i( is of a darker colour than at 

During Gestation they also increase in bulk, and soon other timts, in conse-mcncc of a_ change which takes 
after Duliv 
after several Gestaliuus, L \\v ;ipt to become pendulous. 



charge an oily Mucus, to defend the Nipple ami Areola In Children of both Sexe.% the Mammae are merely 

[.rom,, I il. Tab. (XX J. Fig. 12. c, c. Cutaneous Tubercles, and at the time of Birth contain a 

The Arteries of the Mamma are partly from the In- Milky-like Minus, which can Lie readily squeezed out. 

tcrnal, and partly from the External Mann ics ; the Tin- Fluid commonly disappears a short time after 

former of which are sent of)' from the Subclavian, and the Birth ; — hue I hi' it are various examples ou record, where 

latter from the Axillary Artery ; — the Branches entering Milk, has been brought to the Breasts, both of young 

iht- Mamma at different places. Girls and old Women, by the frequent application of a 

The Veins accompany the Arteries, and are dislin- Child to the jNipplc, and where there was no cause for 

gitished by the same name. suspecting this to be Hie consequence of Impregnation. 

The Absorbents* like the Blood-vessels of the Mamma, Nor are instances wauling of Milk having been brought 

are numerous. The greater part of them pass through to the Mammilla- ol Men by the same application., 
the .Axillary Glands ; others penetrate the Interstices' of The Mamma; add much to the ornament of the Sex, 

the Ribs, near the Sternum, and enter I he (.: lands which but serve in particular for furnishing Nourishment to 

belong to the Internal Mammarv Vessels, the Child, which is conveyed through the medium of the 

The Xervis are chiefly from the Axillary Plexus, a few Nipple. 
Branches being also sent off from the Intercostals, The Secretion begins soon after Delivery, and conti- 

From the extremities of the Arteries in the Substance nues to flow for many months, and even for some years, 

of the Mamma, numberless 'Cubes arise, called Ductus if the VYnm.iu -an Lie her Child ; and the more frequent- 

or Tubuli Laclijti i. They gradually urate into Trunks, !y the Milk is extracted, the greater is the iruantity of 

which run in a radiated manner, and, becoming greatly Milk received in a given time. 

enlarged in the time of Suckling, serve as Reservoirs in The 01.e1.1Uon <>i .-inkmn depends upon the principles 

which the Milk is contained. Tab. CXXI. Fig. 12. of the Air-pump.— The Child embraces the Nipple <S 

H, It, h. Fig. 13. 14. ly with it. Lips, whkli prevents the external Air from 

The Lactiferous Ducts are accompanied, in the Sub- entering, draws tie Ducts to a straight hue, and prepares 

■•lance of the Mamma, by a tough white Elastic Sub- :i -.pace for the Milk, which is forced from the Breast br 

stance, which follows them i<> the Nipple. the pressure of the Atmosphe 

At the root of the Nipple they become contracted, and in the manner a fluid follow! 

arc there from tu-elre to eighteen and upwards in number. Pump or Syringe. 
Tab. (XXL Fig. 13. 14. _ _ Milk varies in its qualities in different Animals. It is 

lather bom the want of uniformity, however, with re- considered to be a sort of Emulsion, composed of an oily 

spect to their number in different Subjects, or from the Concrete or Butter,— a Curd, from which the Cheese is 

difficulty of perceiving them, llicy have been variously produced,— and a Serum, or Whey, that contains a lUu- 

er-iim iied by different Authors. cilaginous Sugar, which keeps the two other Substance* 

Near the root of the Nipple, they have been supposed in union with its Water. Each of these ingredients is 

by Dr Meckel to form a circle of communication ;— again composed of various other*, which have been most 

but this has been ascribed, by -till later Anatomists, to a attended to in the Milk of the Cow, from which that oT 

laceration of Vessels. Numerous preparations and c\pe- Women differs chiefly in having less Curd, and that, so in- 

liments,— particularly that ..f ihriuing in an Injection at timately combined uith the Oil, as not to vield Buttet, 

; Duct, and finding that it fills only one part of the and in possessing more Saccharine Matter. ' 

The Mamma: and Muscles, covering the fore and latf- 

" ",' \ \""\".T ra ' par's or the Thorax, being turned aside, and the 

in sucn a nv.innc, n,,, ine p.,,1. us „„„- „| (In Mil*. HMjs .,r UTV ,. m | s Cllt , Vfim t | H , sternum and turned back, 

Utyito ettendthem aMUimil * tcd * *° la ^ a qmm- t|u , Ialmial Parts of thc Tll0rax w broilgh t into 

hJthl i!' SL Ni PJr 'rt^nT" r n '' " tc " dot] '- 33 ""They consist of the Pleura, which lines the Thorns 

hj the appmaho, of ,1,, inid's Month,_ t .hv Duets be- ,,„ im/^//„„«,. „hi. h div id.s i. into right and left C* 
tl'li^uM 1 ') P,(n '' '"ill ' ™ ^ l ° a " 0W vities, and contains .everal \ ,-m 1-, Nerves, &c. between 

A , S . Tv ' i , ■ ^ ^ '- :iv ™ i-i\ir PrricttrdiHm and Heart, which occupy 

nnm.,iLelvn!o\c, luX'llnZ HiluZn" ' "" ' l! ' C m ' lilli ' --^ ^ ^'"^ "'hit h surround the Ho* 

i. , , ■ ', ,. !',* ' S J " a -c "" t» and till the greater part of tiic Thorax. 

Sometimes one or more ni the Lactiferous Ducts ter- r 

'"""' ,,P "" ""' S »rt''«"l'"- A,,,,!., ft ,,„!, ,,„, . 

ds there were of the Lac- 

The Pleura is a thin Membrane, with some degree of 

r.iBT iv.] 



trjnsparency, and of considerable strength, which lines 
the inner siile of the Thorax, ami covers most of its 
Contents. Tab. LXXXVI. Fig. 1. C, c, c. 

Its External Surface i> Cellular, and adheres closely to 
the parts with which it is connected. 

Its Internal Surface is smooth aiici polished, being 
moistened by a Serous Fluid, which exudes from its Ar- 
teries ; hence the Pleura is one of those Membr. 
ed Serous. 

It is divided into tiro Lateral Sacs or Pleura;, of un- 
equal size, the right being the larger, corresponding with 
the greater size of the Right Lung, which it covers. 
The form of the Sacs corresponds exactly with that of 
tin Mil-rounding Booed of the Thorax. 

The Pleura: adhere to the Periosteum of the Ribs, 
line the Iuter-costalcs and St.. rno-coMales, the Sternum, 
and Dorsal \ ertebrar, and cover the Pericardium, Lungs, 
and lateral or fleshy parts of the Diaphragm. 

They descend at the under part of the Thorax, as far 
as the Twelfth Pair of Ribs, to which they are attached. 
At the upper end of the Thorax, tliey rise a little above 
the first Rib on each side. 

Behind the Sternum, the Pleura are contiguous to 
each other, and form the Partition lulled Mediastinum, 
v Inch extendi between the Sternum and Vertebra:. 

The Arteries of the Pleura are from those of the ad- 
jacent parts, viz. from the Inter-costal, Mammary, Dia- 
plir.igmat.ic, liinik liial, and Esophageal Arteries. 

The Veins, which return the Blood, accompany the 
Arteries, and are distinguished by the same name. 

The Nerves are from the Inter-costals and Diaphrag- 
matics, but too small to be easily traced ; and the Mem- 
brane itself is not observed to possess much sensibility in 
the sound state. 

The Pleura, by its smoothness, facilitates the motions 
oF the Heart and Lungs, divides the Thorax into Cavi- 
ties, and strengthens its conlaiuiny .nul contained parts. 

The Mediastinum, so named from its situation in the 
middle of the Thorax, extends, as has been already ob- 
served, between the Sternum and Vertebra:, but is in- 
tercepted by the Heart and root of the Lungs, and di- 
vides the Thorax into two distinct Cavities, which have 
no communication with each other. 

It is formed by a reflection of the Pleura, and is of 
course double, and contains between its Layers a consi- 
derable quantity of Cellular Substance, by which they 
arc united. Tab. LXXXVI. Fig. 1. C. 

It is divided into Anterior and Posterior Mediastinu, 
the former of which is situated at the fore, and the latter 
at the back, part of the Thorax, 

The Anterior M.iha-.1iiium is coiiihi led before to the 
Sternum, and behind m I lie Pericardium and large Vcs- 
Sels of the Heart. Tab. CXLII. K. 

The two Layers of the Anterior Mediastinum are 

clobelv applied to each oilier, -excepting at the upper pan 
of the '1 borax, where thc\ are separated be the remain-, 
of the Ttn/mus Gland. Tab. LXXXVI. Fig. 1. D. 

At the upper part of the Thorax, il lies cxacllv behind 
the middle of the Sternum ; but in il, descent, it inclines 
gradually to (lie left edge- of that Hone. 

- pushed through the 


I witb. — lu 

ir, Li i 

■ M< 

dia-iluiuiu was fount! to descend along the middle of the 
Sternum; and other-, though rare, where il defended 
even to the right side of this Bone. 

The Posterior Mediastinum reaches from the root of 
the Lungs and back part of the Heart, to the Dorsal 

Between the Layers of the Posterior Mediastinum, a 
Triangular space is formed, in which are situated the un- 
der end of the Trachea, the Esopha 






.some Lviiq.hali. Claud-, and the Eighth Pa 

The Blood-vessel* of the Mediastinum are from those 
of the neighbouring parts: — The Anterior Mediustina 
is supplied by Branches from the Subclavian, Internal 
Mammaries, and Diaphragm atics, — and the Posterior 
Mediastinum, by Branches from the Inter-costals and 

The Veins accompany the Arteries, and have the same 

The Mediastinum divides the Thorax into two Ca- 
vities, supports its general Contents, keeps one Luog 

from pressing upon the other when the Person lies on his 
side, and prevents Fluids, which, in consequence of acci- 
dents or disease, may be contained in the Cavity of the 
Thorax, from passing from one side to the other. 

The Pericardium, Sac, or Capsule of the Heart, is 

one of the strongest Membranes of the Cody, and its size 
such as to be properly adapted to that of the Heart, 
which it contains. Tab. LXXXVI. Fig. 1 . E, E. Tab. 

It ia formed of two Layers ; the External of which is 
a continuation of that part of the Pleura which forms 
the Anterior Mediastinum, and which afterwards parses 
over the Lungs and lateral parts of the Diaphragm. 

The Internal ljai,er is smooth, tendinous-like, and has 
Fibres running in different directions ; is polished on its 
inner Surface, and stronger than the other. 

It adheres so firmly to the Tendinous part of the 
Diaphragm, as not to he ^-pirated from it without much 

The Pericardium extends a considerable way beyond 
the base of the Heart, and includes the large Blood-ves- 


the roots of tlieii' first principal Branches, 
sequence of which il forms several An ;hs, which 

i Person ad- 

Oi termed Ovj.vb of (he Peri 

t tO cover the 
! ii, the Internal is a No ii fleeted;, fir# 
over the roots of the large Blood-vcf st Is, Bud then uur 
(lie Heart, to form its proper coveting; in the same 
manner the Tunica Conjunctiva is reflected from the Eye- 
lids to cover the fore part of the Eye; or, strictly 
speaking, the Heart lies behind or on the outside of the 

From the ends of the Extreme Arteries upon its Sur- 
face, a Fluid, called Liquor Pericnril/i, is discharged, 
bv which it is lubricated, and the effects of friction di- 
minished. " 

The Liquor Pericardii is commonly found, after death, 
in the quantity of ;i few Drachms, though 
ly of one or two Ounces. 

It is redder in a young Subject than i 
vanced in life, in whom it becomes paler, or more ot a 

The Arteries of the fore part of the Pericardium are 

from the Internal M.ia tries and Din phra ^unities ; those 

of its back part from the Brom hials and Esophugenls. 
'The Veins correspond with the Arteries and have the 

The Pericardium preserve'- the Heart in situ, prevents 
it from pressing upon the Luulis ; defends ii from being 
injured by these, or hv orh< r parts that surruund it ; and 

i- dividi-d into different <_'av iiir-, and inclosed in the Pe- 
ricardium. Tab. LXXXI. F. 

II. is situated in the Cavity of the Thorax, behind the 

"The Baw is placed 1, 

(kwanU 11. 

xt the Spina the 

1 ppcr pai't upposed to the 

•ifjiih Dor 

a] Vertebra, while 

the Body and Apex me 

rds, and obliquely 

over to the left side. Tat 


In Quadrupeds, the He 

it is placed 

upon a line with 

ilu Sternum : the point oJ 

it bcint; tl 

e inik part which 

louche* the Diaphragm,— 

n the Hun. 

a Body, the Apex 

of <l.e Fifth and Sixth True Kihs of that Side, ,„■ a 
Mile bilfrtv the left Nipple. Here the Pulsation mav 
be felt w the living Body, b consequence of the Apex of 

the Heart being elevated and thrust forward during the 
contraction of this Organ. The situation, however, varies 
in a small deuTce, according m the positmn uf the Body 
and state of "Respiration. Tab. LXXXI. F. 

Though this be the common situation of the Heart, a 
few rare and singular instance; have occurred, where it 
has been found to occupy the right side of the Thorax ; 
and a displacement has cornel inies happened, in come, 
quence of different kinds of Tumour's in the left side of 
this Cavity. 

The Superior or Anterior Surface of the Heart is con. 
vex, aud is opposed to I lie posterior Surface of the Ster- 
num ; the anterior edges of the Lungs intervening. 

The Inferior or Posterior Surface is flat, and rest* 
upon the Tendon of the Diaphragm nhich supports h\ 
'I he Heart is not much alH-ctcd, however, by the mo. 
tions of that Muscle in time of Respiration ; its Teudoa 
moving only in a small degree. Tab. LXXXVI. Fig.2. 
The right side of the Body of the Heart is sharp, and 
is called', by Dn Halleu, ftforga Acutm. 

The left side is round, and is termed, by the same 
Author, Margo Obtusus. 

The Base is formed of a Right and Left Auricle, and 
the Body of a Right and Left Ventricle. 

When all the Cavities of the Heart are distended, the 
Right Auricle, and part of the corresponding Ventricle, 
project into the right, and the rest of the Heart into the 
left Cavity of the Thorax. 

The Heart is connected above and behind to the upper 
and back part of the Thorax, through the Medium of 
(lie gratl lc--se/s which go into, or pass out from it. 
Tab. CLIX. 

The other parts of the Heart are free, being merely 
contiguous to the inside of the Pericardium. 

The External Surface of the Heart is covered with a 
thin, smooth, Mcudirawui.s Cunt, which is a reflection of 
the inner Layer of the Pericardium, and which giics ad- 
ditional strength to its Fleshy Fibres-. 

Between this Coat and the Substance of the Heart, 
there is commonly a considerable quantity of Fat, which 
lubricates it, and facilitates its n 
The Substance of the Heart < 
bres, smaller but firmer, and ino: 
l lie rib res of Muscles generally 
the Body. 

The Fibres of the Heart run in different directions, 
longitudinally and transversely, but most of them oblique- 
ly. Tab. LXXXII. Fig. 5.— 10. 

Many of them run over the point of the Heart from 
one Surface to the other, and the whole arc so much 
twisted and folded, and .so variously intermixed, as to 
render it difficult to unravel or describe them. — In gene- 
ul, however, their course is such as to lessen theCavit.ies 
of the Heart in all their dimensions. 

The Cavities of the Heart are lined villi a llYmlu me 

extremely thin, but dense and strong, to defend it against 

the pressure of the Blood, and to prevent the latter from 


isists of Muscular Fi- 
closely connected than 
■e in the other parts of 



insinuating itself between the Muscular Fibres of this 

The Heart is formed of an Anterior or R'gl/t, and a 
Posterior or Left side, or of a Right and a Left Heart, 
joined together by a Partition, whirl] prevents the two 
sides from having any direct communication with each 
other. — The terms Bight and Left, however, are more 
applicable to the Heart of the Quadruped, and those of 
Anterior and Posterior to that of the Human Body, 

The Right Heart belongs to the Lungs, and has, there- 
fore, also the name of Pulmonary ,■ and the .Left Heart 
to the rest of the Rudy, and is on that account called 

Each side of the Heart is Inrnidir-d with a set of 7'cius, 
with an Auricle, a Ventricle, and an Artery, and also 
with two sets of f'tdres, one of which is situated between 
the Auricle and Ventricle, the other between the Ven- 
tricle and Artery. 

At the right side of the Heart are two Veins, called 
from their large size Feint? Cava- ; (lie one Superior, the 
other Inferior. Tab. LXXXV. P. T. 

The Superior lemr Cava, called also Jena Caen De- 
$ce?t<{c/n, conveys the Blood from the upper parts of the 
Body; and the Inferior Jena Cava, termed likewise A- 
scendenn, conveys it from the lower parts ; and both ter- 
minate in the Right Auricle. The Blood in the Auricle 
is prevented from returning by the fulness of the Veins, 
ana by the pressure of the Blood a tergo. 

The Auric/, is situated upon tin right, and partly upon 
the back part of the Heart. It in somewhat of an oval 
form, and ia divided into the Ri\lil Sinus Fenosus, and 
Proper Auricle. Tab. LXXXV. W— Z. 

The Sinus Fenosus is formed by the union of the two 
Vena; Cava:, which swell out towards the anterior and 
left side. It is notched at it:, anterior edge, is thin when 
compared with the currispoiuling \ Liilricle, but is a Mus- 
cular of considerable strength, and both upon 

is peculiar to the Projection in the Hearts of Brute Ant- 

Under this Angle or joining of the Venae Cavse, there 

is the Vestige of the Font men Ovale, which, in the Fee- 

Auricles, but in the Adult, is tilled ,,,, l, v its Membrane, 
and hums the Fo-sa Oioi'i.s. Tub. LXXXIV. o. 

The Foramen Ovale is generally lilled in the Adult, 
but sometimes a small Aperture remains; and this has 
frequently detected in the Female than in the 

Male Subj 
The Fo 

i Oralis 



It is in form of a Crescent, with the convex edge fixed 

to the union ill ihe Sniiij and i av.i, and the concave edge 
turned obliquely upwards, reaching about halt w av over 
the Mouth of the Cava. Its size and appearance,' how- 
Its posterior Cormi is continued with the left side of 

. LXXII. Fig. 1 1 . F. 

id it [iMieeih Cribri- 
m after Birth. 
prevent the Blood of 

liit B!r-od of the lufei 


;de or i 

is the Projet- Valve, to prevent the } 

tion or Appendix, termed, from ils supposed resemblance into the Vein. Tab, 
to the Ear of a Quadruped, f'roper Jurir/c. It is form- LXXXII. Fig. II. G. 
cd by a blind Sac, winch is serrated and notched on ils The inner Bide of the 

posterior edge, and convex or rounded on iheotlu-r, ami ;:mi ironi il.e Sinn 
terminates obliquely in an obtuse point. Tab. LXXXV. Pillars in it, which, fr< 
W, X. the Teeth ofa Comb, ... 

The Sinus and Proper Auricle form one common C'a- cult' Auricula: Pecfiuut; 
vity, have no valve between them, and are therefore Idled 'ihe Musculi Peetiiu 

and emptied at the same time. 

"Where the two Cava; meet in the Hearts of Quadru- 
peds, there is a Pro/ntion seen in the Sinus Venosus, 
called Tubercuhwt Lowr.jii, which is supposed to pre- 
t the blood of the one Cava from rushing upon that of 

a readily distill- 
alter of Fiesig 

I resemblance to 

■ ■in dii 

.LXXXIV. Fig.l. m 

i ■ a.imi, j-imu 
lit whole it r< UeuLueu 

the other, and to direct it into the Auricle 

\t 1 1 meeting of the two Cava: hi the Human Heart, 
an Angle is formed, which also lias ircquently got the 
name of Tubercutum Loweki This term, however, 

Between the Flesh v Pill.-, are fh urrs<i;m or Fir •- 

riMM, where the sides of the Auricle are tl and semi . 

transparent, being chielly funned of ihe outer and inner 
Membranes only. 

At the \wu\o\- and h ft sidi of the Sinus Venoms, and 
opposite to ;i Cronvi situated externally between the Au- 
ncle mid Vtuuulc, ilurc i< a Hole, ; in>e an inch in din- 


Meter, which opens into the upper and right part of the the Blood, until a Septum or Partition is formed at 

corresponding Ventricle. Tab. LXXXIV . Fig. 1 . s, s. the Mouth of the Ventricle, during the contraction of 

The Hi' lit Auricle receives the Blood from the \ enre the latter. — The Papilla:, by their contraction, prevent 

Cava and Coronary Vein,, and, In it, Muscular contrac- the Valve from going into the Auricle, 
tion, discharges it into the corresponding Ventricle, out The valve is opened and pieced back, against the sides 

of which it is prevented iVoni redlining by a Valve, called of the Ventricle, by tbe Blood, iu its passage from the 

Hr&itapid, placed within the Ventricle. Auricle. 

The Bight or Pulmonary Ventricle is situated on the The upper and left side of the Ventricle becomes 

fore side of the Hi-art, is of a triangular form, and much smooth and uniform, and leads to a large Opening, about 

thicker and stronger than the corresponding Auricle, an inch in diameter, and of a firm callous nature, which 

Tab. LXXXV. a, /-, c, d. is the Mouth of the Pulmonary Artery.. 

It has internally many strong Eminences, Columns, The Right Ventricle, by its dilatation, receives the 

Eacertuli, or Cords, called CofavuuB Carnete. Tab. Blood from the Auricle, and sends it, by a strong and 

LXXXII, Fig. 11. O, O. sudden convulse con tract ion, to (he Pulmonary Artery, 

The Colvmnm run in different directions, but the from whence it is prevented from returning by Three 

strongest of them longitudinally, and are of various sizes, Valves placed iu the .Mouth of that Artery, 
forming so many distinct Muscles, which are extremely The Valves at the Mouth of the Pulmonary Artery are 

compact iu their structure, and compose a beautiful, in- called t'alvulee Semiiunares, vel V gmo.dva;, from the re- 

trie ate, and irregular net-work. semblance of their edges to those oi a Crescent. Two of 

In general, they adhere through their whole length to them are plated in the tore, and one in the back part of 

each other, or to the sides of the Ventricle; but many of the Artery. Tab. LXX.X1V. Fig. 3. i, (', i. 
them are loose in their middle, and may be raised by a Each ol them forms a small Sin, one edge of which 

Probe put under them. adheres to a third part of the circumference of the inside 

They assist the Ventricle iu its Systole or contraction, of the Artery ; the other edge is loose in the Cavity of 

S:event it from being overstretched in its Diastole or that Vessel, and is somewhat thicker and stronger than 

latation, and agitate the Blood in its passage thro ugh the rest of the Valve— the thickened edges serving it as 

the Ventricle, so as to mix its different parts freely to- Ligaments. Tab. LXXXII. Fig. 13. E, E, E. 
get her, and prevent Coagulation. The loose edge ha- a gt neral Curve, divided into fan 

They are supposed to bring the opposite sides of the smaller ones, which meet in a paint at the middle. 
Vent lick- complete ty together, during its contraction. The Valves are chiefly formed of a doubling or exten- 

Between the Columns; are many dei-p Oruuvc^ Pits, or siou of the inner Coat of the Artery. 
FoeeiF, into all of which the Blood readily enters. In the middle point, or loose edge of each of the Valves, 

Around the Parage, between the Auricle and Ven- there is a small hard Trian^iilui < ,i viutla, of a somewhat 

tricle, there is a Tendinous Margin or Ring, from the redder colour than the vest of the Valve, called, fremiti 

whole edge of which a circular Membrane is sent off, reputed Discoverers, Corpu-Tn'itin Auranth, vel Corpus- 

called Valeitla Trhii-pi , vel Teighnkin, from its having culum MohgagnI; or, from its resemblance in shape to 

three principal points or divisions, though there are the Seed of the Sesanuim, Corpwctiltan Sesamoideum. 

others, but they are less considerable. Tab. L XXXIV. Tab. LXXXIII. Fig. 5. n, a, a. 
Fig. I. »-, r. Fig. 3. c, e. Tab. LXXXII. Fig. 1 1. K,K. The Corpuscles complete the Valves at the centre of 

From the edge of the Tricuspid Valve, many small the Artery, and enable them to make a stronger resistance 

round Tendinous Conk of unequal size arc sent off. Tab. against the Blood, while the Artery is in action. 
LXXX1V. Fig. 3.f,f,g,g. The Semilunar Valves are concavt towards the Artery, 

The Chorda Tendinea descend obliipu Iv within the row ret 'towards the Ventricle, and, when shut, theirloose 

Yentriclejn the same direction with the \ alvc from which edges are opposed to each other, so as to enable them to 

they arise. form acomplcte./>ar/#»n between the Ventricle ami Artery. 

They are Iked to the extremities of a few strong Pa- Opposite to the Semilunar Valves, the Artery bulge* 

pillae or Column* Came*, vthich are joined by' their out, and forms Three Projections; which have corre- 

other extremities to I he c<nir, ponding sides of the V. n- spouding Pits or Depression* wiihiii, and are called, from 

tricle. Besi.les tJ K three principal portions ol' the Valve, their Discover, r, .VhjimVai.sai.vje. Tab. LXXXV.r. 
it has some Tendinous Cords, and Fleshy Pillars of in. The Sinuses of Valsalva are of the 

fenor -u.o, u\ed in the <;ua-i manner with the rest. Tab. those Dilatations which are found in the Veins and Lvm- 

^r? XIV '" F ' g -' ' i '' / '' *" phatics, between their Sides and Valves ; and, like them, 

The Tricuspid Valve prevents the reflux of the Blood arc parLlv formed by the pressure of the Fluids upon the 

to the Auricle, during the contraction of the Ventricle, side, of the Vessels. 

the Blood at this tune insinuating itself 1m ween the The Pulmonary Artcrv receives the Blood from the 

Walls of the latter and the Valve. Right Ventricle, 'and, by its contractile power, assists 

The Tendons allow the Valve to be pushed back by the Ventricle iu driving it through the Lungs. 


te Blood in 

externally between tin: Auricle and Ventricle, similar to 

that on the right side. Tab. LXXXV. m. 

The Left Auriele receives the Blood from the Pulmo- 

by the cur- 

nary Veins, ami, l.v its Muscular contraction, drives it 

»r stroke of 

to the Left Ventricle, from which it is prevented from 

returning, by a Valve in the Ventricle, called Milruh.-. 

The Left Ventricle is situated in the posterior and left 

., wliich K " 

part of the Heart, and is somewhat of an egg shape. 


Tab. LXXXV. »;,»,», p. 

Its sides arc about three //Vers and ^trun^er 

u-teey, like 

than those of the Bight Ventricle; the thickness being 

parts of the 

in proportion to the force required to propel the Blood 

r Branches. 

to the most remote parts of the Body. Tab. LXXX1V . 


It is lUirrMter anil njimiA r, lint (onsulcvablv torrei; 

diate Cells 

both on its External Surface and in it. Internal Caviti, 

than the Bight \ entricle, and generally descends some 

the Lungs, 

way below the other, and forms the Apex Cordis. Tab. 

being driven towards the sides of die An 
rent of the Blood, upon the next contract 
the Ventricle. 

The Pulmonary Artery passes behim 
aud separates into Righi 'and Left Brat 
to the corresponding parts of the Lungs. ' 
/. E* «■ 

The two Branches of the Pulmonai 
those of the Arteries of the Viscera in ot 
large Cavities, suddenly divide into still so 

From the extreme Arteries of the Luii 
iog Veins arise, which are merely the con 
flection of the Arteries, without any hit 
or dilatations. 

The Pulmonary Veins, in the Substanc 
gradually unite, and form Four Principal Trunk,; which LXXXV. Tab. LXXXIV. Fig. 3. " 
terminate in, and carry t lie Blood to the Left Auricle. The Cavity is commonly described as being less than 
Tab. LXXXV. /", k, f, k, I. that of the Bight \ entricle ; — but the apparent difference,- 

Of the Pulmonary Veins, Two come from the right, which takes place after death, is ae. minted I'm- „ uli m em- 
and Two from the left Lung, and terminate in the cur re- ing propriety bv some Author-., — from the Left Ventricle 
spouding sides of the Left Auricle, towards its upper being then for the most part found emplv, and the Bight 
part. Tab. LXXXIV. Fig. %.&g. one full, aud from the greater degree of contractility in 

The Left Auricle is considerably iliickcr and stronger the former, 
than the Right, and is also divided into Sinus Venosus That the capacity of the Cavities of the right and left 
and Proper Auricle, which form one Common Cavitr sides of the Heart, is more- nearlv cpial during life than 
without the intervention of any Valve. Tab. LXXXIV. after death, or than it is generally supposed to be, is 
Tig. 2. a, b, c. evident from the appear ■-■ ■■■ <-i \'. ','. 'it of the Human 

The Left Sin/is T'cnrjsus, called also Sinus Pulmona- and also of the Brute kind, and from Injections thrown 
lis, is turned towards the. Spine, is more of a cubic form into the two sides of the Heart, where the force applied 
than the- Right one, but resembles it in the uniformity is in proportion to the ulainc -L. ngili of each -idc-. 
and smoothness of its outer and inner Surfaces. The inner Surface of the L li \ cm rick- lias the same 

t of the Sinus, the Proper general appearance with the \ entricle of the right side, 
i distinct Hat Appendix or but differs from it in having its Columns Caroca. larger 
fitli "different Curvatures or Indentation;, upun its and more numerous tinner ,.ud -trongcr ; more detach, 
edges. Tab. LXXXV. w. ed, and more varied in their directions. They form 

The inner part of the Proper Auricle is longer, but Meshes in the shape of Lo/i-nge>, in v. hich art Colnmna 
narrower than that on the evjit side ; liken, however, of a mure si: uder i):aori, i.iiciu p; e. McUs of an in- 
it is formed of Columnar, wit ji Furrows between them, ferior size. 
Tab. LXXXIV. Fig. 2. m, m. In the P. : -n between the Auricle 

The Proper Auricle is some v. 1 '.; at less capacious than and Veniii-. . ■ -un .'. Inch a Circular 

that on the right side ; but the Sinus is as much larger as Valve goes off, Ippai ctoa similar to that be- 

to render the two common Cavities of the right and left 
Auricles nearly equal. 

The two Auricles have a thiu Fleshy Septum between 
them, in which, as has been already mentioned, th-.rc is 
the Foramen Ovale iu the Fcetus ;— but in the Adult the 
Partition is generally perfcei. Icavmg imielv the ve-'"-_ 
Of the Valve which belonged to this Pa-age, and which 

degree of transparency. Tab. LXXXIIL Fig. 3. G. 

From the under part of (lie Sinus Venosus, a Passage 
leads down to the Cavity of the Left Ventricle, Tab. 
LXXXIV. Fig. 2. o r and ia opposite to a Groove seen 

ijl.d l'i 

cliliei-ing i.i 
pt in being 

;. 3. 7, 


,,l' ] at. 

is lai-K 

IT tl 

1 is s 

tall the 

reflux ' 


r Blood 



After (lie contraction is over, the Valve returns 
former situation, by the impulse oi' a fresh curi 
Blood from tbc Auricle. 

Between the Right and Left Ventricle, there is a 
strong, impervious Partitin'i, whn-li forms a share ot the 
general Septum Cordis, having Columns.- Camca: upon 
it, similar to those upon the oilier parts ol the Ventricles. 
It is compoied partly by the Wall of the Right, but 
chiefly by that of the Left Ventricle; the Right being' 
united to the Left, almost in the form of an Appendix ; 
but the Fibres of the two Ventricles intermix in such a 
manner aa to render the Septum somewhat thicker and 
stronger than the other parts of die Ventricle. Tab. 
LXXXIV. Fig. 3. d, d. Tab. LXXXIII. Fig. .5. 

The Partition prevents any direct communication be- 
tween the two Ventricles. 

Opposite to the outer edge oF the Septum, both upon 
the upper and under Surfaces of the Heart, there is a 
Groove in which some of the principal Trunks of the 
Coronary Vessels are situated. Tab. LXXXV. Tab. 
LXXXIII. Fig. 3. 

At 'the fore and right side »f tin: \ alvnla Mitral i ■, and 
behind the beginning of the Pulmonary Artery, there is 
a Round Opening, which is the Mouth of the Aorta, and 
which is nearly of the same size with that of the Pulmo- 
nary Artery. 

Under this opening, the Surface of the Ventricle be- 
comes smooth and equal, having none of the Columns 
Carnex which are seen on the other parts of the sides of 
its Cavity. Tab. LXXXIII. Fig. 5. A. 

The Left Ventricle receives the Rlood sent to it from 
the Auricle, ami, In a unit paction similar to, but much 
stronger than that of the Right Ventricle, propels it to 
the Aorta. 

At tlie Mouth of the Aorta, there are three Semilunar 
Valves, wit!, their Corjut-rula Achavtii, perfectly simi- 
lar to those of the Pulmonary Allen, — hut somewhat 
Wronger. Tab. LXXX1V. Fig. 3. ,-.' Tab.LXXXIlL 
Fig. 5.ff,ff t ov 

On the outside of the Semilunar Valves, are the Si- 
nuses of Valsalva, resembling those of the Pulmonary 
Artery,— but a Utile more prominent. Tab. LXXXIV. 

the Aorta. — They are returned towards the sides of the 
Aorta, in the same manner, and from the same cause, aa 
those in the Pulmonary' Artery. 

The Aorta paves upward- from the lop of t lie Left 
Ventricle, ana IB situated first behind, and then on the 
right side of the Puhmmurv Alter-, and between it and 
the Superior Cava. Tab. LXXXV. r, e. 

It bear* nearh the same proportion in il.i : 
strength to the Pulmonary Arier.-, which (he sides of the 
Left Ventricle do to those of the Might. 

When the Aorta is about to send off the first of its targe 
Branches at the top of the Thorax, it is of great size, 

[Part IV 1 , 

to its aud is sometimes called the Large Sinus of Valsalva 
ent of Tab. LXXXV. s. 

The Aorta receives the Blood from the Left Ventricle, 

thick, and by its Muscular contraction re-acts upon it, and as. 

Resides the Hk>nd-ves.,els a 
which arc common it, the Heart and tl 
the Heart is furnished with Vc-.-el- peculiar tu itsflF* 
termed Coronary, from a Corona which they form upOQ 

1 Veil 

the Sinuses at the 
Mouth of the Aoii-i, opposite to two of the Semilunar 
Valves. Tab. LXXXIII. Fig. 5. 6, b. 

One runs in a Groove between the Right Auricle and 
Ventricle, and suj.pjic* chiefly the right side of the Heart. 
Tab. LXXXIII. Fig. "J. a. 

The other pa-scs partlv between the Left Auricle and 
Ventricle, and partly in the Groove between the Ventri- 
cles, on the fore side of the Heart, — supplying the left 
side of that Organ, and communicating with the Branches 
of the other Artery on its upper and under Surfaces. 
Tab. LXXXIII. Fig. 2. b. 

The Coronary Arteries are entirely dispersed upon the 
substance of the Heart, and upon the roots of the great 
Vessels, forming upon these some of the minute Branches, 
termed Vasa Vasorum. 

The Coronary \rii lies, from their situation opposite to 
the Valves, have been supposed to he tilled at a different 
time from that of the rest of the Aru-rious System ; — but 
from Fx pertinent, it seems now sufficiently ascertained, 
that the Coronary Vessels have their Pulsation at the 
same instant with the other Arteries. 

The Coronari/ Veim return the Blood from their corre- 
sponding Arteries. '1 he greater part of them join into a 
Trunk, called the Gnat ihi-tmaiy Vein, which, idler 
making a turn from the leftside, and running between 
the Left Auricle and Ventricle, terminates in the under 
and back part of the Right A uncle, where it is covered 
by Us Semilunar Valve. Tab. LXXXIII. Fig. 3. d. 

Oilier Coronary Veins, much smaller I h an the former, 
terminate in different parts of the right side of the Heart. 

Resides the termination of the Coronary Vessels, a* 
mentioned above, some have taken notice of 1 ■■■ . 
these, both Arteries and Veins, as terminating directly 
in the Cavity of the rijjit -i.le of the Heart, by minulc 
Orifices, which have been termed, after their original 
Oc.iiiM', iuniiiiinu Tiielksji ; l>i:t pencil ; 
lions, thrown into these Vessels, do not appei 
anv such tannin 

'The Absorbents tf die Heart go to the n 
Lymphatic Glands. 

'Tlie Ntrves are from the Great Sympathetica and 
Eighth Fair. ^ 



With respect lo tlie Circulation of the Blood in gene- small Animal; 
ral: — The Veins, by a slow and equal motion, and with- thrown into the A 
out Pulsation, return the Blood from the different parts the Veins, 
of the Body to the Auricles, which serve as Reservoirs 
of this Fluid. Immediately after receiving it, the Auri- 
cles, on account of the quantity and .stimulating quality of 
the Blood, contract suddenly and at the same time, and 

In the Dead Body, by Injecttc 


send it to the Vi 

The Ventricles, from the s: 
Auricles, and on account o: 
them, contract convulsively, 
the thickness of their sides, 
teries, which, in dilating ti 
During the 

i occupy 

The Tilings are two soft spongy Belies, \v. 
me cause which stimulates the the greater part of [lie Cavil v of the Thorax, 
the stroke they receive from They completely till the two Bags of the Fie 
with a force proportioned to are every where in contact with the parts adjat 
ind send the Blood to (he Ar- Air intervening between them and the Thorax. Tab. 
receive it, have a pulsatory LXXXVI. Fig. 1.2. 
:tion of the Ventricles, these In J'i^urc, they have been compared to that of the 
thrown, by the dilating Auricles, against the Ribs, Foot of an Ox, with the back part tinned forwards, arid 
where the stroke occasioned by the Pulse of the Heart this Figure they retain whether in their dilated or col- 
may be felt. lapsed state ; — or their shape corresponds exactly with 
The Arteries, by their contractile power and elasticity, the inside of the Thorax, hcin» rounded next the Ribs, 
send the Blood suddenly to the Veins, through which, by hollow towards the Diaphragm, and irregularly flattened 
the united force of the Ventricles and Arteries, called the and depressed nexl the Mediastinum and Heart. 
Vis a tergo, by the pressure of the surrounding parts, by They are of a reddish or pink colour in Children, of a 
the Pulsation of the adjacent Arteries, and, as some sup- Light blue or greyish colour in Adults, and more of a 
pose, by a contractile power in the Veins themselves, it purple and livid colour in old age, at which period they 
8 driveu again to the Auricles. are also observed to be tinged with black spots, proceed- 
In its course, the Blood performs a double Circulation, ing from 
called the Lesser, {he Pulmonary, or that through They 

the Lungs, — the other called the Greater, the Aortic 
Systematic, or that through the rest of the Body. 

In the former, it passes from the Right Ventricle to the 
Lungs, and returns to the Left Auricle. — In the latter, 
it goes from the Left Ventricle to the different parts oj 
the Body, and returns to the Right Auricle. 

During this Circulation the Auricles and Ventricles 
contract and dilate in succession, but the Auricles and 
Arteries, and the Ventricles anil Veins, act in concert tio: 
with each other. seq 

The Heart is the centre of the Vascular System, and for 
the principal agent in the Circulation of the Blood. most entirely consumed. 

The right side of the Heart receives the Blood, which Each of the Lungs is aga 
is contaminated in passing through the Body, and sends ing in depth in different Bod 
j the Lungs, where it is purified through the medium cd Lobe* 

secreted in their Substance, 
joined to the Neck by the Trachea ; to the 
Spine, by the two Layers of the Mediastinum, which 
serve them as Ligaments ; and to the Heart, by the Pul- 
monary Vessels ; the rest of them being free and uncon- 
nected, unless when an adhesion takes place in conse- 
quence of inflammation. 

They are divided into Right and Left Portions^ or 
Jjungs, which are separated from each other by the 

Heart and Mediastinum, and which h: 
tion, except through the medium of the Trachea, in con- 
sequence of which Respiration is sometimes continued 
isiderable time, where one of the Lungs is al- 

ivided by Fissures, vary, 
into large Portions, call- 
which facilitates their motion, and the dilata- 
of the Air. " tion of their Cells. 

From the Lungs the Blood, now purified, is returned to Of the Lobes, three belong to the Right Lung, cor- 
the left side of the Heart, to be circulated through all the responding with the larger Bag of the Pleura, and two to 
other parta of the Body, thereby imparting nourishment, the Left, between which there la a Notch or Sinus, occu. 
growth, and strength, to the general System ; being found pied by the point of the Heart. Tab. LXXXIII. Fig. 
also to be the source of Sensibility, Irritability, Motion, 1. Sometimes an additional Lobe is found in the Left 
and Animal Heat. Lung, or the reverse in the Bight one; but mistakes 

The Circulation of the Blood is demonstrated by may arise in numbering these, in consequence of morbid 
throwing a Ligature round an Arterv and its correspond- adhesions. 

on the side of the I'.ach of the Lobes 

), while the portion par:;;, termed Lobules, 
becomes collapsed, of an irregular anguhu 

ing Vein. The part of the Art 
Ligature next the Heart, then swe 
on the other side of the Ligntui _ 

The reverse of these circumstances takes place in the The Lobules dimmish 
Veins, the Blood being now interrupted in its course, into small J'esicles 
The Circulation is also shewn by the aid of the Mi- share of the Lungs, 
rroscopc, in the Blood-vessels of transparent parts of The Cells of the Lung 1 
Vol. II. P 

ividi-d into many smaller 
are of different sizes, and 
e, and degenerate at last 
iWA, which constitute a large 

& purely Membranous, of a 


[Punt IV. 

immefflafiflji I 
longer, but !■: 
die Arch of tl 
Kg. I.Q, II 

., ll! 

i Right, :ii..l the other, wiiiehi. the 

llie smaller ot llic two, pauses under 

and Celh 

rta to the Lull Lung. Tab. LXSXHt 
lab. LXXX. Fig. S.g.g, 

nll.iii i.s suliilivilllal al lln* plain u h m 

,:,Ih-,i:- ill 


ie Left often only into two. In the 
Lungs, the Bronchial Branches are 

is situated between tin Layeni of the Bjpper J part 

Visll tlM'rMvrofthrAart,, m,d npj, 
ike Third Dors.,1 Ui-t.l.n, the 'J', ,, |„ , ,1,. ;,) ' ;. 

1 Artery and Vein. They 
maniicr of the branching 

Tubes, which, dj 
-in rigs. 

I, are barely visibl 
y are larger, and i 

ichind, where 
hy Substance, 
sopliagus, and 
I'ab, LXXX. 

■ Sf'^IR-l 

horizontally, with theur 

small spates intervening 

it when the Limp; are 
us the Cartilagi-'. closely 

Fart IV.] 


The Trachea lias several Coats enuring into its com- 
position, some for si rea-tln mug u, others for giving it a 
certain degree of motion, viz. 

A Cellular Coat, which, in tlie Thorax, is covered by 
the Mediastinum; 

An Elastic L:'i i ai>Hii''i!H CiiL which passes along the 
Trachea, and also upon the different Brandies in the 
Substance of the Lungs, adding much lo the elasticity of 

A Muscular Coat, placed between (lie Cartilages and 
in the back part of the Trachea, and composed of Cir- 
cular Fibres without, and Longitudinal fibres within ;— 
the former for straitening, the latter for shortening, the 
general Passage. Tab. LXXX. Fig. V. Fig. H. 

The Longitudinal Fibres are collected into Bundles, 
which are distinctly seen through the inner Coat, and 
may be traced considerably farther in the Substance of 
the Lungs than the Cartilages. Tab. LXXX. Fig. *)./. 

Avery Vascular and Iniiahh: M> nihrtim, continued 
from the Mouth, which lines the inner side of the Tra- 
chea, and forms at last the extreme Branches, which 
terminate in the Cells of the Lungs. 

The inner Membrane of the Trachea is every where 
perforated by the Ducts of Mucous Glands, and by the 
Mouths of the EihaUnt Arteries, the former pouring out 
Mucus to lubricate the Lungs, the latter the vapour 
which is thrown off in Expiration. 

Three different kinds of Glands are connected with 
the Trachea,— the Thyroid, the Tracheal, and the 

The Thyroid Gland has its name from its connection 
with the Thyroid Cartilage, though more immediately 
connected with the Trachea. 

It is a large Mass, of a deep red colour, situated at 
the under and fore part of the Larynx, behind the NteV- 
no-hyoidei and Sterno-thyroidei, and is proportionally 
larger in Man than in any other Animal. Tab. LXXX. 
Fig. 8. n. 

It has two triangular Lobes placed at the under and 
lateral parts of the Larynx, descending over two or three 
Kings of the Tracliea, and also part of the Esophagus, 
with the Bases of the Lobes undermost. 

The Lobes are joined by an intermediate portion, call- 
ed Isthmus, which lies acro-s the upper and lore part of 
the Trachea. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 3. n. 

Sometimes a Process from the middle Portion, which 
may be mistaken for a Muscle, a-eends between the 
Strruo-hvoidei, and is f,xcd to the 11a- of the Os Ilyoi- 
des. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 8. p. 

a Viscid Liquor is sometimes ..b.sciud in ir. wlmh bus 
been supposed by Sadatieii, and some others, to Itibri- 
.-Hte tin- pari-, in" thr neighbourhood. 

It is supplied with large lilond-vossels, and with seve- 
ral Nerves, from the superior and inferior Vessels and 
Nerves of the Larynx. It is likewise furnished with 
numerous Lymphatics.— lint no I'xcretory Luct has yet 

been observed to come from it ; nor is it.-, officeyel 
derstood, though many opinions have been cntciiamv 
specting it. 


i Br; 

LXXX. Tig. ii. n. 

From each of these Glands a small Due! issues, and 
throws out a. Mucus, lo defend the inner >»■'. ■■ 
Trachea from being injured bv the Air, or by the extra- 
neous particles which it carries along with it. 

The Bronchial Gland* are placed in tile Cellular Sub- 
stance round the under end of tin; Trachea and roots of 
the Bronchi, where tin.-,, pemtiate uito the Substance of 
the Lungs. 

They are of various sizes, from that of the point of 
the Little Finger to that of a millet-deed, and have a 
bluish or blackish colour, corresponding m li great mea- 
sure with the colour of the darkest parts of the Lungs. 

They were formerly considered by many Authors as 
sending I'luids to the Trachea, ;uid ptrliului l_y the dark 
Mucus which is occasionally expectorated ; but they are 
now universally known to be entirely of the Lymphatic 
kind, — the Absorbents of the Lungs passing through 
them in their way to the Thoracic Duct. 

The Trachea is furnished with Blood-vessels from the. 
Inferior Laryngeal, and Nerves from the Kecurrauts, 
and Great Sympathetic Pair. 

The Trachea 3erves to convey Air into, and out from, 
the Cells of the Lungs, during Respiration, and to carry 
off the Perspirable Matter from the Arteries in the time 
of Expiration. 

The Blood-vessels of the Lungs consist of the Pulmo- 
nary and Bronchial Vessels ; the one for the general cir- 
culation, the other proper to the Lungs. 

The Pulmonary Blood-vessels have been already taken 
notice of in page 111. Here it may be proper to observe, 
that the minute Branches of the Artery, running in the 
common Cellular Substance of the Lungs, form at last a 
Plexus upon the proper Cells, sometimes tailed Bete 
Mirabile, vel Bete VasculuMim Malfighi. Part of 
this Plexus terminates in the Cells, and their correspond- 
ing Bronchi, by Fxhalent VcseK, from which that Ha- 
litiis is derived which is expelled by the Lungs in Expi- 
ration. Tab. LXXXV. d—h. Tab. LXXX1II. Fig. 1. 
D, E, F. 

The Pulmonary Veins are commonly observed to be 
smaller, in proportion to the corresponding Arteries, than 
Veins are to Arteries in other pans of the Body, which 
has been supposed to be owjpg to the large quantity of 
(buds expired. Tab'. LXXXIII. Fig. 1. G—K. Tab. 

The Bronchial Arteries arise by three or four small 
Branches ; one of which is from an adjacent right Supe- 
rior Inter-costal, the rc*t from the Trunk of the Aorta. 

They are dispersed upon the Uron.elii and JJron. Ida! 
g Glawh, 


[Part IV. 

Glands, and the Substance of the Lungs in general, and 
arc found to communicate with the Pulmonary Artery. 

The iiraacliial Arteries are supposed to serve for ihc 
bousuhinent of the Lungs, and tor the secretion of the 

The Feins return the Blood to the Ycn;i Azygos, and 
: Intercostal Vein. 

The Lymphatic* form a Plexus upon the Surface of 
the Lungs : — They communicate freely with the deep- 
seated Absorbeuts, and pass through the Bronchial 

The Net 
Sym patheti 

s of the Lungs are partly from the Great 
, but chiefly from the Eighth Pair, and are 
n proportion to the bulk of the Organ on 

rather small 
which they s 

The Lungs serve the general purpose of Respiration, 
which consists of Inspiration and £ipiration, or the 
passage of the Air into or out from tlte Lungs, by the al- 
ienate dilatation and contraction of the Thorax. 

During Inspiration, the Thorax is lengthened by the 
descent of the lateral portions of the Greater Muscle of 
the Diaphragm; it is rendered wider by the elevation 
sad expansion of the Ribs ; and, by the ascent of these, 
is made deeper, the Sternum being at the same time thrust 

Moderate Inspiration is performed in consequence of 
the Thorax being dilated by the action chiefly of the 
Diaphragm, assisted in a small degree by the Inter-cos. 
tales ; the Lungs, which are passive, and in contact with 
the Thorax, following it, and the Air rushing into the 
Trachea by its own gravity. 

In strong Inspirations additional Muscles are brought 
into action, as the Scaleni, Serrati Postici Superiores, 
Serrati Magni, and Pectorales Minores. 

Eipirutiori is performed in consequence of a relaxation 
of the Muscles which dilate the Thorax, — of the con- 
traction of the Abdominal and a few other Muscles, — as- 
sisted in strong Expirations chiefly by the Triangulares 
Sterni, Sac ro-lum bales, and Serrati Postici Inferiores, — 
of the elasticity of the Cartilages of the Ribs, and the 
elasticity and contractile nature of the Bronchi, by which 
the Cavity of the Thorax is diminished, and the Air is 
expelled from the Lungs. 

Upon the alternate states of Inspiration and Expiration 
depend the formation of the Voice, the sensation of Smell, 
and all the other functions of the Body : — But the great 
and principal office of the Lungs, which was formerly 
supposed to be that of cooling the Blood overheated by 
.Friction, is, during Respiration, to make such changes 
upon that Fluid ::-. may be necessary for animal life. 

Air that has been expired differs from Atmospheric Air, 
in having less Oxygen, and in containing Carbonic Acid 
Gas; it is also charged with a watery vapour. 

The quantity of Air taken in at each Inspiration has 
been differently estimated by different Authors ; by some 
it is rated at 10, while others make it as low as 14 cubic 
inches. The quantity must vary with the size of the 

According to some, it appears, — thnt the Venous Blood 
passing to the Lungs, of a dark red or purple colour, 
is charged with Carbon and Hydrogen ; — that, while cir- 
culating upon the Bronchial Cells, part of the Oxygen, 
contained in t!ic Air vhich has been inspired, unites with 
the Carbon and Hydrogen, and forms fixed Air and a wa- 
tery Hatitus, which are carried off by Expiration. — Others 
suppose, that part, of the Oxygen of the Atmosphere is 
imbibed by the Blood, which, in consequence of these 
changes, or having received an Arterial quality, returns 
from the Lungs of a florid red colour, and full of heat ia 
a latent state ; that this, in the course of the general cir- 
culation, by the Oxygen uniting with the Carbon, and 
forming Carbonic Acid, becomes sensible, and is diffused 
over the different parts of the Body, the Carbonic Acid 
being carried by the Veins to the Lungs, where it is e- 
volved. — According to the latest Experiments, how- 
ever, it is stated, that the Blood, during the Circulation, 
acquires an excess of Carbon, which, in its passage 
through the Lungs, unites with the Oxygen of the Air, 
and forms Carbonic Acid ; and that thus the Venous is 
changed into Arterial Blood, which, owing to this change, 
affords a Stimulus to the Arteries, and promotes the diffe- 

i ^eeietie 


The Esophagus, called also Gula or Gullet, deriyea 
its name from carrying what is eaten into the Stomach. 

It is a Fleshy Canal, which begins from the Inferior 
part of the Pharynx, descends along the Keck, and 
through the Thorax, following nearly tiie direction of the 
Spine. Tab. XLVII. Pig. 6. b. Tab. CXCI1. T. 

It is situated betweeu the Trachea and Vertebra ; and 
in the Thorax, it proceeds behind the Base of the Heart, 
and between the Layers of the Posterior Mediastinum, 
from which it receives a lateral covering. 

Soon after entering the Thorax, it makes a slight t nro 
to the right, and passes down upon the fore and right 
side of the Aorta, consequently the Artery and it are 
prevented from injuring each otiier by pressure. 

In its progress, it inclines more forwards and to the 
left side ; and about the Ninth Dorsal Vertebra, it perfo- 
rates the Muscular part of the Diaphragm, aud termi- 
the upper Orifice of the Stomach. Tab. CXXX. 

it, the first of which is 
djacent parts. 


a of "the Lui 

Fig. 2. A, D. 

It has several Coats proper 
Cellular^ and connects it to th 

The second Coat is Muscuh 
cd Vaginalis Gula\ — It consists of two Layers ; the ex- 
ternal of which has thick, strong, longitudinal Fibres; 
the internal is formed of circular or transverse Fibres, 
and is thinner than the former.— The outer Layer is fitted 
for shortening and relaxing, and the mm i for contracting 
the Canal, during Deglutition. Tab. CXXX. Fig. 2. 
D, C. 

The third Coat is termed Nervous, and is considered 


by some as a continuation of the Cutis Vera, but is more nal, situated in the back part of the Thorax, and is the 
properly called Cellular, being formed of loose Cellular principal Trunk of the Absorbent System. 
Substance, which connects the Muscular to the loner Coat. It begins upon the third Vertebra of the Loins, and 
The Inner Coat is continued from the lining of the passes behind the Aorta, crossing obliquely from left to 
Mouth : It consists of many longitudinal Plica., which right, till it geti to the right side of that Artery, 
are distinctly seen when the Esophagus is contracted, but Upon the first Lumbal' Vertebra, it forms an Oral Sac, 

are scarcely visible when the Tube is dilated, and is fur- termed Peceplaciili'm Cfii/ti, which i* placed behind the 
nished with numerous Foramina, which discharge a Mu- Right Crus of the DiapSuagm, ;md a little higher than 
cua for lubricating the passage, and facilitating Deglu- 'In Right Elena] Artery. Tab. CLX1V. C. 
tition. The Duct afterwards passes between the Crura of the 

The Arteries of the Esophagus arc Branches of the Diapliragm, and ascends in the Thorax, ou the anterior 
Inferior Laryngeal, which supply tin- Cervical part of pair of the Spine, between (lie Ljy^rs of the Posterior 
it, and the Esophageal and Branches of the Bronchials, Mediastinum, on the right side of the Aorta, and be- 
which arc derived from the Aorta Descenders, and sup- twecn it and the Vena Azygos. Tab, CLXX1V. Fig. 
ply the Thoracic Portion. 1. u, u. 

The Veins go to the Inferior Laryngeal*, to the Vena It crosses behind the upper part of the descend:^; 
Azygos, and to the Left Superior 1 ntci i n>tal \ eiu. Aorta, and emerges from the Thorax, to reach the under 

The Absorbents are numerous, aud intermix with those part of the left side of the Neck- 
In the Neck, it passes behind the Internal Jugular 
Vein, and a liule higher than the Subclavian. 

It then turns doiviiwanl.-i, loi-mii:^ mi Arch, which ter- 
initiates in the upper part of the Angle, between the In- 
ternal Jugular and Subclavian of the left side. 
Thohacic Luc't. 'f' 5e Thoracic Duct receives the Clnle from the Lac- 

teals, and Lymph from the Lymphatics, aud discharges. 
The Thoracic Duct is a Frnall Membranous-like Ca- ihe-'e in'o the red Veins. 

( US ) 


The Integuments cut and turned back, and some of the Ribs of the Left Side removed, to 
shew part of the Contents of the Thorax and Abdomen. 

K, The umbilicus, to which the umbilical vessels and 

urachus, now changed inio ligaments, are connected. 
L, L, The right and left lobes of the liver. 
M, The suspensory ligament. 
N, The stomach. 

A, The trachea. 

B, B, The sternum. 

C, The pectoralis major. 

D, The right mamma. 

E, E, A section of the uppermost ribs of the left side. 

F, Part of the surface of the heart, exposed by laying O, O, The omentum majus, through which the arch of 
open, the colon appears. 

G, G, The pericardium. 
H, H, The left lung. 
I, The upper surface of the diaphragm. 

T,4Ji &2 

C U9 ) 


Views of the Thoracic Viscera. 

A, B, C, The larynx. 

A, The epiglottis. 

B, The thyroid cartilage. 

C, The cricoid cartilage. 

D, The trachea. 

E, F, G, H, I, The lungs turned back. 

E, F, G, The throe lobes, of the right side. 

H, 1, The two lobes of the left side. 

K, K, The diaphragm cut from the thorax. 

L, L* The pericardium cut in a crucial direction, and the 

angles turned back. — The upper angles not lettered. 
M, The right ventricle of the lieart. 
N, The right auricle. 
O, O, The vena cava superior. 
P, Q, The subclavian veins. 
R, The aorta. 

S, The pericardium adhering 10 the aorta. 
T, The situation of the trunk common to the right snb- 

V, The situation of tl 

W, That of the Babel; 

X, The pulmonary artery. 

Y, The right coiouarj artery. 

Z, One of the coronary veins. 

&, The left coronary artery and 

vessels in this, as well as in the other Figures of this 
Table in which they are represented, are beyond the 
proportional size. 

FIG. 2. 

A, E, B, C, C, D, The larynx. 
A, The epiglottis. 
E, E, The thyroid cartilage. 
C, C, The arytenoid cartilages. 
1J, Thecricoid cartilage. 

E, The trachea ; 

F, Its membranous and fleshy pan. 

G, G, 'I'll'- bronchi, also m» ■iiiLi'jihh.s ami ilvshy hehiuJ. 

FT, I, The lobes of the left, and, 

K, L, M, The lobes of the right lung. 

V, N, The diaphragm. 

3, The foramen through which the esophagus passes la 

the stomach. 
P, The pericardium, containing the heart. 
3, The left carotid artery. 
It, The left subclavian artery. 
3, The aorta, which turns over the left branch of the 

trachea, and sends off, 
r,T, The intercostal arteries, 
i', The vena azy^o*, which brads over the right branch 

of the trachea. 

FIG. 3. 

An Anterior View of the Heart and Large Vessels. 

C, The ven 

a cava inferior, 


D, Hi,- in 

1a cava superior. 

l'„ 1', 1 Ik 

subclavian >( „,s 

G, 11, Tlic 

interna] mamma 

1, K, The 1 

torta ;- K, its a 

L, The roo 

11, 1 he rig 

N, The rig] 

O, The left 

P, The !■ it 

jubclavitui ajlei 

riie right, 01 wnaUcoroaarj vein, tepminating in the 
ijjit auncle. The right and kit ('-nonary vesself lire 

,ii iiiii.,.,. t hii liy up.' 1 fh' it 1 , hi i ■.■utricle, and be- 
iw, turning round towards 1I.1 post( rior surface of the- 



C, The right auricle. 

D, The inferior cava, divided near the right auricle. 

E, F, The superior cava. 
G, The vena azygos. 

H, H, The venae subclavian 
K, L, M, The aorta ;— L, its arch. 
N, The common root of the right subclavian and righ 

0, The right subclavian. 

P, carotid. 

Q, The left subclavian. 
R, ■ ■ carotid. 

S, The trunk of the pulmonary artery. 

T, V, The two great branches of the pulmonary artery. 

\V, A section of the left, or pulmonary s ' 

X, The left, or great core 

aorta, and running betwt 

left auricle. 
T, The great coronary ve 

terminating in the inferior 

the heart in general are seen, the principal branches of 

the coronary artery and vein, which, after supplying 

this side of the heart, turn round to communicate with 

the vessels represented in Fig. 3. 

FIG. 5. 

An Anterior View of the Heart, to shew its Muscular 
Structure, and the Obliquity of theMvscvhAv. Fibres. 

A, The vena cava. 

B, A section of the pulmonary artery. 

C, C, C, The pulmonary veins tied. 

D, A section of the aorta. 

E, What was the ductu 
changed into ligament. 

F, The right auricle distended, 
muscular fibres. 

G, The left auricle. 

H, The oblique descending progress of the fleshy fibres 
of the right ventricle. 

1, The oblique ascending process of the fibres of the left 

FIG. f. 
The Series of Fibres under those represented in Fig. 5. 

A, Part of the pulmonary artery. 

B, Part of the aorta. 

C, The fibres of the right, 

D, Those of the left ventricle. 

E, The tendinous union of the fibres of both ventricles. 

FIG. 8. 

The MuscuLAn Fibres as they appear under those of 
Fig. 6. 

A, Part of the aorta. 

B, The tendinous union of the fibres of both ventricles. 

, represented in this Figure, 
Upon the surface of 

i the Feet us, 

< shew the s 

s of its 

FIG. 6. 

A View of the Posterior Surface of the Heart. 

n of the inferior cava in the right auricle. 

i The vena azygos, tied i 

, D, The right auricle, representing the various dispo- 
sitions of its fibres. 

, The muscular fibres of the left sinus venosus. 
, The fibres of the right ventricle. 
, Those of the left ventricle, 
i Their tendinous union in the septum. 

C, The tendinous union of both ventricles. 

FIG. 10. 

A View of the Inner Surface of the Cone of the Hiart, 
seen in the last Figure. 

A, The point of the right ventricle* 

B, That of the left. 

C, The thickness of the side of the right ventricle, 

D, D, That of the left. 

E, A thread supporting the tendinous fibres which pass 
from one side of the left ventricle to the other. 

F, The trunk of the coronary artery and vein divided. 

G, The tendinous union of both ventricles. 


The Bight Auricle and Ventricle, cut longitudinally, 
to shew their Internal Surface. 

A, The outer, and, 

B, The inner surface of the right auricle. 

C, C, The cut edge of the right auricle and superior vena 

D, D, The inner surface of the right sinus venosus, witli- 

F, The orifice of the superior cava. 

F, The Valve of Eustachius, reticular in this Figure. 

G, The orifice of the vcua coronaria major, with its se- 
milunar valve. 

H, The vestige of the foramen ovale. 

I, I, The cut edge of the right ventricle. 

K, K, The opening between the right auricle and ven- 

I,, I,, M, M, The valvula tricuspis ;— M, M, A portion 

of it split down the middle. 
N, N, N, Tendinous cord? continued from the valvula 


0, O, Tlic columns carnes of the light ventricle, form 

ing plexuses, and running in varimih directions. 
P, The outer surface of (lie right ventricle. 
Q, The pulmonary artery. 
K, The aorta. 

5, The principal branch of the coronaria major. 

EIG. 12. 

The Right Auricle and Ventricle laid open. 

A, The left side of the heart and its blood-vessels filled 

0, The apes of the heart. 

B, B, The inferior, and, 

C, The superior cava laid open. 

6, The light sinus venosus. 

D, The right auricle, with its columns earner. 

E, The Eustachian valve at the mouth of the inferior 

F, F, The sides of the right ventricle divided. 

G, One of the columns carnes, to which the tricuspid 
valve is fixed. 

II, The valvula tricuspis. 

1, The valve at the orifice of the great coronary vein. 
K, A probe passed through tin.- foramen ovale, which, in 

this, an adult subject, remained open. — The probe leads 

L, The left sinus venosus. 

M, A probe supporting the tricuspid valve. 

N, The right branch of the pulmonary artery. 

0, The left branch of that artery. 

P, Fleshy fibres passing between the septum cordis and 
opposite side of the right ventricle. 

FIG. 13. 
The Heart, with the Pulmonary Artery and Right 
Ventricle, cut longitudinally near the Left Ven- 
tricle, and spread out. 

A, A, The cut edges of the pulmonary artery. 

B, B, The cut edges of the right ventricle. 

C, C, The inside of the ventricle, in which the columns 
carnes are slightly represented. 

D, The inside of the pulmonary vein. 

Ej E, E, The three semilunar valves placed at the mouth 
of the artery. 

F, The aorta. 

G, The ramus major of the great coronary vein. 
H, The exterior surface of the left, and, 

1, That of the right ventricle. 

FIG. 14. 

The Left Sinus Venosus and Ventricle laid open by 

a Longitudinal Incision. 

A, The left anricle. 

B, The cut edge of the left sinus. 

C, 0, The inner surface of the sinus. 

D, The sinulus lunatus, lorracd by the vestige of the fo- 

' Vol. II. ' ( 

E, E, The cut edge of the left ventricle. 

F, l'\ 'i he p^:t-c lnt'.v«;cu ilic jurii If and ventricle. 

G, G, G, The valvula mitralis. 

H, That part of the valve which is before the mouth of 

the aorta. 
I, I, The columns earner, from which the tendons fixed 

to the edges of the valvula initgalia arise. 
K, Other columns earner within tie ventricle. 
L, L, The outer surface of the ventricle. 

FIG. 15. 

The Left Ventricle, and beginning of the Aorta, laid 
open by a Lmgitud.nal Incision. 


A, A, The cut edge of the a 

B, B, v, 

C, C, The inner surface of the ventricle, with 

D, The inside of the aorta. 

E, The orifice of the right, and, 

F, The orifice of the left coronary artery. 

G, G, G, The three semilunar valves in the mouth of 
the aorta. 

H, The valvula mitralis. 

I, I, The columns carnes, from which tendons run to 

the edges of this valve. 
K, K, The outer surface of the ventricle. 

FIG. 16. 

A Back View of the Larynx, Trachea, and some of the 

Muscles of the Larynx See Tab. LIII, Fig. 8. 

V, The coracoid process, and, 
W, The upper part of the scapula. 

FIG. 18. 

The Larynx, ettt Longitudinally behind, and stretched 
back, to shea; 

A, A, The thyroid cartilage. 

B, B, The cricoid cartilage. 

C, The epiglottis. 

D, D, The arytenoid cartilages. 

E, E, The long crura of the arytenoid glands. 

F, F, The superior, and, 

G, G, The inferior ligaments of the glottis. 
H, H, The ventricles of the larynx. 

J, I, The first cartilages of the trachea. 

FIG. 19. 

Represents the Articulation of the Arytenoid with 

the Cricoid Cartilage, also one of the Arytenoid 

Glands, &c. 

a, A right longitudinal section of the cricoid cartilage, 

viewed anteriorly. 

b, The 


t, The right arytenoid cartilage, inclined outwards and The papilla: mediae and minima; are seen upon the un, 

backwards. per surface of the tongue, extending from the papilEe 

r, rf, Its articulation with the cricoid cartilage, maxims as tar as the apex lingua. 

c, The superior, and, /,/, The papilla striata, seu liueares. 
L The inferior processes of the right arytenoid cartilage. . 

g, The cavity in the anterior surface of the arytenoid FIG. 21, 

*/The a a^tm<^^iiX whS 8 here represented de- '^^fiP^ of the Upper Side of the Pomt of the 

tached. } 0NGUE m WM t0 '&*» the Papill* Mediae and 

k, Represents the shape and size of the left ventricle of Mihim*. 

the larynx. F £ G> 22 _ 

FIG. 20. The Vertex of one of the Papilla Fungiformes vita. 

The Tongue of a Child two years old, the Artehies of ed in ° Microscope, to skew the Tuberculous appear. 

ultich uere injected with Wax. ance. 

fl , The epiglottis, FIG. 23. 

o, &, The tonsils. 

r, c, Mucous follicles, seen at the root of the tongue. The same Papilla viewed Laterally i shewing the Sta- 

d, The foramen caecum. mina which compose it, irith Vessels which adhere ta 

e, e, The papillie maxima. them. 


( 123 ) 


i of the Heart and Lungs. 

A, The vena cava superior, 
i, . inferior. 

0, The right auricle, or appendix of the heart. 

B, G, The right ventricle of the heart. 

D, The pulmonary artery, which is here short i 
portion to its diameter. 

E, The right branch of the pulmonary artery. 

F, The left branch, which is very short, and not s 
as the right. 

G, The left anterior, and, 

H, The left posterior pulmonary vein. 

1, The right anterior, and, 

K, The right posterior pulmonary vein. 

Ij, The left auricle, or appendix of the heart. 

M, The left ventricle of the heart. 

P, The vi 

pulraoiuiv vessels.- 
Q, The angle of the t 
■ ■ i that 

tie to the right 
tfle thicker than 

B, The right branch of the tr 

the left. 

S, The left branch of the trachea. 
T, U, V, The three lobes of the right lung represented in 

bbade, and folded in as far as the commencement of the 

W. W, X, Y, The two lobt-s of the left lung.— "W, W, 

The upper lobe, the edge <>l w Inch is tulrled in as far 

as the dark bhade. — X, Y, The inferior lobe. 

FIG. 2. 

l it. i. it cj-;!:-:d in th>. !>_}■ < 

C, The groove opposite the opening of the right auricle 
into the right ventricle. 

D, The right ventricle. 

E, The pulmonary artery. 

F, Tlie anterior pulmonary vein. 

G, The left auricle, which is more elevated than the right. 
H, The groove opposite the opening of the left auricle 

into the left ventricle. 
I, The left ventricle. 
K, The aorta, which rises behind the pulmonary artery, 

and becomes curved in its ascent. 
a, The right coronary artery, 
o, The anterior branch of the left coronary artery. 

c, The anterior branch of the coronary artery, which 
passes over the posterior part of the apex of the heart. 

d, The vena: innominate, which open into the auricle 
with their trunk. 

c, The vein which accompanies the coronary artery. 

FIG. 3. 

A View of the Posterior and Under, or Flat Surface of 
the Heaht, the Cavities of which are injected. The 
Coronaky Vessels are also filled : The Trunk of the 
Coronary Vein has been forced by the Injection. 

A, The right auricular sac, shorter than the left. 

B, The orifice of the vena cava inferior. 

C, The left auricle. 

D, D, The uppermost D points out the groove opposite 
the opening of the auricle into the ventricle. The un- 
dermost D points out the extremities of the small arte- 
ries, whicli are spread transversely over the right ven- 

E, F, The termination of the left and right posterior pn]. 
monary veins in the left auricle. 

G, The septum or partition of the two auricular sacs. 

H, The left ventricle. 

«, o, o, Branches of the coronary arteries, 

i, The coronary artery, which comes from the opposite 

6urface of the heart. 
c, r, The vein which runs along the septum of the ven- 


rf, The trunk, 

the injection. 
e, The entrance of the coronary 

of the coronary vein, distended by 
into the right ven- 

h,A,h,h, The columns 
which the ' 

— *?* s ™& f °ss», win, 
side ot the veutncle is covered. 

The Inner Surface of the Left Ventricle. The Aor- 
ta has been divided, and pushed to a distance from the 


A, An incisfc 
bringing it 

B, A second 
, A third ' 

1 necessary for extending the ventricle, and 

a for the same purpose, 
made at the apex of the ventricle. 

D, The smooth space under the aorta. 

E, The large portion of the mitral valve, which consider. 
ably surpasses that bid underneath. 

a, A tendinous cord to which the mitral valve is attached. 

b, o, Tendinous filaments which creep along the valve, 
ajid go to join those coming from the root of thie 

c, c. The posterior pillars, some of which divide the fila- 
ments of the smaller portion of the valve. 

d, e,f, g, The pillars from which the tendinous fibres go 

The Left Ventricle and Mouth of the Aorta laid 
open, to shew the Columns Carney and Semilunar 
Valves -,—the greater part of the Valvula Mitraxik 
being removed. 

A, A, The smooth space under the aorta. 

B, The pillar, with its tendinous filaments which ga u 
the remainder of the mitral valve. 

C, Another pillar, xvith some tendinous filaments which 
also go to the remainder of the valve. 

D, D, D, What is deficient here has been represented in 
Fig. 4. 

a, a, «, The semilunar valves, with their Corpusaifa Au. 

b, b, Orifices of the coronary arteries. 

c, c, The cord under the sigmoid valves. 

d, d, Sic. The columns carnear, with their pits or fossa. 

e, e, The cord of the mitral valve, seen a Little below the 

/,/,/, The insertion of the fibres of the columns under 
the cord of the mitral valve. 


m0 1 y 



The four Figures of this Table shew the Interior Parts of the Heart of au Adult, of the 
natural size. 

c, d, The semilunar valves of ilie pulmonary artery. 

The Right Auricle and Ventricle hid open. 


ius of the vena: cavae, or sini 
appendix or proper auricle. 


6, The vena cava inferior. 
c, The Eustachian valve. 
</, The mouth of the vena coronaria major, 

ed by its valve. 
e, The fossa, ovalis in the septum auricularui 
/,/, The aunulus of this fossa. 
g, The passage into the proper auricle. 
A, A, The musculi pectinati of this auricle. 
i — f, The right or pulmonary ventricle. 

b, The 

r, The posterior. 

d, The superior, or valvula dextia. 

e, e, e, The corpuscula, seu notluli Arantii. 
f,fi A section of the pulmonary artery. 

g, The mouth of the right branch of this artery. 

A, h, A section of the left branch. 

i, A vestige of the mouth of the ductus arteriosus 

FIG. 3. 

The Left Auricle and V 

r and superior valve, which is the largest. 
>r and inferior, or the least, which is di- 
culi papillares, inserted into the valve by 

1 musculi retiformes. 

jfc, The anter 

f, The postei 
W, The ante 

n, n, The m 
tendinous ( 
o, o, The columns earner, se 
/», The septum ventriculorum. 

g, A probe introduced iuto the mouth of the pulmonary 

r, Part of the musculi papillares cut, corresponding 

s, Cut chordae tendinese. 

Another muscular part cut, corresponding with part t. 

FIG. 2. 

a — e, The sinus pulmonalis, vel sinus venosus sinister, and 

its proper auricle, 
o, The left inferior pulmonary vein divided. 
6, The place from whence the left superior pulmonary 

c, The mouths of the right pulmonary veins, which here 
appear in form of a chink, on account of a pin being us- 
ed into them. 

(7, The mouth of the appendix or proper auricle. 

e, The place iu the septum auricularum answering to the 
fossa ovalis. 

/— hi, The left or aortic ventricle. 

f,f, The venous mouth of this ventricle. 

g, //, The valvulie mitrales. 

^, The valvula superior, seu major. 

/;, The valvula interior, seu minor, divided. 

?",?', The musculi papilLum, which, by tendinous cords, 
are fixed to the valve. 

A, £, The columnar carncx, seu musculi retiformes, 

/, The septum ventriculorum. 

«j, A probe introduced iuto the arterious mouth of this 


• Ventricle ami Aorta hid open. 

• side of the right ventricle _-ii:_;lnly < 

e,f,g, The valvals seroilunaies, 
c, The anterior. 
/, The posterior. 
g. The inFerior. 

fi f h, h) The corpuscula AflAMTir. 
;, The mouth of the anterior, and, 
, The mouth of the posterior coronary artery. 

b, 6, The septum vcutriculortmi so divided, that the left /, The trunk of the aorta divided. 

ventricle is brought into view. nt, n f o, The mouths of the right common carotid and 
r, The internal surface of the left ventricle. subclavian arteries, and of the left carotid and left sub. 

(/. The vjtlvula mitral^ superior. clavian. 

Tab ( / Jfy. 

( 12* ) 


Represents the Cavities of the Heart laid open, to shew its Internal Structure. 

F r G ' I ■ p. Part of the left ventricle. 
$-, The vena cava superior. 
A View of the Cavity of the Ricut Auricle, laid open 

Atiterwrly. \ FIG" 

?' he' d ' e ' The CM eie ° ° C ihc r 'E ht """de. Thc Vestricles laid open at their Fore mid Left Side 

f, The vena cava superior. it Portion of the Sertum removed, and a,B £ „; 

g. The termuiation of this vein in thc right auricle. turned ohliom In far muds and It, the High! Side to n 
h, i, I he vena cava inferior;—?", its mouth hibit the. Valves of the Ventricles and Arteries 
/.; The boundary between the right vcuous sinus and pro- «"<<& their llelatiee'.Siiauliom. 

per auricle. 

/, The boundary between the sinus and right ventricle. ", », <, d. The cavity and cut edge of the right ventricle 

m, n, Fleshy pillars within the auricle, called Miisculi — c, A thick lleshy part of the ventricle d, d The 

I'ectnmt,. partition between thc right and left ventricle. 

0, o, The I alee of Eustacmus. e, e, The fore part of the circular membrane of the tricus. 

p, The valve at the mouth of the coronary vein. pi Q valve. 

J, The vestige of the foramen ovale. /iff Tendinous cords from the fore part of the tricus. 

r, r, A tendinous circle giving origin to the valvula tri- pi" valve. 

" s fi«- B,g, Tendinous cords from the bach part of the tricuspid 

s, it. Are placed upon the valvula trienspis, and in the vaive i lv!li ^' M; 'l upon the sides of the ventricle. 

opening between the aum le and its corresponding veil- ''• ''• l ' UJ '? columns fixing the valve to the side of the 

trifle. ventricle. 

t, f, The beginning of the right ventricle. f, ', i. The semilunar valves at the mouth of the pulnio. 
it, The pidmonary artery. 

FIG. 2. ,„, p a 

Represent? the Cavitv of the Left Auricle. a] q\ The 

a. A, The cut edge of the left 

A', The trunk of the iiuh trv aim.. 

/, I, The left pulmonary vein,! 

fendinous cords i 

, Part of the sinus cut and turned down. g , s ' Col 
o, e, The proper auricle laid open on its postered and ' Jcntrii-le 

I r iVi™;.,i;,. „ri!,. .„ „ • i-r ■ , '' Tc " llil " , "' ! «'»'* from the back part of the valve, rest- 

/, g, I Ik termination of the superior and inferior n ,„g „, ,1„. ,;d e of the ventricle. 

nary veins o! t lie- right side, ,. ,. pLa.., ,, i, g ■ i . i- , ,. , 

h, i, The orifices of thc superior and inferior pulmonary "' ■ ■ • . , .™ d '° ° s c0 " Js » f "'<= 

s of the left sidi 

back part of the valve to the side of the ' 

veiie- i,l tut left si, e. ,, „ * ....... -r .1 ,i i , , ^ 

t I 1 The ' r c .v ■ , ■ , ■ ' '' A ftu "' ' ,l ' ,I!:UIV l], snv columns and fovcie re- 

2* It ' """"' "*"* 8 bm """' P"«™te». with which ".lie .-icie or v, .,11 of the ventricle 

an.l iiinloim. abounds. 
"'c'arneaT ' proper auricle, with it. column* I, The semilunar valves at the mouth of the aorta. 

a, ■flu I,,,,;,,,,!,,;; ,,f the vslvulan,,,, I | £ ThcTi'sin of one of the coronary arteries of tho 

Ihcaurictc into thc coir. , pondnij lienrl, l,o„. ih. h, eiuniii- of the aoiti. 

( 126 ) 


A FnoNT Vjew of the Heart and Lungs, with their Large Vessels. The Arteries and Veins- 
are injected, and preserved nearly in their Natural Situation. — The Lungs from which the 
Figure was taken were dried, much shrivelled, and contracted. 

A, The right subclavi 

B, The right externa] jugular vein; tery, which is here fore-shortened, on account of its 

C, Its termination in the subclavian. — Between B and C, oblique course backwards. 

two pair of valves are seen. /, The passage o#lhc artery through the pericardium, 

D, The right internal jugular vein. and its division into two great brunches. 

E, A pair of valves at the termination of this vein m g, g. The two pulmonary branches, the right considera- 
the subclavian. bly longer than the left. 

F, The termination of Uie principal lymphatic trunk in /;, h, &c. The principal ramifications of these branches 
the angle between the internal jugular and subclavian in the lungs. 

veins. «', ?i &e. The pulmonary veins. 

G, The great right subclavian vein. k, £, Their passage towards the left venous sinus and 
H, The left subclavian vein. ' auricle. 

I, The left external jugular vein, with a pail' of valves /, A small part of the left auricle. 

at its termination in the subclavian. w, The part where the left auricle opens into », o,f, y, 

K, The internal jugular vein ; the left vcntWcle. 

1, Its termination and valves. wi, o, p. The septum cordis, over which the left coronary 

M, The thoracic duct, where it forms a curvature pre. artery a— ' — 

N, Its termination, with a pair of * 

O, The great left subclavian, with the termination of the Valsalva. 

left internal mammary vein. r, .«, The aorta asce^dens, and its situation within die 

P, The vena cava superior, formed by the great subcla- pericardium. -,v, That part of the aorta sometimes 

vian veins, arid receiving the right internal mammary called its Great Sim/-, on account of its size. 

vein. S, f. The an h of the aorta, sending off, 

Q, The vena azygM, turning round I In- right branch of it, The artcria innominata, 

the trachea, and ttrn.h.a-iu- in ihi mperim- cava, r. The left carotid, and, 

R, The vena cava it.u-iii . Hi. pen. m.I.iiu. i n; 1 he left subclavian. 

'the heart. y\ The right subclavian, and, 

T, The vena cava infuw. ' V,, carotid. 

r,TJ,t', The trunks ..f ihc hcpalir v.i;-,« joining ll.e 1. The continuation of the l'-ft carotid. 

vena cava, where it p- i folates llie diaphragm. '_'. That of the left subclavian. 

V, The vena cava joinint the right auricle. 3. The aorta descendens. 
" only : 

: pr 

i thi- view.— "VV, X, The 

7, 6,f,rf, The right vcntinh, with brant ht-f of t 
rouary artery and vundi-pnscd upon it. — c, Tin 

opposite to the np< n ingot the auricb into thr unnu n . •■ . m i he root oi I he pericardium remaining in u= 

—a, The point of the ventricle. — d. The beginning of natural situation, to shew that that membrane incloses 
the pulmonary artery. not only the heart, hut also a considerable portion of 

■, Two of the SitniM* of Valsalva, the third being some of its large vessels, 
-placed on the oppose -.jtU i,f the, artery. 

7Zib <f j 

~ ;^%yl 

( 127 ) 


Represents the Situation of the Thoiiacic and Abdominal Vtsi 

The Sternum, part of t lie Ribs ami Abdominal Mus- 
cles removed, and tlic Integuments turned back, to 
obtain a View of the Viscera situated in the Fore 
Part of the Thorax and Abdomen. 

A, The two lobes of the left side of the lungs. 

B, The three lobes of the right side of the lungs, 
c, c, The pleura, going to form, 

C, The anterior of the mediastinum. 

D, The thymus. 

E, E, The pericardium. 

F, F, F, A section of the diaphragm. 

G, H, The right and left lobes of the liver. 
I, The figamentum latum of the liver. 

K, The umbilicus. 

L, The umbilical vein, changed into the ligamentum i*o- 

M, M, The umbilical artcr if.-.-i, changed into ligament.*;. 

N, The urachus, ascending from the fundus of the blad- 
der, to be fixed to the umbilicus. 

O, O, O, O, Q, Q, The a 

II, The aorta ascender. 

I, Tli e pulmonary artery. 

K, K, The diaphragm. 

L, L, The right and left lobes of the liver, with the 

vestige of the ligamentum I. it urn between them. 
M, The ligamentum rotundura. 
N, The fundus of the 
O, The stomach, pressed by the liver towards the left 

P, The spleen. 

Q, Q, The kidney?, hid by the intestines. 

It, K, The convolutions of the small intestines. 

FIG. 3. 

Represents the Situation of the Duodenum. The Fi- 
gure is taken from the Boor of a Fcetus ; but, ac- 
cording to the Author of the Figure, there is no es- 
scn/ici/ difii- relict between the Duodenum in this and 
in the Adult state. 

A, The liver, proporhoimUv larger llian in the adult. 

B, The umbilical vein. 

C, The gall-bladder full of bile, and more pyriform than 

The fundus of the bladder. 


View of the Contents of th 

}:., The seat of the pylorus, and beginning of the duo- 

F, The duodenum making ;t turn to go across the spine. 

G, The termination of the ductus communis choledoclius 
in the duodenum. 

II, The pmiciratic duct tcrmini'tiug in the duodenum, at 

diastinum, and Pericardium in the former. 
A, The right lung, part of which is cut off, to shew t 

■ bid 

IJ, ill. left lung. 

I), The right auricle a( th 

I\F, The subclavian veia 
C, G, The interna] jogulaj 

, Tin' nn -i i.i' lit :.r> < ' :.*.d vi in, cut as they pass in 

, Th. ,-. aai i ai wnti ... 

, Tin' uminri'i: ' i!i« d !• nu'ii, drawn consider- 

'h:!cV;U\"l\'l,'u- L . l ", l t"!crp'lrt S ."' tS 
\, Tin tut tin!- ot the great arch of the colon turned 


FIG. 4. 

The Situation of the Viscera in the Upper, Back,, and 

Under Part of the Abdomen. 
A, The hollow or inferior surface of the liver, turned 

upwards and to the right side. 
E, The lobulus Spigelii. — Between B and C, the porta. 

D, The liganientuin rot nudum. 

E, The gall-bladder. 

F, The beginning of the cystic duct. 

G, The pancreas. 
H, The spleen. 
I, The ribs. 

K, K, The kidneys. 
L, L, The renal veins. 
M, M, The ureters. 
N, The aorta. 

O, The spermatic arteries. 

P, The beginning of the inferior mesenteric artery. 
* A probe supporting the spermatic vessels, and begin- 
ning of the mesenteric artery. 
Q, Q, The common iliac arteries. 
R, The inferior vena cava. 

T, T, The spermatic arteries and veins closely embracing 

each other, in (heir way to the testes, 
U, U, The common iliac veins. 
V, The end of the colon. 
X, The beginning of the rectum. 
Y, y, y, z t The bladder of urine. 

A, The part which is covered only by cellular substance. 
y,y f a, Shews how far i lie peritoneum reaches down upoi 

( 1280 ) 


Jives an Oblique View of the Right Side of the Tho 
Muscles being cut out, to shew the depth of the Pu 
phragm to the Ribs. 

i Portion of the Intercostat, 
nd the attachment of the Dja- 

A, The upper part of the sternum. 

B, The cartilago ensiforrois. 

C, The anterior portion of the clavicle. 

D, The first rib. 

E, The tenth rib. 

F, The eleventh rib. 

- G, The cartilage of the first i 

the ribs ; I, K, A dotted line opposite to the 
of the diaphragm to the cartilage of the seventh ri 
L, M, N, The cut edge of the diaphragm, at its ins' 
tion to the eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh lit 
O, The back part of the diaphragm attached to, s 
concealing the twelfth rib. 

P, The upper part of the superior mediastinum. 

Q, R, S, T, The three lobes of the right lung collapst 
S, An adhesion of the lung to the diaphragm. 

U, U, The thoracic -i(h- of ihc diaphragm, which is pull- 
ed a little down, to shew the depth of the pleura at. 
the lateral and posterior part of the thorax. 

V, V, The inner surface of the back part of the thorax, 
covered with a thickened pleura, which conceals ribs 
in that part. 

W, The trachea pulled towards the left fcide. 

X, The common carotid artery not sufficiently filled with 

Y, The internal jugular vein collapsed. 

Z, The vertebral artery. 

c, The subclavian artery over-distended. 

, One of the brachial nei 

', The cavity of the thori 
than the first rib. 

tiding somewhat liiuiui 


( 129 ) 


THE Abdomen, or 

the under part of the 

It is bounded abov 

hind, by the Lumbar 
anteriorly, by its pro 
False Ribs, Ossa Ilii. 
— all of which have t 
It is divided into/Z 
and Under Region ; « 

The Upper Eegioi 
Ensiformis, at a -mat! 
and descends to aboul 
or to a line extending 
pair of Ribs, 

The middle of this 
upper part of the Re! 
ctiomln'ti, from their 
False Ribs. 

Ths Midd/e lie-i; 
and below (lit [ mliili 
the Umbilical, and it 

The Under Regit*, 
nates, or at a line dr 
Spinous Processes o 
middle, the Hi/pogas 
at the sides, the Iliac 

The Abdomen is 
mon Integuments, ;m 
in the manner the ' 
without being divided 

The Abdomen con 
t iiif/npiiicfic I'ixcera, 

The As*Ma»t tirJ;, 
w, which is placed" in 
Abdomen, — ol the Splei 
and left side of it,— and 
tht Stomach. 

Of the Organ, of l'r 
hack part of tin Alulum 

Vol. II. J 

. /*«,« 

130 OF THE ABDOMEN. [Part IT. 

Sacral, and Ilio-Liimbar Arteries, and from those which It has a Large and Small Extremity, an Upper and 

supply the Abdominal Viscera. Under Surface,* Great and Smalt Curvature,*. Left 'and 

The Veins have the same coarse, bear the same names Right Orijice, and consists of several Layers or Chats. 

with the Arteries, and in general pass to the Interior The Large, called also the Le/1 Extremity, or Base, 

Cava. is situated in the Left Hypochondriac Region, and forms 

The Absorbents are numerous, and run chiefly to the the great Cttlde Sac of the French, '("his is in contact 

Iliac and Lumbar Plexus. with the Spleen, and is considerablj highei than the 

The Nerves, which are few in number aud small, are Small or Bight Lttretiit/y, "i small Cut tie Sue, which is 

from the Phrenic, the Inferior Dorsal, the Lumbar, the placed in the Epigastric Region, and approaches more or 
less towards the Right Hypochoiidrium, in proportion as 
the Stomach happens to be more or less distended. Tab. 

neither does it possess much Sensibility when 1'rec from XCII. Fig. I. 

disease. The Upper Surface is turned towards the Diaphragm, 

The Peritoneum lines and strengthens the Cavity of the Under towards the Intestines ; — but when the Abdo- 

the Abdomen j incloses and assists in supporting the dif- men is laid open,-- unless the Stomach be considerably 

ferent Viscera ; furnishes most of thcin with an Exter- distended,— the superior Surface becomes anterior, and 

nal Coat ; connects them to the Body ; and, by its the interior Surface posterior. 

smoothness and slipperuiess, prevents the effects of Fric- The Large Curvature is turned obliquely forwards and 

tion. downwards towards lli' Abdominal Muscles, and extends 

Between the Peritoneum and Abdominal Muscles, are from one Orifice to the other, 'lab. XCII. SI, M. 

Four White Line*, or small Cords, three of which are The Small Curvature is opposed to the other, and 

Vessels in the Pectus, — one of them a Vein, and two of turned backwards and upwards, towards the Spine, ex- 

them Arteries ; the fourth is the Crachus In the Adult, tending also between the two' Orifices. Tab, XCII. N,N. 

they are shrivelled up, and serve as Ligaments ; the Vein 'l he Orifices are nexl the Small Curvature. The Left 

forming the Round Ligament of the Liver, the three other is termed Cardia, or <)> I fhtr it uli, or Upper OriJHc of 

Cords forming Ligaments of the Bladder. Tab. LXXXI. the Stomach — It is placed at the right side of the great 

—Tab. LXXXVI. Extremity, and is opposed to the Spine, but at a little 

distance from it, and is formed by the termination of the 

Esophagus. — It allows a free passage for the Food into 

STOMACH. the Stomach, the return of uliich is prevented by the 

Angle formed between the Stomach and Esophagus, by 

The Stomach is a large Bag or Reservoir, situated ob- the Fleshy parts of the Cardia, and by the Fleshy l.iura 

liquefy across the upper and back part of the Abdomen, of the Diaphragm, between which the Cardia is situated. 

"i the Epigastric and left Hypochondriac Regions. Tab. Tab. XC1. /-. 

LXXXI. N. Tub. LXXX1X. The Bight or Inferior Orifice, commonly termed Py- 

It is turned downwards and forwards, so as to form an hrm, is situated under the small Lobe of the Liver, a 
little to the Right side of the Spine, — is turned more for- 
wards than the Cardia, and is considerably lower, but 

tended. rises in proportion to the distension of the Stomach. Tab. 

The right part of the Stomach is situated under the XCI. I. Tub. XCII. Fig. L O. Tab. XCI. /. 

t( ft part of the Liver, the rest of it is placed immediately The Stomach is connected by the Cardia to the Eso- 

mider the Diaphragm ; and in the upright position of the phagus, — by the Pylorus to the beginning of flic Intes- 

i'.oriv, the Stomach rests upon the Intestines. Tab. lines, — by the Peritoneum and Blood-vessels to the Spleen, 

LXXXVI. Fig. 2. I . — and by a reflection of the Peritoneum to the root of the 

The Stomach is long, round, anil tapering, and lias bun Liver, and to the part of the great Intestines termed Arch 

compared in shape to the Bag of a Bagpipe, or to a Cone, of the Colon. 

with the Base drawn back, inwards tin summit ; but iu The Structure of the Stomach is in general similar to 

certain morbid cafe*, the Slonmih i< found spasmodical lv that of t lie Ksdphagi^, "I nlneli jl is a kind of Expansion, 

contracted at its gieat eorvalun, near the Pyloius, so as The Cvuh of the Stomach arc I'uur in number, 

to represent two Sacs, of mic rjual si/,e. Tliis appearance The First, or External Coat, tailed also Peritoneal, 

commonly vanish, s soon after death, though iu some easts is a Reflection of thai part of the Peritoneum which coiuea 

it remains permanent. Contractions' of a similar nature from the root of the Liver, 'tub. XCII. Fig. 2. 

are frequently met with iu the tract of the Intestinal It is remarkably thin, but dense and somewhat elastic. 

Canal. Tab. XCI. It strengthens the stomach, prevents it from being over 

The size of the Stomach is in proportion to the quan- distended, and by its smoothness, hung constantly lubri- 

tity of Aliment it has been accustomed to receive, and cated with a licpior discharged from the exhalenta of the 

therefore is commonly larger in Men than in Vtoincn. Peritoneum in ^uerul, diminishes the effects of Vri<> 


tioo; and possessing few Nerves or Blood-vessels, it is divided into a sort of Net-work. Near the Orifices, bow- 
not very susceptible of pain or inflammation. ever, especially towards the upper one, they run more in 

The Cellular Substance under the Peritoneal Covering, a longitudinal direction, corn.^pondiii:.; uilli the Plica; of 

is described by some Authors as a distinct Coat, called the Esophagus, and have a radiated appearance at the 

Tunica Cellulom Buyschtana { ~ but ought not to be Cardia. Tab. XCII. Fig. >'>. 
numbered among the Coats of the Stomach. The Rugse of the Stomach, like the Plica: of the Eso- 

The Second, or Alituciflitr Coof, Is composed chic By of pha'u-, arc most distinct when the Stomach is emnly ; — 

two Planes of Fibre, variuu.di disposed. when it is full, they are much lc<s i vident. 

The External Plane is longitudinal, extends from the Tliev admit of dimension wrho..t endangering the Ye?- 

bngitudinal Fibres of the Esophagus, and follows the scls and Nerves di p'-i :v. d j . : '..< .1 , 1. 1 :■ i ,t a lit lie, in 

same general course with that of the Stomach from the detaining the Utinent till in •■. ■ ■ , 1. ■ I. 
Great to the Small Extren%. 'J'ab. XCII. Fig. 4. From the inner Surface of the Mo.uach, a Liquor its- 

Upon each side of the small Curvature, ilie External sues, which is found to approach to the nature of Saliva, 

Plane forms a thick strong Band of Muscular Fibres. and is termed Gastric Jitttv.— ['his was formerly sup- 

The second Plane is chiefly lrausvcr,e or circular, and po-rd lo come IVu.u Glands seated in (lie Third Coat, but 

considerably thicker and stronger than the other. 'Fab. i^ now more frequently considered as a Secretion from the 

XCII. Fig'. J. :. ' Arteries „f the Moma'ch, no Gland. In-i^ evident there, 

Its Fibres are intersected by many small, white, Ten- at least in the sound slate of U.i= \ 1 ■ iij, u.iu-i v.c- cai- 

dinous-like Lines; — these, however, are in a great mea- sidcr the » ill! ;b such. 

sure formed of that Cellular Substance by which the two The Arteries of the Stomach are ckilvd 1'i.ui f'ie C:e- 

Coats are united. liac Artery. They consist of the Superior Gastric, 

The Mu-cular Coat assists in the Digestion of the which supplies the place nest the small Curvature; of 

Food, by giving a gentle motion to the Stomach, accord- the Right Inferior Gastric, which is a Branch of die He- 

ing Co the direction of its Fibres ; the one set shortening patic ; of the Pyloric Arteries, which are small Branches 

it, the other rendering it narrower, and both sets accom- from the Gas tries and from the Hepatic ; and of the Left 

inodatiug themselves to the quantity of contained aliment. Gastric and Arteria: Breves, which are Branches of the 

The Pylorus is formed by a Doubling of the two inner Splenic Artery. 
Coats, which project into the Passage between the Sto- When the Arteries arrive at the small Curvature of 

inach and Intestines, and contain a Circular Muscle, call- the Stomach, they separate into two Layers ; the inner 

ed Sphincter Pylori. Tab. XCII. Fig. 9. is spread out upon the Nervous Coat, and is disrribuml 

This Substance, by contracting, prevents the grosser to the \ illi by Filaments, which form a met delicate 

indigested parts of the Aliment from escaping, and, by di- Plexus. The External Layer is expanded under the Pe- 

latiug, allows the Pidpy digested part, which is now of a ritoncal Coat, supplying it and the Miiscularone with nu- 

greyish colour, and called Chyme, to pass to the lutes- morons ('ranches, wliich form frequent Anastomoses with 

tines. each other, 

■ailed .Ymww, sometimes The I'eim have the s 

"a large quau- course with the Arteries 

tity of (hie Cellular Substance without Fat, and is inter- in the Vena Porta. 

mixed with, and supported bv, small Aponeurotic-like The .tlxuitmits of the Stomach are numerous and large. 

Filaments, which cross each other obliquclv, but which They pa-;, through small Glands situated upon its Curva- 

are also of a Cellular, nature. 'Fab. XCII. Fig. 8. tares, am! go afterwards to the Thoracic Duct. 

This Coat, which, like the corresponding one in the They appear to carry Lymph only, n.> 

Esophagus, has been compared bv some Authors lo the been delected in th-ai, even in cases where the Lacteali- 

Cutis Vf.ra, strength'-tis tlie Stomach, and allows theVes- were ft 
sels to be distributed to the Inner Coat, with which it is The 

intimately connected. from tl 

The Fourth, or Inner Coat, called also Villous, is con- upon the Uardia. 
tlnued from the Inner Coat of the Esophagus, but has The Stomach receives the Food from the Esophagus, 

much more of a Velvet appearance than it. — It ii formed and afterwards prepares it, by Digestion, for die Jutes, 

of fine, short, prominent villi, which are ( rowded with tines. 
Small Wscis, some for furnishing a Mucous Liquor to The 

the Stomach, others for absorbing a. portion ol the thinner be efte< 

part of the Food. Tab. XCII. Fig. ?. lions o 

The two last Coats are more extensive than the rest, Diaphi 

and form, upon the inner part of the Stomach, many but clii 

Doublings, termed Ituga; the greater number of which a Men: 
run in a waving transverse directum, and are afterwards 


[Part IT. 

INTESTINES. Plica become less conspicuous, and is distinguished ex. 

teriiullv Horn that Gut, by being smaller, thinner in it* 
The Intestines consist of a long Cylindrical Canal, Coats, and paler, and from its forming about three-fifths 
which begins at the Inferior Orifice of the Stomach, and, of the length of the two Intestines. 

after winding in various directions, term hunt-.', in the The Ilium, like the Jejunum, forms many convoln. 
Anus. Tab. LXXXVL Tab. XCII. Fig. 1. Tab. tions, which are situated on the under part of the Fmbi. 
LXXXIX. lical Region, and extend as far as the Hypogastric and 

In general, they are about six times the length of the Iliac Regions, and not un frequently, e specially in Women, 
Body to which they belong ; though, in a person of short into the Cavity of the Pelvis. Tab. LXXXVL Fig. 2. 
stature, the proportional length of the Intestines is greater, Tab. LXXXIX. 

and rice vena. It surrounds the lateral parts of the Jejunum, and is 

upported by the Ossa Ilia ; fiaA, the last turn oi' the Gut 

>assing across towards the upper edge of the Bight Ob 

Doubling of the Peritoneum. Ilium, it terminates by a Valve iu the posterior and left 

side of the beginning of the Colon. 

Through the- whole of this course^ the Jejunum and 
Ilium are fixed to the Spine by a continuation of the Me- 
sentery, but in such a manner that they are allowed to 
Small Intestines. fioat m tne Cavity of the Abdomen, and to give way to 

the Stomach in proportion as it becomes distended. 
The Small Intestines are smooth on their outer Sur- 
face, and of a tapering form, becoming gradually less Great Intestines. 
in their diameter from their upper to their under extre- 
mity, and are divided into the Duodenum, Jejummt, and 

The Duodenum begins at the Pylorus, and makes a 
short turn upwards and backwards, by the Neck of the ably 
Gall- Bladder, to which it is contiguous ; having the An- their 

terior Layer of the Omentum fixed to its inferior part, ing many Processes upon them, termed Appcndicula Piu 
and the Omentum Minus to its opposite side. Tab. guedinosce. They differ likewise considerably in their 
LXXXVT. Fig. 3. E— M. internal appearance. 

It then passes obliquely downwards and to the right Like the Small Intestines, also, they are divided into 
side, before the Great Vessels which go into the Liver, three parts, termed Cumin, Colon, and Rectum. 
and likewise before the Renal Artery and Vein ; the Gut The Litest initm Cat um forms a round short Bag, only 

* the inequalities of their size, they are 
nail and JLarge Intestines, and each of 
: their subdivisions. 

The Great, like the Small Intestines, form < 
nued Canal, which tapers from its upper to neaj 
extremity ; but they diner from them in being 
r, shorter, and straighter, in being in 
r Surface, and !:ti ked up into ( ells, and in hxv- 

icludcd in the Cellular Substance of the Me; 
colon. Tab. LXXXVL Fig. 3. 

Opposite to the under part of the Kidney, it makes ; 

i the left side, and is now lodged in the i 
root of the Meso-colon and Mesentery, receiving into its 
back part the ends of the Biliary and Pancreatic Lucts, 
and going over the Aorta and Vena Cava, at the upper 
part of the Lumbar Vertebra, but behind the superior 
Mesenteric Vessels. Tab. LXXXVL Fig. 3. 

In passing across these Vessels, it ascends a little till 
it gets to the left side of the Spine ; then, perforating the 
common root of the Mesentery and Meso-cclmi, it makes 
a forwards, and obtains the name of Ji/unum. Tab. 

t three or four fingers-breadth in length, and nearly 
the same in diameter. The Ca-euiu, properly so called, 
is that part of the Intestine which lies under the insertion 
of ilie Ilium, though frequently the dilated beginning of 
the Colon is distinguished by the same name. 

It is situated in the Right Iliac Region, resting on the 
Cavity of the corresponding Os Ilium, at the under end 
of the Bight Kulnev, and is i (.metaled bv the last Convo- 
lutions of the Ilium. Tab. XCII. Fig. 1. T. 

The bottom of it is turned downwards, and forms a 
short Sac; the mouth of which is directed towards the 
Colon, and n>:ty be con.-nh red as Icruiing the Cacum Co.* 

LXXXVT. Fig. 3. 

The Jejunum, so named from its being commonly more Small Prtt,--. ..(.■ v ■ 

empty than the other Intestines, m consequence of the self, but the ilr.n.em i. 

thinner parts of its Contents being sooner absorbed, he- quill, — termed Append 

gins at the last turn of the Duodenum, and forms mime- blance to an I'urth-Wi, 

rous Convolutions, which run in all directions, and are -i- connection with the Cs* 

tuated in the upper part of the Umbilical Region. 'Jab. It is convoluted, vari 

LXXXVT. F.g. 2. rides to the Cecum. 

The Ilium, named from its numerous Turns, begins It has two cxtremilic 

where the Jejunum terminates, or where the Internal other opens obliquely ii 

the Csicum, there « s 

ian that of a Goose- 

. one if which is impervious, the 
3 the back part of the CMmfi. 




the Abdoni 

The Colon is by much the longest of the large Intestines. 
It encircles the small Guts, and is contiguous to most of 
a. Tab. XCII. Fig. 1. D, F, &c. 
of the Csecun), beginning at tlie 
ation of the Ilium. 

scends in the Right Lumbar Region, over the Kid- 
that side, to ninth it is connected, and is here 
:rined Colon Dextrum. 

From the Kidney, it passes forwards, and crosses the 
Abdomen in the Epigastric ami Hypochondriac Regions 
connected to the Duodenum, under the name of Great 
Arch of the Colon, or Colon Transverstm. 

The right portion of the Great Arch is situated under 
the Liver and Gail-Bladder, the latter of which, after 
Death, commonly tinges part of it and the Duodenum 
with Bile. 

The left portion of the Colon Transversura is situated 
under the Stomach ; and immediately below the Arch are 
the Convolutions of the Jejunum. 

In the Left Hy po< hondrium, it turns backwards under 
the Spleen, and descends in the left Lumbar Region, on 
the fore side of the Kidney, to which also it ia closely 
connected. Here it is sometimes called Colon Szrmtrvm. 

In the Left Uiac Region, it forms two Convolutions, 
compared in shape to the Greek letter t, and hence call- 
ed Sigmnid /* .Vic/t of the Colon, which afterwards con- 
stitutes the Rectum. Tab. XCII. Fig. 1. W, X. Tab. 

The Sigmoid Flexure varies considerably in length in 
different Persons, extending frequently into the Hypogas- 
tric Region, and in some instances as far as the Intesti- 

The Colon, through its whole extent, is fixed to the 
Body by means of the Meso-colon. 

The Rectum., which lias its name from its being among 
the straightest of the Intestines, begins at the last Lum- 
bar Vertebra, descends upon the fore side of the Os Sa- 
crum and Os CoceygiB, and terminates in the Anus, a 
little beyond the extremity of the last-named Bone. Tab. 
XCII. Fig. 1. T, Y. Tab. LXXXIX. 

In its course it follows the direction of the Bones over 
which it parses ; turning first downwards, then a little 
backwards, then forw aids, and is fixed to them by the 

The Rectum differs from the other Intestines, in be- 
coming wider in its progress downwards, and forming be- 
low a Reservoir for the Faces. 

At the .A mis, it contracts into a narrow Orifice, the 
sides of which are disposed in close longitudinal Folds. 

Upon the Outer Surface of the Great Intestines, but 
more especially upon the Colon, are the Jpptndicuhr 
• ,;■, situated at different distances from each 
Other, — thin at their roots, becoming thicker in their bo- 
dies, and projecting from the Intestines like so many pen- 
dulous Papilte. 

They are covered by the Peritoneum, continued from 

the Surface of the Intestine, and are of the same struc- 
ture and use with the Omentum. 

Besides the Appendicular, there are on both sides of the 
adhesions of tlie Meso-colon, Adipose Strata, which are 
of the same nature with the others. 

The Colon is divided, longitudinally, into three parts, 
by as many Ligamentous-/ ike Bands', which run unun its 
Surface.- i 

One of them goes along each side of the Colon ; and 
that most exposed to view, when the Omentum is turned 
up, is the largest : The third, which is the smallest, and 
which was discovered by Morgagni, is concealed by the 
attachment of the Meso-colon. Tab. XCII. Fig; 1 U V 

They begiu at the root of the Appendix Vermiformis, 
and, after running along the Caecum and Colon, they gra- 
dually unite, form two, and then terminate on the Rec- 
tum. Tab. XCII. Fig. 1. Y, Y. 


The Mesentery is formed by a Doubling of the Peri- 
toneum, which is detached forwards, and includes the In- 
testines as in a Sling. 

It is named from its situation in the middle of the In- 
testines, and is divided into two parts, one connecting 
the Small Intestines, and retaining the name of Mesentery j 
the other, the Great Intestines, and termed Meso-colon. 

The Mesentery begins at the last turn of the Duode- 
num, and runs obliquely downwards and towards the right 
side, along the Vertebra of the Loins, to the first, second, 
and third of which it is chiefly connected. 

Between the two Layers of the Mesentery, are inclosed 
a considerable quantity of Cellular Suhstance and Fat, 
with the numerous UIood-ve3sels, Nerves, Lacteal Ves- 
sels, and Glands of the Jejunum and Ilium. Tab. XCII. 
Fig. 19. D— G. 

Its anterior edge is much more extensive than the pos- 
terior, being plaited or puckered up, — the Plaits corre- 
sponding with the Convolutions of tlie Intestines to which 
they are fixed, and which they prevent from being en- 
tangled in the various motions of the Body. 

The Meso-colon is the continuation of the Mesentery, 
which, after reaching the lower extremity of the Ilium, 
contracts and obtains this name. 

It follows the course of the Great Intestines, and fixes 
them in their place ; its different parts getting names from 
the parts of the Colon to which it is attached. 

Cinder the Right Kidney it is narrow and firm, stnd 
forms the Right Ligament of the Colon. 

Opposite to that Kidney, it appears to be lost by the im- 
mediate adhesion of theColon to the Kidney and Duodenum. 

It then turns across, and forms a broad Expansion, 
which incloses the Arch of the Colon at its anterior edge ; 
and behind, it separates and incloses the anterior part ot 
the Duodenum, and is fixed to the Spine. 

It adheres a little to the under part of the last exlre- 


[Part IV. 

mity of the Stomach, ami then descends over the Left 
Kidney, at the under end of" which it forms tin; Left Li- 
gament of the Colon. Here, as on the right aide, it forms 
a partial covering to the Colon, the Gut being connected 
behind by Cellular .Substance only. 

It afterwards expands, adheres to the Psoas Magnus, 
and forms a loose Fold, which retains the Sigmoid Flex- 
ure of the Colon. 

* At the last Vertebra of the Louis, it forma the Mcso- 
rcrtum, which by degrees becomes narrower, and disap- 
pears towards the under part of the Pelvis ; tin- Hettum 
being then immediately connected to the Os Sacrum. 

Between the Layers of the Meso-colon are placed the 
Arteries, Veins, and Nerves, with the Absorbents and 
Glands of the Colon. 

The Mesentery, in general, suspend-, connects, and re- 
tains t lie Intestines m their places, furnishes them with 
nu external Coat, receives their Glands, Vessels, and 
Nerves, .uid allows the two last to be properly distributed. 

Besides the Omentum, there is a Membrane much 
smaller, situated between the Liver and .Stomach, termed 
Omentum Hepato-gastricum, or Omentum Mums of 

WlNSLOW, or M. ■lilUrniiii Mdvilttltiw Of ilALl.EK, from 

its having little Fat in it. Tab. XCI. c, c. Tab. XC 
Fig. l.v,t. 

it ]>:is,es from the fore part of the Siuus of the Porta, 
tu tin under and back part of the Liver, to be connected 
to the whole edge of the small Curvature of the Stomach, 
and to the beginning of the Duodenum, 

It is hounded on tlie left side by the Cardia, on the 
right by the Capsule of Gljssqn, on the upper part by the 
root of the Liver, and on the lower bv the small Cnrva- 
tureofthe Stomach. 

Like the other Omentum, it is composed of two Lay. 

, but i- thium 

uu.l r 

and also differs from it in having uo reflection up. 

The Omentum or Caw/, formerly called Epf'p'nrm, from 
its seeming to iloat upon the Intestines, is a line Mem- 
branous Bag, produced from the Peritoneum, and inter- 
mixed with much Fat, and covers a large portion of the 

re of the StoriKi-.Ii, tln-y rejoin, 
nd then the reflected or Poste- 

It is divided inlo Omentum Gasttv-coficuni and Omen- 
tum Calk um ; the former common to the Stomach and 
Colon, the latter proper to the Colon : They are, how- 
ever, a continuation of one and the same Substance. 

The Omentum (..u-tn-^/u urn consUs of an Anterior 
and Posterior Part, each of which is originally formed of 
two Membranes intimately united. 

The Anterior Part is a" continuation of the Peritoneal 
Coats, produced from the upper aud under Surfaces of 
the Stomach. 

This Production arises from the whole length of the 
large Arch of the Stomach, and extends as far laterally as 
the beginning of the Duodenum and Inner Surface of the 
Spleen, to both of which it is also connected. The Pos- 
terior Part arises in a similar manner from the Peritonea! 
Coat covering the upper and under Surfaces of the Colon. 
The two portions thus produced from the Stomach and 
Colon, soon become ■ incorporated, and form a thin pro- 

and form the Meso-colon. 

By the Membrane thus continued, a large irregular Sao 
is formed, of winch the Omentum Minus, Stomach, and 
Anterior portion of the Omentum Majus, constitute the 
Anterior, and the reflection of the Large Omentum, the 
Colon, and Meso-colon, the Posterior part. 

In Young Subjects, the sides of this Sac are so com- 
plete, that it may be inflated from the Foramen of Win- 
SLOW ; but in old emaciated people, the Layers of which 
it is composed become Cribriform or Reticular in conse- 
quence oi Absorption. 

At the upper and right side of the Sac, there is a Pas- 
sage large enough to admit a Finger, termed Foramen 
Winslowi. lab. XC. Fig. I. n. 

It is situated immediately behind the Cord of the Great 
\ esiels which lead to the Liver, and is of a Semicircular 

It is composed of the Peritoneum, 

. little below 

*l. - 

r.hich ■ 

.iidrr the appear- 
the surrounding 

the Pubes, but 
domcu, or to the :malC Intestun-s over which it is iih< <-,] 
The Omentum Colkum, which i» merely an Appendix 
of the Omentum, arises from the righl port o£ tbj Arch of 
the Colon, in the same m.tiuu r .cs tin nther portion of the 
Omentum arises from the left part of lit*- Arch, and s< mis 
Downwards and to the right side a Cuneiform Process, 
which is connected with the Colon Dotruni as far as the 

The Foramen of W 
tween llie Urge Sm 
v of the Abdomen ; 
lerated bj itinera t 
viticstoihe otter. 

The Omentum, bv 

1 being injured 
in ovci the In- 
itain the Heat 



ilie same. 

The Fitcr/ml CiKif, excepting in a portion of the Duo- 
denum, is a continuation of that part of the Peritoneum 
which forms t Iil* Mesentery. It closely surrounds the In- 
testines, adhering to them by line Cellular Substance. 
Tab. XCII. Fig. 11. A. 

The Stroud or Muscular Coat, as in the Stomach, is 
composed of n™ Planes of Fibres ; the External or Lon- 
gitudinal of which are much move minute than the Inter- 
nal. Tab. XCII. Fig. II. B. 

The Circular Fibre* are distinct and numerous: They 
consist of Segments of Circles, which unite with each other 
at different distances, so as to surround the Canal. Tab. c. 

The Longitudinal Fibres shorten, and the Circular 
contract the Intestines ; and upon the alternate relaxation 
and contraction of these Fibres depends that Vermicular 
motion forwards and backwards in the Canal, or that mo- 
tion called Peristaltic and Anti-peristaltic, by which the 
Aliments are intimately intermixed, the nutritive part ap- 
plied to the Mouths of the Lac teals, and the feculent part 
is discharged. 

The Third, commonly called Kervous Coat, like that 
in the Stomach, is white and firm, and composed of Cel- 
lular Substance without Fat ; — its firmness giving strength 
to the Intestines. Tab. XCII. Fig. II. D. 

This Coat, like the corresponding one in the Esopha- 
gus and Stomach, though Cellular, forms a distinct La- 
mina, and, as in those parts of the Canal just mentioned, 
has by some been compared to the Cutis Vera covering 
the external Surface of the Body, though it is much looser 

The Fourth, or Villous Coat, differs from that of the 
Stomach, in being proportionally m 
forming, with the Cellular Coat, 
Plica or Folds, about an eighth part of an inch in breadth, 
termed Valvuirr C«it/iiri-n/t ., iVoin their serving as a kind 
of imperfect Valves, to retard the motion of the Food. 
Tab. XCII. Fig. 21. 13. 14. 
■ By this extension of the inner Surface of the Intestines, 

sufficient space is afforded for the absorption of the Chyle, 
and for the secretion of those Fluids which assist in the 
digestion of the Food, and in the lubrication of the Canal. 

One edge of these Plica: is fixed to the Intestine, the 
other is loose. They are much deeper than the Ruga of 
the Stomach, and placed opposite to the Interstices of 
each other, and are of different lengths, not forming en- 
tire Circles. 

Tin.- i 'iHioi the Inner Coat are much more conspicuous 
than in the Stomach, being composed not only of the ex- 
tremities of Arteries, Veins, and Nerves, but particularly of 
the Mouths of Lacteal Vcs.cls, the Origins of which, how- 
ever, are extremely -mall, ami have a fungous appearance. 

Numerous Ducts of Simple and Compound Glands ter- 
minate on 'this.Coat, for the secretion of Mucus. 

The former are called S„fi(tny, and (lie latter Congre- 
gate ; and, from their Describees, Gimwutce PEIEKI, 
and Glaiidula- Brunneiw. Tab. >C. Fig. !!>. 

They are in the form of Papilla, but so minute as sel- 
dom to be *eeii, excepting iu the diseased state ; though 

they are supposed to be dispersed over the whole of th.; 

They are seated in the .Substance of the Nervous Coat, 
and serve to discharge that matter, which, while it pre- 
vents the acrimony of the Aliments from injuring the In- 
testines, enables them to discharge their Contents. 

Structure of the Small Intestines in particular. 

The Duodenum is the most lax, and the straightest of 
the Small Intestines, aud so large as to have been con- 
sidered as a Ventriculus Succentur tutus, or St condury 

It is of a redder colour than the re3t, has a thicker 
Muscular Coat, receives ouly a partial covering from the 
Peritoneum, and is fixed more closely to the Body, with- 
out floating like the other Intestines. 

It is perforated at the distance of three or four fingers- 
breadth from the Pylorus, by the ends of the Biliary and 
Pancreatic Ducts, for the reception of Bile and Pancrea- 

On the Duodenum, the Lacteal Vessels begin to make 

their appearance, and numerous Mucous Clauds are found 
in it, especially near the Pylorus. The inner Surface 
presents only some irregular Bugs, in place of Valvulas 

The Duodenum receives the Food from the Stomach, 
and detains it till it be mixed with the Bile and Pancrea- 

The Jejunum differs from the Duodenum in deriving 
its common Coat wholly from the Peritoneum,— in being 
smaller, — in having a weak Muscular Coat, the cumal 
Fibres of which are extremely minute, — in the Valvule 
Couniventes, Villi, and Lacteals, which proceed from 
them, being much more conspicuous and numerous. 

The Ilium differs from the former, in being less in dia- 
meter, and its Coats thinner and of a pale colour, and iu 
having fewer and smaller Lacteal Vessels. — In this Intes- 
tine the Valvube Coiiniventes gradually decrease in size 
and number, aud at length entirely disappear. — At its 
under end, the Mucous Glands are distinct and frequent. 

The Small Intestines in general promote the formal ion 
of the Chyle, — allow it to be absorbed, and — propel the 

f the food into the Lai 

Structure of the Great Intestines i 

The Great have the same number of Coats with the 
Small Intestines, but differ from them in being thicker 
and stronger. — The \ alviike Couniventes are deep, and 
placed opposite to each other, and, like the Small Intes- 


tines, diminish in number and size towards the under ex- 
tremity* The Villous appearance is much less distinct. — 

The Mucous Glands are larger, but simpler than those of 
the Small Intestines. 

Structure of the Great Intestine 

[Part IV. 
1 preventing the too rapid descent of 

The Iniestinum Ccecum is of the same general struc- 
ture with the rest of the Great Intestines ; Its Villi are 
very short; and it has a number of solitary Mucous 
Glands, broader than those of the Small Intestines, which, 
when diseased, sometimes appear like Small-pox, with a 
Perforation iu each. 

The Appendix Vermiformi-i is of the same structure 
with the olher Intestines, contains no Faces, but is fur- 
nMird willi numerous Glands similar to those of the Duo- 
denum, the contents of which pass into the Csecnm, 

The Cells a 
the Faces. 

The Colon receives the Excrement itious parts of the 
Aliment, retains them, changes them into Faces, and 
then, by the Peristaltic motion of the Intestines and 
power of Respiration, pushes them, by slow degrees, to 
the Rectum. 

The Rectum differs from the Colon in being covered 
only anteriorly and laterally by the Peritoneum: — Its 
Muscular Fibres are stronger and, and spread 
uniformly over the Intestine. The Circular- Fibres are 
so thick at the end of the Rectum, as to have been named 
Ii,tmmlSphiM-hTuU\\v\\w*. Tab. XCIL Fig. 1. Y,Y. 

It has no Cells like the Colon ; but the Cellular and 
Inner Coats are so much larger In re than they are higher 

Esculent Matter. Tab. XCII. Fig. 16. C. Fig. 17. I. 

In the Csecum and beginning of the Colon, the Food 
coming from the Ilium is retained for some time, and, in 
rousetjuence of Absorption, acquires a greater degree of 
ennsisunev, and receives a feci id smell. 

The ta/wh Cuh\— sometimes called Vohula Bii; or 
Vahith Pial'hini, from its supposed Discoverer, and 
Vah'ufa Tulfh, from (he Author who gives a particu- 
lar description of it, — is simiited at ilie beginning of the 
Colon, and :~ placed tr:ei-\< r-tlv in 1 lie po-t trior and kit 
,.an Intestine. Tab. XCII. Fig. 18. E. 

It is formed of a Projection of the 1 illous and Nervous 
Coats, and Circular Mustular Fdircs oAhc Ilium, Cacuin, 
and Colon, and has two Folds or Lips, with an Aperture 
in form of a Mouth or CKink between them. Tab. XCII. 
Fig. 17. G, G. 

At the ends of ihe Valves are two Cords, termed Be- 
timicula, or Fraiui Mohgagni, which retain the Valve 
m its proper situation. Tab. XCII. Fig. 18. II, H. 

Tilt \al\e of (he Colon allows a free passage for the 

lie middle and under end of the Rectum has nume- 
rous large Mucous Glands or Follicles. 

The Extremity of the Rectum forms a firm Circle, 
which acts as a Valve, and assists the proper Sphincter 
in preventing the involuntary discharge of the Faces. 

Tlie Verge of the A .us ia surrounded with deep Fol- 
licles, ilic contents of which prevent the tender Skin of 
the Anus from being excoriated by hard or acrid Faces. 

The Anus is also surrounded with a great deal of Fat, 
which admits of the dilatation of the Rectum, and faci- 
litates the discharge of the Faeces. 

The Rectum receives the Fasces from the Colon, re- 
tains them for a certain time, til!, by their weight and 
acrid nature, it is stimulated to eli-than.'c them ; which 
it docs by the power of its Muscular Coat, and of the 
by" the action of the Diapliragraatic 

> the 

( .lli.- 

larger ; dividing the Colon 
no little apartments, or fouches, called Celk of the Co- 
in. Tab. XCII. Fig. IS. I, I, I. 
The Ctlls „f iiir Co/on, v.iih their Partitions-, have a 
. almost 'juite smooth 

roerous, and are derived from different 

The Duodenum receives Branches from the Splenic 
and Hepatic Arteries. 

The Jejunum, Ilium, and right half of the Colon, are 
supplied by the Superior Mesenteric Artery; and the left 
halt of the Colon with the [tec mm, by the Inferior Me- 
senteric Arterv. 

The Veins "of all the Intestines send their Blood to tlio 

The Absorbents of the Intestines are large and nume- 
rous They arise from their inner Surface, and run iu 

the Mescnterv and iUc.-o-colou, passing through their nu- 
merous Gland*-.— The Absorbents of the Small Intestines 
terminate in the Receptacle of the Chyle; those of the 
Lure.- Interlines-, which are smaller than the former, go 
partly to the Thoracic Duct, and partly to the Lympha- 
tics of the Loins. 

The Xcn-i;-- of the Intestines are very small, 
rons, mid are derived panlv from the Eighth Pair, but 
chiclh from the Great Syinpaihelics. 

The Vessels and Nines of the Omenta are Branches 
or those which Mipph the Suin:.ich, ami have the name of 


( 137 ) 


Represents a Lateral View of the Natural Situation of the Thoracic anil 

made through the middle of the Anterior and Poste- 
rior Parts of the Body, from the under part of the 
Neck, as far as the Pelvis. The Integuments, with 
the Muscles and Bones covering the Left Half of the 
Thorax, Abdomen, and Pelvis, are removed. 

heres to the osseous ami cartilaginous portions of the 
ninth rib ; — V, That which is joined to the tenth rib 
and its cartilage ; — W, That which was inserted into 
thr- o-scou- part of the eleventh lib, nearer itscurlilaur ; 
3 lixed to the twelfth rib and its 

A, E, C, The cut edge of the ii 
— B, the umbilicus ;— C, the 

D, A section of the sternum. 

E, The os pubis of the right side covered with carti- 

F, F, The transverse processes of the dorsal vertebrae, 
with the pits to which the tubercles of the ribs were 

G, G, The transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. 
H, H, The spinous processes of the dorsal vertebrae. 

—X, That which v 
Y, V, Y, The small intestines faintly appealing through 
the peritoneum covering them. 
teguments and muscles ; Z, Z, The colon inclosed in the same membrane, de- 
anus, scending to the sigmoid flexure; then ascending to- 
'ards the middle of the os sacrum, before it forms the 

- lumbar vertebra. 

/, The left crus of the penis, separated i 

ponding cms of the os ischium. 
g. The subclavian artery tied and cut Rci 
A, The corresponding vein. 
i, The left iliac artery. 

K, L, M, N, The os sacrum ;— L, the lateral surface in- 
crusted with cartilage, which formed a connection be- rf, The prostate gland. 
tween this bone and the os innominatum ; — N, The f, Part of the left vesi 
lateral part of the bone to which the sacro-sciatic liga- 
ment adhered. 

O, P, The two lobes of the left lung dilated, and corres- 
ponding with the form of the thorax, so that the im- 
pressions of the ribs upon their surface iu some mea- 
sure appear. The great lobe extends to the sternum, 
and bo embrace? ihe pericardium, and accommodates 
itself to it, that only a small portion of that membrane 
appears . 

Q, The under ami tore part of the pericardium exposed. 

It, S, T, U, V, \V, X, The convexity of the diaphragm 
within the thorax, shewn by cutting the inferior part 
of the lung which descended between tins muscle and 
the ribs;— It, The fleshy left part covered by the 
pleura;— S, The extremity which is inserted into the o, 1 lie sciatic ne: 
curtilage of the seventh rib ;— T, That which adheres The iliac and .spe 
to. the cartilage of 'he ciuhth rib ;— U, That nhit-h ;>.d- a lit' 
?01 II. " s 

ii. The intestinum rectum proceeding to the anus. 

by The left kidney placed on the outside of the perito. 

neuiu. It is partly covered by the inferior portion of 

the diaphragm, and lies upon the transverse processes 

of the two uppermost lumbar vertebrae, 
f, The vesica urinaria, a little distended with fluid, situ. 

aied on the outside of the peritoneum, yet so that the 

peritoneum covers the upper part of it. 

of the bladder. 

■feeding from ilk- spermatic bluod- 
towards the back part of tiie bind, 
the vesioula seminalis. 

the lateral part 


■ ( 138 ) - 


A Vn.w of Parts deeper seated than tin 

1 the preceding FiGirt 

;'he Lateral Portion of t!ie Diaphragm, over the Liver, 
Stomach, and Spleen, is tut oft'. The Left Lung is 
turned towards the Spine, that ita Concave Surface 
which accommodates itself to the Pericardium, the 
li^it- Surface of the latter, and the Vessels proceeding 
from the Heart, may appear. The Kidney is raised 
from its place. The Hue and Spermatic Vessels, the 
Ureter and Sciatic Nerve, and the Peritoneum cover- 
ing this .side of the Intestines, are dissected away, by 
which the Intestines and Omentum are brought into 

\, K, (', The pericardium containing the heart and ori- 
gins of the vessels ; — A, the apex and left ventricle of 
the heart appearing through the pericardium ; — B, the 
left auricle also somewhat conspicuous ; — C, the pul- 
monary artery. , 

D, The arch of the aorta, after emerging from the peri- 

i Loweri, and, 

F, The left carotid artery arising from the ; 

G, H, The arteria and vena subclavia. 
I, One of the four pulmonary veins which 

the left auricle of the heart. 

K, The left lung turned towards the spine in such a man- 
ner, that what is naturally concave and embracing the 
pericardium, appears here convex. 

L, A portion of the diaphragm left in situ, after remov- 
ing its lateral part ; shewing how much it ascends into 
the cavity of the thorax. 

M, The left pari of the liver lying over the stomach. 

N, O, The stomach a Utile distended with aliment;— 
N, The saccus tarcus fundus ventriculi O, The great 

P, The spleen, the figure of which in this fiuhject "as 

aW-.-: c.i-^dii'i'jrpilat'. If i- coi ■. 

cave internally, where it is accurately applied to the 


Q, K, S, T, The omentum majus ; — S, that part of it 
called gastro-colicum descending from the great arches 
of the stomach and colon over the small intestines, 
— very thin, and without fat. 

Q, It, V, V, V, \V, X, The great intestine ;— Q, R, fl, 
The transverse part of the great intestine, termed colon 
train-versutUf and zona colt, running under the stomach 
and spleen to the last transverse process of the back, 
and first of the loins ; — V, V, The left part of the great 
intestine, or the colon siiu'xtrifm, descending near the 
lumbar vertebra and os ilium ; — W, The inferior part 

of the colon sinistruin, or the bottom of the sigmoid 
flexure, ascending a little, and reaching the middle of 
the upper part of the os sacrum ; — X, The extremity 
of tile colon termed rectum, proceeding along the os 
sacrum and os coccygis to the anus. 

T, Y, Y, One of the three ligaments which extends 
along the colon, from the intcstinuoi cacum as far as 
the beginning of the rectum. 

Z, Part of the meso-colon, through which the small in- 

1 '!')" 

s of the small intestines partly 

S, T, <. 

covered by the c 
ft, The vesica urinaria somewhat distended with fluid, 

placed between the os pubis and intestinum rectum. 
c, The prostate gland situated al the lower part of the 

bladder of mine. 
dj The vesicula eeminafie of the left side. 
e, The ureter dissected a little from the bladder. 
J, The left cms penis separated from the corresponding 

s ischium. 

, The place which the kidney of thii 
parti) Riled by the colon, though the ' 

TABS') A. 



Exhibits the Situation of the Visceka of the Thorax and Abdomen The Integuments and 

Muscles of the Fore Part of the Thorax are dissected away ; the Sternum, with the Anterior 
Part of the Ribs and Diaphragm, are removed; the Pleura is opened; the Integuments of 

the Abdomen, with the Muscles and Peritoneum, are cut and turned back. The Subject of 

the Figure was a Fat Woman of forty-two years of age. 

A, A, The ten uppermost ribs. _^^^i^BB N, The 

B, Part of the thyroid gland. O, The 

C, The situation of the thymus gland, which is covered P, The stomach, 
with much fat. Q, The pyloi 

D, The pericardium. K, The first 

E, F, The upper and middle lobes of the right lung. S, Part of the spli 
G, H, The upper and under portions of the left lung. T, The omentum 
I, I, I, The diaphragm. V, U, Part of the 

K, L, The right and left lobes of the liver. V, V, The peritoneum, 
M, The bottom of the gall-bladder. cles and integuments. 


C 1384 ) 


The Situation of the Heart and Stomach. — The Fat is removed which covered the Large Ves- 
sels. The Pericardium also is laid open. The Liver is raised, and turned to the Right Side 
that the Stomach might be more sufficiently exposed. Part of the Omentum is cut away. 

A, A, The upper ribs, of which four are seen in the 
right, and Dine in the loft side. 

B, Part of the thyroid gland. 

C, The trachea. 

D, The upper lobe of the right lung. 

F., F, The upper and under lobes of the left lung, 

G, H, I, The heart. G, The right ventricle; H, the 

corresponding auricle ; I, The left ventricle. 
K, The pulmonary artery. 

N, The left carotid, and, 
I ), The left subclavian artery. 
P, The right, and, 

Q, The left thoracic jugular vein, terminating in, 
R, The superior cava. 
S, S, The remains of the diaphragm. 
T— W, The concave surface of the liver. T, The right 
lobe ; II, The lobus nuadratus ; V, The left lobe ; 

W, The Spigelian lobe, covered by the omentum 

minus, which extends to the small curvature of the 

^i, The pons hepatis. 
1 , The gall-bladder collapsed. 
£, A pin introduced by the foramen of Winslow, and 

seen shining through the omentum minus. 
i— e, The stomach, c, The cardia; ft, The saccus 

C3BCUS ventriculi ; c, The small curvature, and, </, The 

large curvature of the stomach ; e t The pylorus. 
r , The first turn of the duodenum. 
r. The spleen pulled a little forwards. 
>, A, The omentum majus. 
', (', The inlcstiunni ilium. 

r, Part of this intestine proceeding to the cajctim. 
! — «, The colon. /, The colon dextntm ; »j, The colon 

h'.tnsversiini ; «, The colon 
i, o, The iliac flexure of the colon 
i, p. The peritoneum, and other pi 

the abdomen, reflected. 



( 138c ) 


The Heart and Small Intestines seen in their natural Situation.— The Lungs, with tl 
Bronchi and Trachea, are removed. The Colon is turned up, after dividing the Oiuentu 

A, A, The ribs, from the first to the seventh inclusive. P, Part of the diaphragm. 

B— E, The heart. B, The right auricle, or appendix Q, The intestinum jejunum. 

of the sinus venosus dexter; C, The right ventricle ; R, S, The ilium. S, Part oF that intestine proceeding 

L> T The left auricle, or appendix of the sinus veuosus to the caecum. 

sinister ; E, Tlie left ventricle. T, U, V, The colon. T, The colon dextruui ; TJ, The 

F, The trunk of the pulmonary artery, divided into its colon transvcrsuiu ; V, The colon sinistrum. 
two branches. W, The anterior ligament of the colon. 

G, The arch of" the aorta. X, X, Part of the sigmoid or iliac flexure of the colon. 
H, The trunk common to the right uoinmon carotid and Y, Z, &, The mesocolon. Y, Thedcxtrum; Z, The 

subclavian arteries, transversum ; &, The sinistrum. 

I I, The left common carotid, and, _ a , Part of the mesocolon, which, in (his subject, was 

K, The left subclavian artery. destitute of fat. 

L, The left thoracic jugular, and, ft, The peritoneum, which, with the muscles and integu- 
M, The right thoracic jugular vein. meats of the under part of the abdomen, are turned 

N, The vena cava superior. down. 

O, The under part of the thyroid gland. 

SSd ) 


Exhibits the Situation of the Esophagus and Stomach. — AJ1 the Thoracic Viscera are removed. 
Almost the whole Diaphragm, with all the Intestines, are cut away, except the Duodenum. 
The Peritoneum is raised from the Kidneys and Great Vessels. 

A, The thyroid gland. Q, Q, The root . 

G, The trachea. K, R, The aorta 

C, C, The esophagus, the longitudinal muscular fibres of S, The inferior \ 

T, T, The internal spermatic artery and 
U, U, The iliac artery and vein. 
V, V, The crural artery, with its vein. 
W, \V, The hypogastric artery. 

distended, and tied 

Inch being removed, the cellular substance apnea 
D, E, F, The stomach, moderately distended with air. 

D, The cardia ; E, The saccus caecus ventriculi ; 

F, The pylorus. 
G, H, I, I, The first, second, and third curvatures of the 

duodeuum. witli a thread. 

K, The beginning of the cut jejunum, tied with a thread. Y, Y, The psoas major. 
L, The pancreas. Z, Z, The Uiacus internus. 

VI, The spleen. c, n, The nuadratus lumborum. 

N, The remains of the omentum gastro-colkum. t>, c, The fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae. 

O, O, The right and left kidneys. d, The promontory of the os sacrum. 

P, P, The two ureters. r,e, The first pair of ribs. The rest are easily understood. 

TAB. S9.R 

( 138.; ) 


This Table represents the Situation of the Esophagus, Stomach, Aohta, &c. of a New-born 
Child. The Thoracic Viscera are removed, the Diaphragm is cut -away, with all the 
Intestines except the Duodenum. The Peritoneum, also, is raised from the Kidneys and 
Large Vessels. The Neck is so supported, that it is stretched and elongated j and the Cla- 
vicles appear at a distance from the Ribs. 

A, A, The thyroid gland. 

B, B, The sterao-thyroideus cut and turned back. 

C, C, The thyro-hyoideus. 

D, The thyroid cartilage. 

E, E, The clavicles. 

F, The trachea. 

G, The esophagus, the longitudinal fibres of which ap. 
pear, the cellular substance being removed. 

H— K, The stomach somewhat distended. 

H, The cardia. 

I, The saccus caucus ventriculi. 

K, The pylorus. 

L — N, The duodenum. 

L, Its first, 

M, Its second, and, 

N, Its third 

O, The pancre 

P, The spleen, 

Q, Q, The two kidneys. 

B, Part of the right renal gland. 

S, The remains of the cut diaphragm. 

T, The arch of the aorta, with its three great branches-. 

U, A section of the ductus arteriosus, 

V, The thoracic descending aorta. 

W, The abdominal descending aorta. 

X, The vena cava. 

Y, Y, The iliac arteries. 

Z, Z, The iliac veins. 

rt, a, The internal spermatic arteries and veins. 

A, t, The ureters slightly distended. 

r, The remaining portion of the intestinum rectum. 

rf, The urinary bladder pulled downwards. 

«, e, The umbilical arteries. 

/, The urachus. 

5", g y The first pair of ribs. 

( 138/ ) 


A Sketch of the Heart and Lungs, distended with Air, and preserved, as much as circum* 
stances will allow, in their natural Situation. The Intercostal Muscles are removed. 

A, B, The sternum. 

B, The cartilago ensiformis. 

C, C, The origin of the sterno-mastoid muscles. 

D, D, The clavicles. 

E, E, The first, and, 

F, F, The seventh pair of ribs: M, The mfddle, and, 

G, H, H, I, The situation of the heart, marked by dotted N, A small part of the under lobe of the right long, 
lines. O, The upper, and. 

H, H, The right ventricle. 
I, Part of the left ventricle. 
K, K, The cut edge of the pericardii 

dotted lines. 
L, The uppei 

G, The right auricle. 

P, The under lobe of the left lung. 


I \ 

( 139 ) 


Views of the Omentum. 

, and that Part of i 

FIG. 3 

Represents the Omentum Maju: 
called Gastro-c 

A, A, The liver turned upwards. 

a, The gall-bladder, shorter than the liver, as is usu 

b, The umbilical vein and fossa. 

B, The Lobulus Spigelii, appearing through the o 

f the stomach, appearing through ** Tne PX 1, 

c, The large t 
the inflated 

d, The right gastro-colic artery and vein. 

e, The seat of the pylorus. 

/, The point of the spleen, projecting between the sto- 
mach and colon. 

g, A ligament produced from the peritoneum, which sup. 
ports the spleen. 

C, C, &c. The omentum majus, or gastro-colic urn. 

h, A line separating the omentum from the meso-colon. 

i, ff The origin of the omentum gastro-colicum from the 
large curvature of the stomach, from ivhich the ante- 
rior lamina is produced. 

£, k, A line pointing at the origin of the omentum majus 
from the colon, or the lamina posterior. 

/, The left blind termination ef the omentum. 

jb, m, The Omentum Minus of Winslow, or mcinbrana 

n, The Omentum Colicum of Halleb, which is aji ap- 
pendix of the omentum majus. 

o. Part of the meso-colon. 

D, D, The convolutions of the small intestines. 

E, The containing parts of the abdomen turned back. 

F, F, The thighs. 

FIG. 1. 
Sheas all the Par 

A, The liver turned upwards ;— the letter is placed upon 
the lob us anonym us. 

B, The gall-bladder, 
o, The umbilical vein. 

C, The stomach almost empty. 

D, The Lobulus Spigelii, appearing through the omen- 

froin which the first turn of the duode- 
wards and backwards. 
gastro-colicum collapsed. 

d, d, A line marking the connection of the omentum gas- 
tro-colicum and colicum with ttie colon. 

e, e, The Omentum Minus of Winslow. 

_/i/, The transverse part of the duodenum appearing 
through the meso-colon. 

E, E, g, g, Various parts of the colon -,— E, E, Its great 

k, Part of the duodenum, upon which the gall-bladder 

*, The descending part of the duodenum, into which the 
biliary and pancreatic ducts enter. 

/-, The ligamentum hepato-colicum, formed of mem- 
branes passing from the gall-bladder and liver across 
the duodenum, giving an external covering to it, and 
connected with the colon. 

/, The ligamentum hepato-renale. 

m. The right kidney, a small part of which is covered 
by the peritoneum. 

n, The Meatus, or Foramen Winslowi, between i, 
the ligamentum hepato-colicum, and, /, the hepato- 

o. The colon, with its appendicuhe piuguedinosie. 

F, F, F, The convolutions of the small intestines. 

G, G, G, The containing parts of the abdomen cut and 

( HO ) 


Represents the Liver and Stomach, &c. of their natural size, the former being turned a little 
upwards. — The relative situation of the Stomach is not preserved, being drawn a little to the 
right side, on account of the smallness of the Plate. 

he concave or under surface of the great lobe of the 6, b, b, The large curvature of the stomach., 

small part of (he convex or upper surface of the rf, The point of the Lobulus Sfigelh. 

t. c, c, c, The superior coronary vc .1 

lie concave or under surface of the small lobe of the branches to the stomach. 

•r. fyfifi The inferior coronary vessels, alho 

art of the ligamenlum latum. merous branches to the stomach, and t£^^^^^| 

lit gall-bladder. majus. 

lit- cystic duct. *■, g,g, The beginning of the omentum majus. 

, d, G, The sinus portarum. A, The large or left extremity of the stomach'., 

he hepatic duct. j\ The small or right extremity of the stomach. 

ie ductus communis cbokdochus. /■, The cardiu, or upper orifice of the stomach. 

iic hepatic artery. /, The pylorus, or under oriiice of the stomach, 

he vena porta. small part of the duodenum surrounding it. 

j. The small curvature of the stomach. mg The anterior edge of the spleen. 


( 140a ) 


A View of the Abdominal Viscera of a Young Adult, who suffered a violent death during the 
Summer of 1812. — The Parts are in the perfectly sound state, and the natural Situation is 
preserved as much as circumstances would allow. A Cuucial Incision is made through the 
Intlguments, Muscles, and Peritoneum, and the Flaps turned back. The Fore Part of 
the False Rib* is cut and removed, and their remaining Portions gently drawn outward, to 
obtain a more complete View of the Vescera at the Upper End of the Abdomen. The Sto- 
slightly distended, by air blown in at the Esophagus. 

; of the liv 

A, The outlines of the cartilago Gasiform 

B, C, A portion of the upper convex pa 
E, the right; and C, the left lobe. 

D, E, The stomach, Lying nearly in the horizontal 
tion ; D, the great ; E, the small extremity. 

F, A portion of the 
separated, to giv 

G, The spleen, brought a little forward from its natural 


L, L, L, The i 

dinal muscular bands. 
M, The right portion of the colon. 
N, N, The great arch of the colon, with i 
of it being O, One of the longitudinal muscular bauds of the colon, 
of the parts which it co- tucking it up ii 
P, The sigmoid f 

i of the colon, with its fatty ap. 

H, H, H, The convolutions of the jejuni 

I, I, I, Those of the ilium. 

K, The appendix vermiformis pulled out 

Q, One of the bands of the sigmoid flexure. 
R, S, The bladder of urine distended , R, shews how far 
'toneal coat descends on the fore part of that 
8, the muscular coat of the bladder. 

W ■'"■''' -*t« 

( i« ) 


Represents the Chtlopoietic and Assistant-Chylopoietic Viscera, with the Structure of 
the Alimentary Canal. 

Skews the Ci 

A, A, A, The concave part of the liver turned up, 

B, The ligamentura rotunduin ; 

C, Its passage under, 

D, The isthmna of the liver. 

E, The veua porta. 

F, The arteria hepatica, 

G, The ductus hepaticus. 
H, The gall-bladder. 

I, The ductus cysticus. 

K, The ductus communis choledochns. The rest of the 
viscera are placed iu the same manner as when in the 

L, The great, or left extremity of the stomach. 

M, M, M, The great curvature, and gastro-cpipluic ves- 
sels, the branches of which arc represented too large. 

N, N, The smaU curvature. 

O, The small extremity of the stomach, and seat of the 

P, The- duodenum. 

Q, The spleen. 

R, S, S, The convolutions of the jejunum and ilium. 

T, »cnm. 

U, t r , U, C, The colon, along which one of its muscular 
ligaments is seeu. 

\ , V, V, The. meso-colon, with its blood-vessels and 

W, X, The sigmoid flexure of the colon, with i lie liga- 

Y, Y, The imestinum rectum. 

'liV^y-i The three ligaments of the colon expanding upon 

the rectum. 
Z, Z, The levalorcs ani. 
8t, The anus, surrounded by the sphinct 

The' white spot above the spMncter a 

B, The cellular coat. 

C, The inner transverse muscular fibres, 

D, The outer longitudinal muscular fibres. 

F, The cardia. 

G, The stomach ; 

H, Its great or left extremity ; 

I, I, I, Its great or anterior curvature ; 

K, K, Its small or posterior curvature ; 

L, The small or right extremity :— The letter also point-, 

out the situation of the pylorus, and beginning of the 

M, Part of the extern :d or peritoneal coat, separated and 

turned back, to shew, 
N, Part of the second or muscular coat. 
O, P, The continuation of the external membrane of the 

stomach, forming the omentum minus, &c. 


A, A portion of (lie esophagus, wiili its externa! longitu- 
dinal muscular fibres. 

B, The cardia. 

C, C, The supL-rinr-antci'Ior suitaee of the stomach. 

D, The great or left extremity. 

E, The small extremity. 

F, The stomach, tied at the pylorus. 

G, G, The great curvature. 

E, B, The small curvature, upon which arc .seen branches 

H, The right gastro-epipluit :n-v-. -. ...ling off princi- 
pal branches which pi i i . i , ■:,■,. into the sub- 
stance of the stomach, and other- winch take a king 
course, and divide iult i.-i.u .- .• 1- 

I, Kr. 

",; ;| - 





C, The left extremity ; 

D, D, The great arch. 

E, The pylorus. 

F, The beginning of the duodenum. 

G, A bundle of muscular fibres continued from the esopha- 
gus along the small curvature of the stomach, towards 
the duodenum. 

H, H, Muscular fibres from the esophagus, which spread 
out upon the anterior surface of the stomach, and run 
to its right extremity. 

FIG. 5. 

Muscular Fibres of the Stomach, deeper seated than those 
in the former Figure. They are seen collected into 
Bundles, which run in different directions. — The let- 
ters referring only to the direction of these Fifoes, need 

FIG. 13. 

A Portion of the Intestinum Jejundm. 
A, The valvuljc conniventes, as they appear in a dried 

Jt I G. 14. 

r cellular coat. 
C, C, The cellular coat, in which, after the villous has 
been removed, nothing but the vestiges of the varvuhe 

A Portion of the Intestinum Jejunum of a Child, invert- 
ed and inflated, to shew the Mucous Glands, which, 
are placed partly on, and partly between the talvula 

i distended and drit d, 

A, The right side of the stomach. 
R, B, A section of the beginning of the duodenum. 
C, The pylorus placed somewhat obliquely, surro 
the passage from the stomach to liic duodenum. 

A Portionof the Small Intestine, toshewits Coats. 

A, The peritoneal coat. 

B, The muscular coat, composed of longitudinal am 
e fibres, the peritoneal coat being supposed t 

Represents the Intestinum C^cum, and part of the Co- 
lon, slit open along the right side, then spread out, 
and viewed Exteriorly, to shew the rise of the three 
Ligaments of the Colon. 

A, The termination of the intestinum ilium in the caecum. 

B, That part of the intestines which was considered as 
the true csecum by the ancients. 

C, The appendix vermiformis drawn upwards, to shew, 
E, E, E, &c. The three ligaments of the colon beginning 

D, D, The outer surface of the intestine. 

FIG. 17. 

An Inner View of the same Part of the Intestine as 
that seen in the former Figure. 

E, The appendix vermiformis brought into 

C, The beginning of the - — " 

D, D, D, The inner BUT 
the colon. 

of the cwciun, and part of 
E, E, E, The 


E, E, E, The cells of this part of the gut ; 

F, Its cut edge. 

G, G, The end of the ilium projecting into the c%cuin, 
and forming the valve of the colon. 

H, H, The fraena, or retinacula of the valve. 

1, A probe put into the orifice of the appendix vcrmifor- 

K, The cavity of the cssum of the ancients. 

A Portion of the Intestinum Ilium, the Cecum, and 
Part of the Colon, with the Valvula Coli. 

A, The ilium aaoeauliflg nhlitpiely, and passing into the 
left side of the caecum. 

B, Part of the caecum entire. 

C, The appendix vermiforniis turned upward; 

D, E, E, G, The mesentery expanded. 

D, E, The superior mesenteric vein and artery. — Upon 

the mesentery are seen little davk-coloured spots, which 

represent its glands. 
H, The sigmoid flexure of the colon. 
I, One of its ligaments. 
K, The rectum. 

FIG. 20. 

and Mesentery, 


A, A, Part of the jejunum, through which its rugae 
slightly appear. 

B, B, The lacteals, which the author of the figure says 
he found much more numerous than are here repre- 

C, The appeni 

D, D, D, Part of the caecum and colon laid open. 

E, The aperture of the valve of the colon. 

F, F, H, Membranes supporting the valve, called i 

G, The lower part of the valve, 
I, I, The cells of the colon. 

FIG. 19. 

Shews the Mesentery, with the Arteries, Veins, Me- ed in Water, or in diluted Spirit of It in 

( 144 ) 


The Liver is the largest of the Conglomerate Glands, 
and its weight nearly equal to that of the Brain. It 
forms a solid mass, of a dusky red colour, situated im- 
mediately under the Diaphragm, extending downwards 
to the Margin of the Thorax, but in the sound state not 
going beyond it. 

It is placed partly in the right Hypochondrium, which 
it in a great measure tills, and partly in the Kpigasti inn., 
reaching over a little way into the left Hypochondrium. 
Tab. LXXXVI. Fig. 2. P, Q. 

It is convex and very smooth on the upper Surface, 
where it is opposed i" (In- Diaphragm, though a little- 
flattened on the upper part of its left side, where it is 
placed opposite to the Heart. 

It is irregularly conceive on the under side, where it 
rests upon the Stomach and Intestines, and is perforated 
by several large Blood-vessels. 

It is thick on its right and posterior part, and becomes 
gradually thinner towards the left side ; is obtuse or 
blunt posteriorly, where it is opposed to the Lumbar 
Vertebra', and acute or sharp on its anterior edge, where 
it follows the Margin of the right False Ribs. — It is 
considerably broader from one side to the other, than 
from before backwards. 

It is divided into Prominences or Lobes, two of which, 
called Great and Smalt, or flight and Left Lobes, are 
:> considerable as to form the Body and whole upper part 

The Great is situated obliquely in the Right 
Hypochondriac Hegimi, following the Curve of the Dia- 
phragm, ami rets upon the IMorus, Cnion, and top of 
the Hi..,M Kidnev. Tab. LXXXVI. Fig. I. G. 

The Small Lobe, which is diminutive in size when 

hitler by a broad Ligament, and is placed almost hori- 
zontally, chiefly in the Kpi gastric, only a small portion 
of it lying in the Lel'l II> }ioclion<liiac Kcjrion. Tab. 
LXXXVI. Fig. 2. L. Left side. 

The other Lobe- are, 

The Lobulus, which is small when compared 
with the two former Lobts, but is the principal one 

It is situated near the Spine, upon the left side of the 
Great Lobe, and is of a pyramidal form, projecting like 
a Nipple, between the Cardia and Vena Cava, al the 
'■mall Curvature of the Slomnrh. Tab. XCIII. Fig. 2. 
X. Tab. XC. Fig. 1 . D. 

The Jjuhulas fan hi(u<-\ which is merely the He..l, or 
one of the Angles of the Lobulus Sfigelii, advancing 

towards the middle of the lower side of the Great 

The Lobu/us Anonymus, or Quadrat us, which is pla- 
ced between the passage of the Round Ligament and the 
Gall-bladder, and is less prominent, but broader than the 
former Lobule. Tab. XC. Fig. 1. A. Tab. CCI. D, B. 

From the Lobulns Anonymus, a Bridge, called Pons 
vel Isthmus Hepatis, runs across the passage for the Sub- 
stance termed Round Ligament, to be joined to the Left 
Lobe :— It is sometimes wanting. Tab. CCI. 

Upon the under side of the Liver, there are several- 
Depressions and Fissures, which are occupied by the 
contiguous Viscera, of which the following are the prin- 

The Great Fissure, called Fossa Umbilicalis, between 
the Right and Left Lobes, at the under and fore part of 
tile Liver, for the passage of the Umbilical Vein in the ■ 
Foetus, or the Hound Ligament of the Liver in the 

This is terminated by a Notch at the fore part of the 
Liver, — of different depths in different Bodies; — and be- 
hind, it is commonly covered with the Pons Hepatis. 
Tab. CCI. B, L. 

The Principal Fissure, termed Sulcus Transvcrsus, 
or Sinus Portarum, extending from right to left, between 
the Great and Small Lobes, and bounded by these Lobes 
at its extremities, and by the Lobulus Anonyinus before, 
and the Lobulus Spigelii behind ; the two latter form- 
ing parts compared by the Ancients to a Gate, and there- 
fore called Porta. Tab. XCIII. Fig. 2. B, K, H. 

The Porta receives the great Blend-vessels and the 
Nerves which go into the Liver, and transmits Biliary 
Ducts and deep-seated Absorbents out from it. 

The Depression between the Great Lobe and Lobnlas 
Sfigelii, for the passage of the Inferior Vena Cava, 
"hit It lias frequently a Bridge over it, forming it into a 
Canal. Tab. XCIII. Fig. 2. 

A Smalt I), predion, called Fossa Ductus Vetmi, 
continued froin the Fossa I mlulicalis between the Left 
Lobe and Lobulus SFIGELII, running a little obliquely 
from right to left side, and receiving a Ligament, foruier- 
!v a Rranch of the Umbilical Vein in the Fo:tus. Tab. 
XCIII. Fig. 2. 

The Liver is connected to the Body by different Pro- 
cesses, termed its Ligaments; all of which, excepting 
one, are formed by Doublings of the Peritoneum, viz. 

The Ligunun/um Lit! tun, vel Suxpeitttn 'mn rffpatia, 
placed between the 1 light and Left Lobes aU ■ 
rtiidim- In k.wmto the F.-:. Umbilicalis. Tab. LXXXVI. 
Fig. 1. I. 

ll is fixed ..Wi'^'h In the Diaphragm and tip of the 

r IV.] 



, and then descends in tlic same ob- Vena Portarvm, Vena llepalicu, Absorbents, and Bi. 

Iirpic direction, adhering to the inner edge of tin.- Vagina liary I) nuts — li has likewise numerous AVirs. 

of the Rectus Abdominis of the right side, as far as the The Trunks of the flepatic Artery, Vena Ports, Bi. 

Umbilieirs. Tub. LXXXVI. Fig. 1. L. liary Ducts, and Nervea, with the Absorbents and Lym- 

Thc Ligamentvm Rotmtdum, which was the Umbili- phatic Glands, f'onu a large Cord at the under side of the 

cal Vein in l he Pectus, placed in a Doubling of the un- Livi 
der part of the Ligamentmn Latum, and fixed to the 'Die Artery 

Umbilicus. Vctn in the rig 

These two Ligaments have been .supposed to resemble Ducts before i 

a. 1'ali, with the edge turned uppermost, from which Glands, siirrou 

a situated hi the left part of the Cord, the 
it with the common Trunk of the Biliary 
;;— the Nerves, Lyniphauc Vessels, and 
iding the Trunks of the Blood and Bi- 
Tab. XCJII. Fig. %. Tab. CCI. 

li. II, ,< 

ice, aud .covered externally by a. 
raicum, continued from the Omen- 
obtained the name of Capsule of 

,'cumstance the Ligamentmn Latum is 
rallied Falciforme. 

The Ligamtntum Cnroiuirium, considered by some as 
merely Cellular Substance, aud by others as a reflection 
of the Peritoneum, or both. — It unites the root or poste- 
rior part of the Liver to the Tendinous Portion of the 
Diaphragm . 

The Ligament um Dextnim, or Right Lateral Liga- 
ment, which is short, and connects the back part of the 
right extremity of the Great Lobe to the Diaphragm. 
Tab. XCIV. Fig. 1, E. 

The Ligament tun Sitmtntm, or Ltft Lateral Liga- different 
went, which is longer than the former, and connects the the Vem 

left extremity of the Small Lobe to the Diaphragm. Jar Substance, which ia also frequently i 
Tab. XCIV. Fig. 4. C. Glisson, from that Author supposing 

The two Lateral Ligaments are merely the extensions nuation of the Capsule which covers the Vessels before 
of the Coronary Ligament. - they enter the Liver. 

Besides the Ligaments already mentioned, two others The Hepatic Artery, Tab. XCIII. Fig. 2. Y, is de- 
are described by Haller ; one called Hepato-eoh'citm, rived from the Cceliac, and is dispersed throughout the 
Tab. XC. Fig. 1. /•, which passes from the Gall-bladder whole Substance of the Liver, and also upon the Coat which 
and contiguous Sinus Portaruni, across the Duodenum, covers it, and is so small, when compared with the Bulk 
to the Colon; — another termed Mepato-reaale^ Tab. of the Liver, as to have been generally supposed to be 
XC. Fig. 1. /, which descends from the root of the destined for tlie nourishment merely of that Viscus; but 

The Branches of the Vessels and 1 
ach other through the Substance of t 
mall Fasciculi, in a maimer eoiucvIihi 
iculus of which the Cord is formed by 

In their course through the Liver, tl 
i and Nerves, but paj 

nilar to the Fas- 
ieir Trunks. 
Branches of the 
culaxly those of 
lortion of Cellu- 
lled Capsule of 

well r 

The Ligaments of the Liver preserve it in its pro] 
situaiinn, mid nt' course prevent it from inclining 
much iu any direction, at ilie same time allowing it 
change plai 

from injections passing from the Arte* 
Ducts, and from olhe 

of situation of i 

and Intestines * 

the Diaphragm 

The Liver I 

at the Hepatic Artery is not only iu- 

,i,-li the Liver, but is i ipabli: <>!' seen liny part 
—and this *epposi(iun is farther con I': lined, 
i l J ort;e having, in a recent east-, heen found 
the Hepatic Artery waj 

, tin 

ui he 


and the Ve 

lal, and the Ve 

■ iWlL 

The Ve 

mple Coat adhering closely to it, spect to the Porta of the Liver. Tab. XCIII. Fig. 

which it derives from the Peritoneum, that gives it a It partakes of the nature of an Artery and a Ve 

shining* appearance externally. Ii is every where cover- Like ilie former, il c .; lies the J'luod from the Tru 

ed by this Membrane, excepting behind, where it adheres the Branches, aud, like the latter, it carries it t 

to the Diaphragm by Cellular Texture. Heart ; — or it is poculiar in the Blood flowing i 

The Liver is composed of several kinds of Vessels, part a 

the i 

ed Acini, which are about the size of Mustard Seeds. 
Thtjse, when minutely examined, are observed lo I: 
composed of Vessels in the form of radiated Vim t 

Kit he 

, the Hepatic Artery* 


.lined hi 

the Vi 



icd III til 

„l :i,,„v. 

ose of 1 


i ofjUC, tl 

„ I'l 

its to the Porta 

i of the Stomach and Intes- 
Spleen, Omentum, and Pan- 
le nature of an Alter) in the 



named Sinus Vena- Portcc, and divides info Branches 
which accompany those of tire Artery in their course 
through the Substance of the Liver, terminating at last 
in the Palp; Corpuscles. 

The Vtna Porta: serves to carry Venous Blood to the 
Liver, for the secretion of the Bile. Ii receives even the 
Blood which returns through tie Veins of (he Gall-blad- 
der, to assist in performing this Secretion. 

The Venm Hepaticat are numerous. They are reflect- 
ed partly IVom the extremities of the Artery, ami partly 

from those of the Vena Portae. They unite by degrees, 
and accompany the other two Sets of Vessels ; but, at 
the root of the Liver, they form two or three large 
Trunks which terminate in the Veua Cava, where it is 
about to perforate the Diaphragm. Tab. LXXXV. U, 
TJ, U. They likewise send oftnme small Branches which 
terminate in the Cava, where that Vein, lies behiud the 

The Veres Hepatic* receive the Blood from the He- 
patic Artery and Vena Port:?, after the Bile has been 
secreted, and return it to the Vena Cava, to be conveyed 
by it to the Heart. 

The Vessels of the Liver communicate with each other 
iu such a manner, that, after Death, a good Injection 
may be made to pass from the Artery into the \ ena I'or- 
tsc, Venae Hepawcttt, and Biliary Ducts, though into 
these last with difficulty. 

The Lymphatics of the Liver are so numerous as to 
cover almost the whole of its outer surface. Tab. 
CLXXVIL Fig. 1. I,K. They discharge their contents 
partly into the beginning of the Thoracic Duct, and partly 
into a Plexus situated behind the Sternum. 

The Nerves of the Liver are also numerous. They 
' arise from the Great Sympathetica and Eighth Pair, and 
accompany the Blood-vessels. Tab. CCI. 

The Biliary Ducts, Tab. XCHI.Fig.2. T, U, V,W, 
arise by extremely minute Branches, termed Pari lli- 
liarii,vel Tubtth ' Biliftri, chiefly from the extremities of 
the Vena Porta;, in the Substance of the Corpuscles, 
through the whole of the Liver. 

The Fori Biliarii rua in company with the branches of 
the Artery and Veins, and unite jjito larger and larger 
Branches, which altenv.iid-. go into hv:i, and these ;i;;.iin 
into a single Trunk, called Ductus Hepaticus, in tin. vi- 
llus Poi ; .. i inn . 

The Ductus Hepaticus serves to carrj|tjie Call or 
Bile, from the L,\er, — and u> convey it, by the -power of 
the Heart, Hepatic Artery, and V^aa Port.e, assisted by 
the pressure of the surrounding Muscle;., to the Duode- 
num, and partly to the \ esicula Feliia. 
. The Vexicuhi, vcl Cysti* l.lii.-; or Gall-BlaMcr, is a 
small, oblong, Pyrifonn Bag, con^tim- of a I'mulus. 
Botly, and Cervix, situated upon the concave side of the 
Great Lobe of the Liver, and placed in a transverse di- 
rection from behind forwards. Tab. LXXXVI. Kb. ' 
KCI. E. 

It. extends from the Sinus FoiUvnm, where tlie Ccr,v>. 

men, under the edge of the False Ribs. 

The Fundus is a little lower than the Cervix, whea 
the person i- in the erect poslure. It then also inclines 
a little to the right side, and rests upon the Colon at the 
beginning of the Duodenum. 

It is composed of several Coats, the external of which 
is a continuation of ihe Membrane of the Liver; Tins, 
however, is only a partial one, covering that part of the 
Gall-BUddcr which is not attached to the Surface of the 
Liver.— It serves lo give strength to the Gall-Bladder, 
ami to fix it to tlie Liver. 

Under the former Coat, a few pale scattered Fibres, 
running in various direction?), are sometimes observed, 
which have been considered as a Muscular Coat; and 
under tins there is some Cellular Substance, intermixed 
with a Plexus of Vessels, which has obtained the name 
of Xcrrous Coat. 

The Inner Coat, sometimes called Villous, is full of Re- 
ticular Rugae or Folds, appearing somewhat like the C'clla 
of a honey -tomb. The Oil- !>-<ome extremely minute to- 
wards the Cervix, where they run ina longitudinal direc- 
tion. Tab. XCIV. Fig. 5. 

The Surface of this Coat is every where perforated by 
the Ducts of small Follicle-, which discharge a Viscid 
Mucus, to defend it from the Stimulant nature of the 


The Gall-Bladder is connected through its whole length 
to the -Liver by Cellular Substance, Blood-vessels, and 

In many Brute Animals, the Gall-Bladder is connect^ 
i-il to the 'Liver also by a set of Ducts, cafled Hcpato- 
Ciflit, ivhi< h convey the Bile, found hi the Gull-Bladder 
immediately from the Liier. No such Ducts, however, 
are demonstrable in the Human Body, though, in for- 
mer times, the contrary has been maintained by different 

The Gall-Bladder has Blood-vessels, Absorbents, and 
Nerves, in common with those of the Liver. — Its Veins 
pass into the Vena Portae. 

The Cervix or Neck of the Gall-Bladder is twisted 
and folded against iiseli, and afterwards contracts and* 
sends out a Duct called Cystic, which runs near the 
Jiiictus He pit tic us* and then joins it, at a sharp Angle, 
to form the Ductus C'»>im tan's Cholcduclius. Tab. XCI1I. 
Fig- 1. 

The Ductus Cystii us is smaller than the Ductus Ifc- 

palicus, and dillers from it alto in having a number of 

if i perfect Partitions or /'/,<■,", running in a sni- 

ral Jlirciiioii, and tuimim.' it into Cell:, which retardjhe 

i;de. Tab. XCJV. Kig.O. 

The GidUHladder serves as a Receptacle for the Bile, 
when the Stomach am 1 Intestines are imply, and have no 
Bite:! of it, and retains it till wanted for the purpose of 
. | ™ Digestion. 

Fart IV.] 


Digestion. — It is afterwards discharged from tlie Gall- 
Bladder, when the Stomach is lull, into the Ductus Com- 
niimis, and from that to the Duodenum, chiefly by the 
pressure of the surrounding Viscera, and partly, as some 
Anatomists suppose, by a small degree of contractile power 
in the GaU-Bladder itself. 

The whole of the Rile contained in the Gail-Bladder 
is found, by experiment, to pass from the Liver through 
the Hepatic Duct to the Ductus Communis, and from 
that by the Cystic Duct into the Gall-Bladder. 

The Ductus Communis Choledochw is about.thc size of 
a Goose-quill, and is considerably larger than ■either of 
the Duels which open into it. 

It descends at the posterior and left side of the first 
portion of the Duodenum, and getting behind the right 
extremity of (he Pancreas, passes for some way obliquely 
between the Muscular and Inner Coals of that Intestine. 

It terminates in the left, posterior, and nearly in the 
under part of the second (urn of the Duodenum, by a pro- 
jecting Orifice, whic h is toil;. tied above, and pointed be- 
low, and which, with the obliquity of the passage of the 
Duct, ha-: the effect of a Valve, in preventing the reflux 
of the Bile to the Liver or GaU-Bladder. Tab. XCI1I. 
Fig. 2. X. 

The Structure of the Ductus Choledochus, and of the 
Biliary Ducts in general, is of the same nature, being 
composed of an outer and inner Membrane. The Inner 
Surface of the different Ducts also agrees in being perfo- 
rated by numberless Fores which are the Mouths- of Mu- 
cous Follicles, similar to those upon the inside of the 

The Secretion of the Bile is found, by experiment, to 
be constant, and to the quantity of from half a pound to 
a pound in the twenty-four hours, but always flowing in 
greatest abundance soon after taking iu nourishment. The 
Bile has a bitter taste, and is of a viscid consistence, of 
a yellowish colour changing to green, but varying .1 little 
in this respect occasionally. It is frequently of a brown- 
ish-yellow, and sometimes, especially in a Schirrous Liver, 

* The Bile returning from the Gall-Bladder, is observ- 
ed, from the thinner parts being absorbed, to he more te- 
nacious, acrid, and bitter, and of a deeper colour, than 
"that which flows from the Liver. 

According to the experiments of Thenard, one of the 
latest Writers on Bile, 1100 parts of this Fluid, taken 
from the Human Body, contains 1000 of Water, from 2 
to 10 of yellow insoluble Matter, 42 of Albumen, 41 of 
Resin, 5.6 of Soda, 4.5 of Phosphates of Soda and Lime, 
Sulphate and Muriate of Soda, ami Oxide of Iron. 

By experiments made at the desire of Dii Monro jun. 
upon Bile taken from a Person executed, 100 parts con- 
fined 86 of Water, 12.5 of Resin of Bile, and 1.5 of 
Albumen . 

The Bile serves to mix the different parts of the Food 
properly together, for tin; formation of the Chyle, *" 

whicli purpose it is well adapted, uniting with differed 
substances somewhat after the manner of Soup, — to cor- 
rect ton great a disposition to acidity, and to excite tin 
Peristaltic motion of the Intestines. 

The Spleen is a soft and very Vascular- Substance, and 
of a purple colour. 

It is somewhat depressed, is of a long oval form, and 
oi considerable ai/.e, Inn varyioi; in this last respect in dif- 
ferent Subjects. Its medium length is about five or 
six inches. Tab. XCIV. Fig. 1. Tab. CXCIX. O. 

It is situated under the Diaphragm, and almost verti- 
cally, in the Left Hypochondriac Region, between the 
large extremity of the Stomach and corresponding raise 
Ribs; — its under end lying belnud the Colon, and over 
the top of the Left Kidney. Tab. XCII. Fig. 1. Q, 

The situation of the Spleen vanes a little, according 
to the state of Respiration, and to the fuluess or empti- 
ness of the Stomach [—rising or falling as the Lungs are 
less or more dilated, — and becoming more, oblique in its 
situation, with its inferior extremity turned more for- 
ivards, in proportion as the Stomach becomes more dis- 
tended. Its form and size also vary a little, according to 
the degree of pressure it receives from the Stomach. 

Its Kitvnml Surface is convex and uniform, like that 
of the Ribs, &c. to which it is opposed. 

Its Internal Surface, or that next the Spine, is irre- 
gularly concave, and is divided into an Anterior and Pos- 
terior Plane, by a longitudinal Groove or Fissure, where 
the Vessels and Nerves enter-. 

The Anterior Plane is more concave than the Poste- 
rior, corresponding to the contiguous convexity of the 
Stomach, uith which it it, in close contact. 

The Spleen has frequently deep Fissures upon its 
edges; — sometimes it has small .l/'//iiii!i!^<s attached to 
it, and not unfrequentiy there is cue or more SjiUi/i--, 

At the i 


nth i 

ed to the Omentum, and by 

T y 

crcas.— Behind, it is connected to the Diaphragm, and 
below, to the Left Kidney and Colon, by Reflections of 
the Peritoneum, and by Cellular Substance. 

It is covered by a don/tic M<inl>ra;>c, one Layer of 
which is a production of the Peritoneum, the other pro- 
per to the Spleen itself, but so closely connected to the 
common Coat, that they appear- in the Adult Body to be 
one and the same Membrane. 

The substance of i.lie Spleen is remarkably soft, and it 
is by much the most tender of the Abdominal Viscera. 

It consists of a Congeries of Blood-ves-els, Lympha- 
tics, and Nerves, joined together and supported by a large 

quantity of Cellular Substance, Tab. XCIV. Fig. 2- 




[Part IV. 

The extreme branches of tbe Blood- vessels-put on the 
appearance of A'-. y //.'.', winch have bun mistaken for 

These Vessels are so tender, that when an injection is 
forcibly thrown into either Artery or Vein, particularly 
the latter, it bursts into the common Cellular Substance, 
and gives the appearance of Follicles or Ceils. 

The Btood-ctsseh of the Spleen are among the largest 
of the Body, in proportion to the size of the Viscus on 
which they are dispersed. 

The Artery is a principal Branch of the Cocliac — It 
runs m a serpentine direct ion, and, after sending Branches 
to the Pancreas, &c. and the ArteritB Breves to the left 
end of tbe Stomach, it goes into the Substance of the 
Spleen, where ii is subdivided into Branches, which are 
crowded together, and run in every direction, forming at 
length Plexus and PenicilH, which terminate in the 
Branches of tbe corresponding Vein. 

The Vein, like that in most other Viscera, is. larger 
than the Artery : It receives the Blood immediately from 
the terminations of the Artery, without the intervention 
of Cells. 

The Splenic Vein receives the Vents Breves of the 
Stomach, the Pancreatic Veins, &c. and forms one of the 
print ipal Brandies of the Vena Porta:. 

The Lymphatics from the superficial parts of the Spleen 
join the deep-seated Absorbents at the Fissure where the 
Blood-vessels enter, and afterwards pass through several 
Conglobate Glands lying over the Splenic Artery. 

They intermix with Lymphatics belonging to several 
other Viscera, and term bate in the Thoracic Duct. 

The Nerves of the Spleen, which arc small, but con- 
siderable in nun]ber,-are Branches of the Great Sympa- 
thetic and Eighth Pair, and form an irregular Plexus 
which surrounds I he Vessels. 

No Excretory Duct has been found to proceed from 
the Spleen, b consequence of which very various opi- 
nions have been entertained with respect to the u B e of 
this Organ. 

Many of the Ancients were of opinion, — that besides 
the Bile of the Liver, there was an Atra Bitis; or Blavk 
Bile, and that the Spleen was t he receptacle of it. 

Others have thought, a particular Memtmtfm was se- 
creted in it, and conveyed to the Momacli for the pur- 
pose of Digestion. 

Others again,— that the Blood of the Spleen promotes 
the sluggish circulati.ui of the Blood of the Vena IWi.i 

The late Mi: Heivmik, who has mitten particularly on 
the Spleen, was of opinion, it concurred with the Thy- 
mus and Lymphatic Glands in forming the red Globules 
of the Blood, and that these Globules were rendered 
complete b the Spleen. 

It has been also supposed,— lhat as (lie Stomach be- 
comes fuli, the Spleen i ; i om pressed by it, in consequence 
of which a greater quautiiy of ilium] i,, suit to the Pan- 
creas, for the aetfetion of the Pancreatic Juice. 

d opinio,, is,— that the 

Blood undergoes some change in it, which renders it 
useful in the secretion of the Bile-, and the opinion is 
supported from the great quantity of Blood with which 
llii^. Organ in known to be supplied, and from its Vein, 
not only in Ulan, but in other Animals, passing to the 
Vena* Porta:. A late opinion id, that the Spleen forms the 
oleaginous part of the Bile. 


The Pancreas is a flat Gland of the Conglomerate 
kind, from six to eight indies in le 

nature with the Salivary Glands, of which it may be rec- 
koned the largest. 

It is situated in the Epigastric Region, and is plated 
transversely iu the back part of the Abdomen, between 
the Stomach and Spine. Tab. XCIV. Fig. 7. A, A. 

It, has a large or Right Extremity, and a small or Left 
one, an Anterior and Posterior Surface, and an Upper 
and I nder Edge. 

The Bight Extremity is attached to the left side of 
the second turn of the Duodenum, or to that part where 
the Iutestbe is about to go across the Spine. 

From the under part of the Right Extremity, the 
Pancreas sends down an Elongatiou or Process, which 
adheres closely to the Duodenum. Tab. XCIV, Fig. 
7. B. 

This Process was discovered by Winslow, and term- 
ed by hiin Pancreas Minus. — It is also called Head tj 
the Pancreas. 

The Paucreas lies higher than the Duodenum} the 
body of the former passing before the upper edge of the 
transverse portion of the latter, and over the Aorta, Veui 
Cava, and part of the Splenic Vessels, to all of wliich it 
is attached. 

It becomes gradually narrower and thinner towards its 
Left Extremity, which is rounded, and is fixed to the 
Spleen, through the medium of the large Omentum. Tab. 

xcin. Fig. -'. Tab. excrx. N. 

The Pancreas is covered anteriorly by the two layers 
of the root of the Meso-colon ; — posteriorly, it is only co- 
vered with Cellular Substance, which connects it to the. 

It is of a pale red colour, bordering upon yellow, 
and is composed of minute Granule termed its Acini, 
which form small Glands or Lobes, that are connected 
loosely by Cellular Texture, b such a manner as to 
give an appearance of uniformity and iinoothness to the 
F.\lemnl Surface. 

By a good Injection, each of the Acbi is found to be 
composed of an assemblage of Blood-vessels, and of the 
origins of an Excretory Tube. 

The Arteries of the Pancreas are derived, partly from 
the Hepatic, but chiefly from the Splenic, 
small Brandies, \i hich pa«s at various places bto it; Sub- 


Tin- Viim correspond in name ami general course with compose it,— and is at last about the size of a Raven's 

the Arteries, and assist in Fanning the \ ena Porta:. Quill, Tab. XCTV. Fig. H. F, F. 

The Lt/mphat>cx run to the Splenic Plexus and Urmi- At the Right Extremity of the Pancreas, it receives 

nate in the ') horacic Duct. the principal Duct of the Pancreas Minus, and termi- 

Tbe AVrtc.v of the Pancreas are small. Likethoscof nates obliquely in the Duodenum by an Orifice coimooa 

the other Viscera of the Abdomen, they are derived from to it and the Ductus Communis Choledochus. ■ In some 

the Great Sympathetic :\nc\ Eighth Pair. # rare cases, however, it terminates at. a little distance from 

From the different Acini of the Pancreas, small Dints the Biliary Duct : and some times also, the Duct of the 

arise, which join inlo Liyr ones running (nuisvcTseh in Pancreas Minus ends separately in the Duodenum, 

the Substance of the Paiu-reas and forming a common The Pancreas secretes a, resembling Saliva in 

Duct, called Ductus Paiu-rcatici's. Tab. XCIV. Fig. 7 . quality and appearance, ;md discharges it by its Excre- 

The Pa/icreatic Duct, termed also Ductus Wirt- toiy Duct into the Duodenum. Tab. XCIII. Fig. a. F. 

SUNCi, after the Discoverer of it in the Human Body, is The Pane rail ic ./pic, incorporates the Rile with the 

remarkably thin, of a white colour, and serai-transparent . Aliment try SuTass, and may be said also to answer the 

It begins at the Left Extremity of the Pancreas, runs same purpose to the Contents of the Intestines, which 

somewhat Serpentine in ilu- Substance of the Gland, a the Gastric Juice does to those of the Stomach; or, it 

little below its middle height, becoming gradually larger finishes that Digestive Process in the Intestines, which 

in consequence of receiving the dufercnt Branches which was begun in the Stomach. 

( iso ) 


The Liver, Spleen, Pancreas, and Duodenum, withMhe Insertion of the Biliary and 
Pancreatic Ducts. 

FIG. l. 

[ View of the G all-Bladder, and of the Biliary and 
Pancreatic Ducts. 

, The cystic duct. 

, e, The right and left branches of tlie hepatic duct. 
, The hepatic duct. 
, The ductus communis choledochus. 
, A, The branches of the pancreatic duct. 
, z, Their termination in the pancreatic duct. 
, k 7 The trunk of the pancreatic duct. 
, The termination of the ductus communis choledochus, 
and pancreatic duct, in the duode 

, The inner surface of part of the duodenum. 
FIG. 2. 
Represents the Under Surface of the Liver, and the 

Anterior Surface of the Spleen, Pancreas, atid 

A, A, The anterior and inner part of the spleen, with its 

blood-vessels slightly represented, 

F, The pancreatic duct, terminating in the duodenum. 

G, The pylorus, with a small portion of the stomach. 
H, The upper part of the duodenum, which is covered by 

the liver when m situ. 
I, I, The curvature of the duodenum, slit open, to shew 

the ruga-, and tlie common orifice of the biliary and 

pancreatic ducts. 
K, The continuation of the duodenum. 
L, The under surface of the great lobe of the liver. 
M, That of the small lobe, 
N, ThelobeofSttGELius. 
O, Part of the broad and round ligaments. 
P, Part of the upper 01 convex surface of the liver : — 

The letter is placed upon the part to which the light 

lateral ligament was fixed. 
Q, Tlie part to which the left lateral ligament \ 
B, B, B, The sinus poitaiiuu,by which the great fa 

vessels enter the liver. 
S, The gall-bladder. 
T, The cystic duct. 

TJ, L' f Tlie right and left branches of the hepatic 
V, The hepatic duct. 

B, B, The pancreas fixed by one end to the sph 
by the other to the duodenum. 

C, C, The pancreatic duct. 

D, The pancreas minus. 

E, The duct of the pancreas 
the pancreas majus. 

YV, Tlie ductus communis choledochus. 

X, The ductus communis choledochus terminating L 

duodenum, after having run for some way obliquely 

Y, The hepatic artery dividing into tw 
terminating in tlujt of Z, The vena portarunj, also dividing into tw 



Tab .93. 

i ^- 


( 151 ) 


I Situation and Structure of the Assistant Chylopoietic Viscera, with different Views of 
the Vesica Urinaria, and Organs of Generation, 

FIG. 1. 

A View of the Spleen, with its Blood-vessels 

A, A, The internal concave part of the spleen 
stomach and pancreas. 

B, B, The arteries. 

C, C, The veins, which, like the arteries, foni 
contortions before they enter the spleen. 

Fin. 2. 

A Portion of the Spleen, with its Vessels, i 
which are unfolded. 

r which a portion of the vena porta- 

- s , Tin isthmus, i 
injected. J * 08 l »e umbilical i 

■ 'here the round ligament enters. 

in the edge of which the round 

T, The 

: the U, The broad ligai 
one is iucloscd. 


A, The extremities of some of the blood-vessels com 

pletely unfolded, resembling wool or cotton. 
B r The extremities of others, partly unfolded, 

C, A portion of the surface of the spleen, not unfolded. 

D, The splenic artery. 

E, The splenic vein. 

FIG. 3. 

The Common Cellular Texture of the Spleen, which lnu 
been mistaken for Cells peculiar to that Organ. 

FIG. 5. 
A Section of the Gall-Bladdek and Biliary Ducts-. 

A, The inner surface of the gall-bladder, to shew its re- 
ticulated appearance. 

B, A portion of the hepatic duct. 

C, The 

The cystic duct.— In the cystic duct, the cells, and 
n the gall-bladder and biliary ducts in general, lK 
irihces ot the mucous ducts arc represented, though 
io! very distinctly. 

cLof the .-..Il-l.l ,.!.!.[-. 

A- View of the Concave or Under Surface of the Liver. 

A, The left, and, 

B, The right lobe of the liver. 

C, The left lateral ligament. 

D, D, The surface by which the liver adhered i 

E, The right lateral ligament. 

F, G, The veua cava inferior. 
H, A portion of the liver which surrounds the vena 
I, The sinus where the ductus venosus of the foetus runs. D, Tli 
K, A sinus where blood and biliary vessels peneti 

which belong chiefly to the left lobe of the liver. E, E, 

E, M, Eminences between which, F, Tin 
N, The vena porta; enters. G, Th 
M, I, L, The lobulus Spigelii.. H, Pai 
'), The hepatic duct. whic 

F, The ductus communis choledochus. I, The 
Q, The cystic duct. K, Thi 
R, 'Flie gall-bladder, projecting beyond the edge of the jL, 'I 

the A, A, &e. The pane. 

B, The pancreas inin 

C, C, C, The paucre; 

length of, and rccc 
of the pane, 

and ondiui; i 

M, Th 



N, The same intestine emerging upwards in the left hy- 
pochondrium, where it obtains the name of Jejunum. 

0, O, The mesentery. 
P, The vena racscraica. 
Q, The arteria nieseraica. 

FIG. 8. 

A View of the Gall-bladder, Bf/wty and Pancreatic 

DttctB, with their Termination in the Duodenum. 

FIG. 9. 

Represents the Kidneys, with their Blood-vessels. 

A, A, The kidneys ;— the right one somewhat larger and 
tower than the left. 

B, B, The renal glands, the right also represented larger 
than the left. 

C, The aorta. 

D, The inferior cava. 

E, E, The renal arteries, the right longer, lower, and 
more oblique than the left. 

F, F, The renal veins of the right side, shorter, lower, 
and more oblique than the left. 

G, G, Veins belonging to the kidney and renal glands. 
U, The spermatic arteries. 

1, I, veins. 

K, The inferior mesenteric artery, represented a great 


L, L, The i 

FIG. 10. 

Shews flic Kidney and its Pelvis, divided f&raugi the 
middle from the Outer Edge to the Ureter. 

A, A, &c. The cut Fiivfare of the cortical substance. 

B, li, &c. A section of the uriniferous substance, with 
radiated fibres ending in papilla?. 

C, C, A section of the pelvis of the kidney. 

D, D, See. A section of the branches of the pelvis, called 

F,, E, E, Some of the papilla 

in a serpentine course, and many of them degenerating 
into uriniferous tubes. 

B, A portion of the external surface of the kidney, 

C, C, &c. The uriniferous ducts. 

D, D, &c. The papilla;. 

E, A section of the pelvis. 
E, The ureter. 

FIG. 13. 

A, The vesica urinaria, the outer coverings of which arc 
removed, to shew the different orders of its fleshy fibres. 

B, The fundus vesica;. 

(.', Tin' prostate gland smroimding llinink of the bladder. 

D, The entrance of the ureter into the bladder. 

E, The tendinous ligaments of the bladder. 

F, The peritoneal coat reflected. 

G, One of the vesicUlBE seminales. 

H, A section of the os pubis near its symphysis. 

I, The membranous part of the urethra] 

K, The bulb of the urethra. 

L, The urethra. 

M, The corpus cavcrnosum penis of the right side. 

N, A section of the left corpus cavernosum penis. 

O, A portion of the penis entire. 

P, Q, The corpora cavernosa penis, between which the 

urethra:, surrounding the u 

e, The renal, or emulgciit aiterv, dividing into branches 
in the substance of the kiducv. 

6, The corresponding vein. 

c, r, &c. The beginning of the infundibula, uniting into 

trunks, which form, 
<?, The pelvis. 

f, The ureter continued from the pelvis. 

FIG. 12. 

septum is se 
B, The corpu 


S, The suspensory ligament of the penis. 
T, The scrotum. 
U, The raphe, which extends from the anus along the 

middle of the scrotum. 
V, A section of the integuments. 
W, The anus. 
X, The sphincter ani. 
Y, The levator ani. 
Z, The os coeevgis. 
a, o, a, The os sacrum. 
/>, The last lumbar vertebra, 
r, The trunk of the common iliac artery. 
d, The beginning of the external iliac artery, 
r, The internal iliac artery. 
f,f, Branches which go through the great notch of the 

os ilium to the muscles. 
g, The external hemorrhoidal branches. 
//, Tin- art! i ia pudenda rommunis. 

?', A branch from this artery to the bulb of the urethra. 
k. The umbilical artery. 
/, Branches of this artery to the ve«« a urinaria, vearifnlM 

seminulcs, and prostate gland. 

fig. n 

A View of the Anh-ru.r Part of the Male Bladder of 

: branches of the renal a 

iiing A, The urachu:. 


;culur coat of ilie bladder, culled Detrusor 
Mining down upon the prostate gland. 

D, D, The under mid lateral pans of the bladder, thinner 
and more dilated than the upper part. 

E, E, The prostate gland. 

B, The r 
VrintB, . 

C, C, The 

A Posteii 

FIG. 15. 

a of the same Bladder of Urine. 

A, B, C, D, A3 iu Fig. 14. 

E, E, Thevesicube seminales, and, 

F, F, The vasa deferentia, turned down to shew the pos- 
terior part of the detrusor urinae. 

G, The tough ligamentous substance between the vasa 

FIG. 16. 
An Anterior View of the Female Bladder of Urine, 
divested of Fat and Membranes, to shew its Situa- 
tion upon the Vagina. 

A, The orifice of the bladder, close to 

B, B, The circular' muscular fibres, < 
which part of the detrusor arises. 

sphincter, from 

C, C, The circular fibres, or sphincter of the vagina. 
I>, The inside of the vagina, upon which the ruga: appear. 

fig. ir. 

The Under Part of the Bladder, and Beginning of the 
Urethra, slit open, and viewed Anteriorly. 

A, The bladder. 

B, A probe in the termination of the left ureter. 

C, The ureter running obliquely between the coats of 
the bladder. 

D, The termination of the right ureter slit open. 

F, F, The vasa deferentia. 

G, G, The vesiculse seminales. 

H, H, The neck of the bladder, surrounded by, 

I, I, The prostate gland. 

K, A projection in the beginning of the urethra, forming 

the caput Gallinaginis. 
L, The termination of the seminal ducts. 
M, M, The part where the ducts of the prostate gland 

N, One of Cowper's glands. 
O, The bulb of the urethra. 
P, P, P, Probes put into some of the ducts of the ure- 


1 ( 154 ) 


Represents the Contents of the Thorax and Abdomen, seen from behind, — in a Chilix 

The Common Integuments, Muscles, Bones, and any c f c, The dura mater slit open, and spread out upon the 
other parts which might obstruct the View, are dis- transverse processes of the vertebra, 

sected away. The Section is continued from the up- tf", </, &c. The lobes of the lungs. They are conical 
per part of the Thorax to the lower part of the Spine. above, and elevated behind ; their under part is seen 
The Os Sacrum, and back parts of the Vertebra, and opposite the sixth pair of ribs. The lobules also are 
of the Ribs, excepting the Twelfth Pair, are removed, distinctly seen in this Figure. 

to exhibit the Spinal Marrow with its Coverings. A e y f, The diaphragm, with its arched posterior surface- 
small portion of the Crist* of the Ossa llii is cut off", the elevations and depressions corresponding with the 
to shew the deep-seated Intestines. subjacent viscera. 

/, The apex hepatis projecting under the diaphragm, and 

a, The spinal marrow, with the origins of the spina} over the intestines. 

- nerves. g^ g, The kidneys lobated in the child. 

4, The spinal marrow increasing in size towards the k, The intestinum ilium advancing towards the carnm, 

Cauda Equina, and opposite to the twelfth pair of 7, The appendix vermiformis. 

ribs, its conical extremity sending off the ligamentum k, The left portion of the colon. 

Pia matris. J, Its sigmoid flexure. 

( 1M ) 


In this Table, besides the Parts cut off in the formw one, the Dorsal and Lumbar Vertebra, 
with the Os Sacrum, and Part of the Cristve of the Ossa Ilii, are removed, that certain 
Viscera, deeper seated than those represented in the preceding Figure, may appear. 

a, The sixth cervical vertebra. 

by b. The lungs, the lobules of which are less accural 

represented than in the former Table. 
r, The esophagus. 
</, rf, The aorta, in which are seen the origins of tlie 

tercostal, lumbar, and sacral arteries, and its pass 

through tlie diaphragm. 
f, The vena azygos arising in the abdomen, and perfoi 

tog the diaphragm near the aorta. 
/,/, The diaphragm, the posterior part of which 

3 shew the viscera which it concealed. 
£,g, The liver proportionally large to the child. 
ft, The spleen. 
t\ A portion of the stomach. 
*, k y The vena cava inferior, with the termiuatio 

lumbal- veins. It is seen receding from the aoi 

approaching the liver. 

/, /, The glandula: supra-renales, the left surrounded by 
the stomach, spleen, and kidney, and therefore a little 
compressed, the right more conical, lying under the 
hollow surface of the liver. 

m, wi, The kidneys lobated and surrounded with a proper 

», n, The renal arteries. 

o, The renal veins. 

p,py The ureters emerging from the pelvis of the kid- 

the caecum, 

q. The termination of the small 
and appendix vermiform is. 

r, The left, or descending portion c 

s, The aorta sending oft, and the 
of the the iliac branches. 
i upon /, The intesttoum rectum. 

«, Part of the uterine vagina. 

( 156 ) 


KIDNEYS. incorporated, which adheres closely to the Kidney, and 
is reflected over the edges of the Sinus, to be joined to 

The Kidneys are two Glandular Bodies, of a pale red the Pelvis and large Vessels, 

colour, situated in the upper and back part of the Abdo- The Surface of the Kidney is commonly smooth and 

men, in the Lumbar Region. Tab. LXXXVI. 7. uniform, though .sometimes it is irregular, in consequence 

They are placed one on each side of the Spine, extend- of the Lobes which originally form it not beiug com- 
ing from the eleventh pair of Ribs to near the Crista of pletcly incorporated. It consists of an outer part called 
the Ossa Ilia, and rest upon th*> Diaphragm, large Psoe, Cortical, and an inner termed Medullar}/. 
Quadrati Luniborum, and Transversales Abdominis, Tab. The Cortical Substance, termed also Secerning, sur- 
CLIX. rounds the Kidney, and forms about a third of its lu-eadth. 

The Right Kidney is situated at the under and back — It likewise sends in Partitions, which separate the Me- 

part of the large Lobe of the Liver, behind the Colon, dullary parts from each other. Tab. CI. Fig. 'J. a, a. 

and is commonly a very little lower than the left, being The Alcdullary, termed also Uriiiiferoiis Substance^ is 

supposed to be affected by the great Lobe of the Liver. more compact and of a paler colour than the former, and 

The Left Kidney ie placed at tbfi under and back part is divided into a number of distinct Columns, each of 

of the Spleen, and" behind the left portions of the Sto- which terminates in a Projection called Papilla,vz\Pro- 

mach, Pancreas, and Colon. cessits Mammiflarii. — Tab. CI. Fig. 2. i, b. 

The Kidney is about five or six fingers-breadth in The Papilla- w merely the continuation of the Urini- 

Jengtb, but consul,-] ablv Ie?s from the outer to the inner ferous part, though frequently considered as a third divi- 

side, and less still from before backwards ; or, it is com- sion of the Substance of the Kidney. Tab. CI. Fig. 2. 

pared in shape to a French or Kidney Bean. c, c. 

It is rounded anteriorly, flattened posteriorly, convex Each Kidney has one, and sometimes more Arteries, 

and uniform at its outer margin, and has a deep Depres- of great proportional size, which run transversely from 

r Sinus towards the Vertebrae, surrounded with un- the Aorta, and a Vein still larger than the Artery, which 

equal edges, where the Renal Vessels and Nerves enter, terminates in the Cava. — They enter at the Sinus of the 

Tab. CI. Fig. 1. Kidney, and are included in Cellular Substance, which 

It is a little broader behind than before, and a little accompanies them throughout their course. Tab. CI. 

broader and more curved above than below ; from which Fig. 1. A, B. 

circumstances, but more particularly from the disposition The Right Renal Artery is longer than the Left, iu 

of the Vessels, to be afterwards mentioned, it is easy to consequence of the Vena Cava, behind which it passes, 

distinguish the Right from the Left Kidney when taken being placed upon the right side of the Aorta, 

out of the Body. The Artery, as it approaches the Kidney, is divided 

The Right Kidney is connected to .the Liver and Duo- into Branches, which are afterwards minutely distributed 

denum, the Left to the Spleen, and both to the Muscles through the Cortical Substance, forming Arches and A- 

on which they are placed, and to the Renal Glands and uastomoscs ; but these are found to be much less frequent 

Colon, by Cellular Substance, and by the Peritoneum ; than are commonly described ; for a line Injection thrown 

which last, reflected from the Liver and Spleen to the into a Branch of the Artery, fills only the Ramifications 

Kidnej ■-. have by some been called the Ligaments of the belonging to that Branch. 

Kidneys. The small Branches, after turning and winding in va- 

They are also connected to the Aorta and Vena Cava rinus directions, pass partly towards the Surface of the 

by their Blood- vessels, and to the Bladder of Urine by Kidney, where they form irregular Stars, some of which 

the Ureters.— They accompany the motions of the Liver supply the proper Membrane. 

;.r>d Spleen, in the di Herein states of Respiration. Others turn inwards in a waving direction, and form Cor- 

F.ach Kidney is surrounded by loose Cellular Sub>t:tnee, puse/es, or Acini, disposed somen hat after the maimer ot 

whiaji commonly contains a considerable quantity of Fat, Clusters u/'miui!/ Berries, whkh cut only be seen distinctly 

1'n.nn uhieh it is termed Tunica Adipoxa. bv the us-, Stance of Glasses, after a minute Injection. 

The Tunica Adipnsa covers not only the Kidney, but ' The Corpuscles were considered by Un Nichols as 

the large Vessels, and defends them from the pressure of the Glohul ir Termiintimis of Blood-vessels, and termed 

the surrounding Viscera. by him GfobvU Jrtm varum Termini , but Hiese Globuli 

Under the Tunica Adiposa, there is a Membrane com- were all envy ids observed by Mil Hewson, and others, 

posed of the original proper Cost and Cellular Substance to consist of small Vessels intimate!) intermixed- 

Part IV.] 


The Veins returning from tlie extremities of the Arte- 
ries, unite in iIk- Cortical Substance of the Kidney. 

The Branches of the Renal Vein are much larger than 
those of the Artery ; they communicate freely, especially 
on the Surface of the Kidney, but correspond with them 
in their course. — They form a large Trunk, on each side, 
which lies anterior to the ci hii sjiohiIih-j; Artery, and runs 
transversely to the Cava ; the left, which is the longer of 
the two, passing across the fore part of the Aorta. 

The Lymphatics of the Kidney run from without in- 
wards, and terminate in tin Lumbar Glands, and after- 
wards in the Thoracic Duct. — The Superficial Lympha- 
tics are so small as seldom to be seen, excepting in the 
diseased state of the Kidney. 

The Nerves are from the Semilunar Ganglion, formed 
by the Great Sympathetic ami Fight h Pair. They com- 
pose a Plexus winch surrounds the Blood-vessels, and 
accompanies them iu the Kidney. 

From the minute extremities of the Renal Artery, in 
the Corpuscles seated in the Cortical Substance, the U- 
rinifcrotts 'i'ltbi-s arise. They are mixed with some ex- 
ri'cmelv >mall Blood-vessel-, and con-mute the Medullary 
SmVtanee of the Kidney. 

By degrees they unite into larger Tubes, which run iu 
a radiated manner, the direction being from the outer 
edge or circumference, towards the Sinus or inner part 
of the Kidney. Tab. XCIV. Fig. 10. B, B. 

The radiated Tubes, becoming null larger in their pas- 
sage, terminate iu the Papilla', which are of a com- 
pressed conical form, and at a little distance from each 
other. Tab. XCIV. Fig. 10. B. 

The Papilla are twelve or more in each Kidney, the 
number varying according to that of the original Lobes of 
which the Kidney is composed, and likewise from some 
of the Papilla; being occasionally incorporated with each 

Upon the Points of the Papilla; are the Terminations 

of the Uriniferous Tubes, — large enough to be distinguish- 
ed by the naked Eye,— through which the Urine distils 
from the Substance of the Kidney. 

Round the root of each Papilla, a Membranous Tube 
arises, termed Infaniiibulam 01 Calix, winch receives 
*he Urine from the Papilla. Tab. XCIV. Fur. 10. I), D. 

The Infumlibulu arc commonly the same in number 
with the Papilla; ; the number, however, ■ varying iu dit 
ferent Subjects, two or more of the Papilla; sometime 
opening into the same Infundibulum. 

The Infundibula join into two or three large Trunk* 
at the Sinus of the Kidney, which afterwards form a Di 
laiation of considerable size, of the shape of an inverts. 
Cone, and termed Pelvis of the Kidney. Tab. CI. FL 


The Pelvis is placed between the principal Rranchc 
of the Renal Artery and Vein, partly within, but tin 
greater part of it without the Body oi' the Kidney, am 
contracts into a long Tuhc, about the si/.c of a writ in c- 

pen, called Ureter Tab. CI. Fig. 2. D 

The Ureters are commonly one to each Kidney, though 
in some rare instances they are double on one or on both 

The Artery of the Kidney is placed uppermost, — the 
Vein in the middle and fore put,— and the continuation of 
the Pelvis and beginning of the Ureter at the under and 
back part of the Blood-vessels ; which disposition of the 
Vessels serve, a; a distinguishing mark between the Rigln 
and Left Kidney, when separated born the Body. Tab. 
CI. Pig. 1. 

The Ureters descend in the Loins obliquely inwards 
behind the Peritoneum, and go over the Psoa; and Iliac 
Vessels, opposite to the anterior and lateral part of the 
Os Sacrum. Tab. LXXXVL Fig. 1. M, M. Tab. 

They pass afterwards into the Pelvis, and terminal, 
obliquely iu the under, outer, and hack pari of the Blad- 
der. Tab. CLXXIV. F. Tab. CCIV. Fig. 2. G. 

Iu their descent, they do not run iu a straight, but iu 
a waving direction, somewhat similar to the Italic/; — 
neither are they cylindrical, as they form .-.light dilata- 

coutractions are more observable in their passage over 
the Psoa; Muscles, and at their insertion into the 

The Ureters are covered anteriorly by the Peritoneum, 
and composed of an eifi find Slonbrunous Coat, a midii.v 
Muscular one, firmed chiefly of < iiiular Fibres, and an 
I at nan! Coat, sometimes called T'illaus. 

The Inner Coat is very Vascular, and is perforated by 
the Mouths of small Ducts, which line it with a Mucin 
to defend it from the Urine. 

The Vessels and Nerves of the Ureters are from those 
of the contiguous parts. 

The Kidneys secrete the Urine from the Blood, and 
convey it by means of the litters to the Bladder. 


The Renal Glands, termed also Capsulce Jtrabilana; 
Capsuia- Iieiwtes, Iitucs Succi-iiluriuti, and GlauthtLc 
Supra-raiaks, are two small, flat, Glundular-likc Bodies, 
of a dark yellow colour, U iug iu the upper and back part 
oi' the Abdomen. 

the Kn 

-s, ha 

U PI" ' 

lid fo, 

The Right one is connected to the Liver, the Left to 
the Spleen :iw.\ Pancreas, and both to the small Must!- 
of the Diaphragm, and to the i'u:\ ,\iu--.le^ and Kid- 


neys, by Cellular Substance. They are likewise retain- than towards its lateral parts, — a little more capacious, 

ed in their place by numerous Vessels and Nerves which also, below than above, especially at its posterior part, 

are spread over them. In People advanced in life, and of a relaxed habit, the 

They are surrounded by Cellular Texture, which is Bladder is sometimes divided, at its under part, into two 

part of the Tunica Adiposa of the Kidneys, and have a Lateral Portions, in which Calculi are occasionallj 

thin proper Coat, which adheres firmly to them, lodged. 

Their inner pails arc softer than the outer, are of a The Bladder is distinguished into Fundus, Body, and 

brown colour, and can be easily separated from the outer, Cervix ; the first of which is placed upwards and a little 

after which the Glands have the appearance of being real forwards, and the last at the under and fore part. 

Capsules. They are frequently observed to be hollow, It is connected below to the Rectum, aud at the side* 

and to contain a dark-coloured Bilious-like matter, which to the Pelvis, by the reflected Peritoneum aud Cellular 

is considered by many Anatomists as the Internal very Substance ; the former of which, when the Bladder is 

Vascular and tender pari.-. m> lied down by Putrefaction. empty, has the appearance of Lateral Ligaments. 

Their Arteries come from those of the adjacent parts. It is attached, at the fore part of its Body, by Cellular 

particularly from the Reual, and also from the Aorta and Substance, to the Ossa Pubis, without the intervention 

Diaphragmatic Arteries. of the Peritoneum. Tab. CIV. 

Of the principal I'eini, the Right goes to the Vena It is also fixed to the Umbilicus by three Ligaments 

Cava, and the Left to the Renal Vein. situated between the Peritoneum and Abdominal Mus- 

The Lymphatics go chiefly to those of the Kidneys. cles. — They are formed of the U radius running upwards 

Tire Nerves come principally from die Renal Plexus. 

They have no Excretory Ducts. 

The Renal Glands have been supposed to furnish LXXXVI. Fig? 1/ 

Lymph for the dilution of the Blood returning in the The firmest connection is by means of two Ligameu- 

Ronal Veins, after the secretion of the Urine ; tous Expansions, which run from each side of the Neck 

Or, to restore to the Blood of the Vena Cava, the ir- of the Bladder and Prostate Gland, to be fixed to the 

ritable parts lost in the secretion of the I' line and Rile ; under and inner part of the Symphysis of the Ossa Pubis. 

Or, to convey something useful to the Thoracic Duct ; — It is connected also at this place to the Penis, by th» 

Or, hi the FoeIus, to divert the Blood from the Kidneys, Urethra. 

and thereby lessen the quantity of Urine. It is composed of different Coats joined together by 

But their use is si ill undiscovered ; though it is sup- loose Cellular Subtttance ; the first of which is only a par- 
posed, from their vicinity to the Kidneys, not only in tial one continued from the Peritoneum. Tab, LXXXVI. 
Man, but in many other Animals, that they are subset- Fig. 4. y, y. 

vitnt to Organs, particularly in the pectus. The Peritonea/, or Common Coat, recedes from the 
Abdominal Muscles at the top of the Pubes, and passes 

VESICA URINARIA. over tlie superior, and down upon the posterior and late- 
ral pans of the Bladder, to near the termination of the 

The Vesica Urinaria, or Bladder of Urine, is a large Ureters, where it is about a finger's-length from the Anus, 

Musculo-membrajious Sac situated in the Pelvis, in the and is there reilecled upon the Rectum and back part of 

bottom of the Hypogastric Region. Tab. LXXXVI. the Pelvis. 

Fig. 4, Y. When the Bladder is much distended, it curies the 

It is placed in the fore part of the Pelvis behind the Peritoneum with it, aud leaves a space between that 

Ossa Pubis, — before the upper, and above the under por- Membrane and the Pubes, vl' such length, that an lnei- 

tion of the lnteslinum. Rectum. Tab. XCVII. 5 i on has frequently been made here, and large Calculi 

When completely empty, as is sometimes the case, but extracted from I he' Bladder, without penetrating into the 
by no means always, m those who h;^e suffered a violent Cavity of the Abdomen, or wounding the Peritoneum, 
death from suspension by the .Neck, it is contracted into The second Coot is termed Mitscu/iir.—It is composed 
a small size, which occupies the underbid fore part of the of distinct t'lc-diy Fibres, though of a pale colour, inter- 
Pelvis, Tab. Ct'IV. Fig. L\ F. ; when moderately dis- woven with each' other, and formed into Fasciculi. Tab. 

tended, it is still contained in the Cavity of the Pelvis; XCIV. Fig. 1:1. l.'i. 

but, when much dilated, it rises above the Ossa Pubis, Tint External Fibres run chiefly in a longitudinal di- 

and sometimes, as in a suppression of Urine, ascends to reelion, and are connected, at the under and fore part j?f 

within a little distance of the Umbilicus, so as almost the Bladder, w ill, the Ossa Pubis. 

completely to fill the Cavity of the Pelvis, especially if More internally, are Fibres width run in all dmefmns, 

the Rectum be empty. Tab. XCVII. »,„( aie i llUnlll xed with each other in the form of an i» 

When moderately dilated, it is of a roundish, or irre- regular net-work, 

pilar obloug form, but a little flattened before, more The Muscular Fibres are contracted about the Neck 

onvex behind, and broader at its anterior and posterior of the Bladder, mid form w h; t ha- Wen termed Sphincter 

Part IV.] 



Vesica } — these, however, arc 
of the other Fibres. 

The Muscular Coat, by its c 
complete evacuation of the Bladder.— The Fibres about 
the Neck, of the Bladder, by acting separately from the 
rest of the Muscular Coat, prevent the involuntary dis- 
charge of the Urine. 

The Cellular Substance under the Muscular Fibres is 
in considerable quantity, and is frequently termed Ner- 

The Litter Coat, often called Villous, is smooth like 
the inside of the Peritoneum, and thin, yet so dense as lo 
prevent the exudation of the Urine. Tab. XC1V. Fii>. 
\7. A. 

This Coat is rendered somewhat unequal bv the pro- 

Thc inside of the Bladder is very irritable, in conse- 
quence of which the desire to expel the L'riue is excited. 
It is lined, however, by a Mucus discharged from its Ar- 
teries, which prevents it from bring constantly irritated 
by that Fluid. 

The under part of the Bladder is perforated by three 
Openings ; of which one is placed anteriorly, and two 

The anterior opening is the beginning of the Passage 
called Urethra, and is surrounded by the Neck of the 
Bladder. Tab. XCIV. Fig. 17. H, H. 

It comes off almost at a right Angle from the Blad- 
der, about an inch or so above the undermost part, with- 
out any tapering of that Viscus. 

The inner lining of the Urethra at the posterior part 
of the Neck of the Bladder is lYeuneuJly formed, in old 
people, into longitudinal folds. These, in the diseased 
state of the Prostate Gland, assist in the formation of the 
Lobes, which often project so much into the Cavity of 
the Bladder, as to have the effect of a Valve in closing 
up the Orifice of the Urethra. 

The other two openings of the Bladder are formed by 
the terminations of the Ureters, winch run obliquely for- 
wards and inwards, between the Muscular and Inner 
- Coats of the Bladder. Tab. XCIV. Fig. 17. C, D. 

They terminate in the Bladder at a little distance from 
each other, and at the same distance behind the begin- 
ning of the Urethra, each by a somewhat oval opening, 
which is more contracted than the Ureter is immediately 
above it. Tab. XCIV. Fig. 17. C, D. 

Each of these openings is fixed bv a Retinaculum 
formed by the inner Coat of the Bladder. This passes 
obliquely inwards and forwards, but is more distinctly 
seen when a Probe is introduced into the Orifice, and the 
part gently raised. 

Between the terminations of the two Ureters, and cx- 
tendingfrom these to the beginning of the Urethra, is a 
space of a triangular form, — the Trigone of Lieutaud, 

which is sometimes ili-iiiip-ui-lied by being of a somewhat 
whiter colour than the rest of the. Bladder. 

The Arteries of the Bladder come from varices 
sources, but chiefly from, the Umbilicalis and Pudenda 

The leins return to the Internal Uiacs:— They form 
a Plexus of considerable si/.,- upon each side of the Blad- 
der, particularly about its Neck. 

The Lymphaths accompany the principal Veins on the 
Bladder, and at the under part and side,, pass into the 
Iliac Glands. V 

The Nerves are Branches of the Great Syiimalhcii.- 
and Sacral Nerves. 

The Bladder receives the Urine from the Ureters bv 
drops, and sometimes by small Thread-like streams or 
squirts, till, bv its accumulated quantity and acrimony, 
it forces the Or ft an to contract and expel it. 

The Urine is 
Bladder itself; 
nal Muscles and Diaphra 
the Bladder, the Sphincter Vesica; being at the "same 
time relaxed. 

The frequency of the evacuation depends upon the size 
and sensibility of the Bladder, upon the quantity of Urine 
secreted, and the degree of acrimony it possesses. Cer- 
tain states of the Mind, also, are apt to affect the Uri- 
nary Organs. Fear and anxiety sometimes produce a 
Midden desire for evacuating the Bladder. 

The Urine, when recently discharged from a healthy 
person, is of a pale yellow colour, has a peculiar odour 
and a bitterish taste, and is of an acid nature. After 
standing some time, it becomes alkaline, depositing an 
Acid, called Lithic or Uric, which is peculiar to Urine, 
—tnit the state of this Fluid varies much according to 
the age and constitution of the person, the nature of the 
Aliment taken into the Stomach, and the time the Urine 
has been retained in the Bladder. 

According to the latest Authors, the following Sub- 
stances arc found iu Urine, though variable in their pro- 
portions ; viz. Water,— Muriate'; of Soda and Ammonia, 
— Phosphates of St.da, Ammonia, Lime, and Magnesia. 
—Carbonate of Lime,— Acetic, taiSomc, Uric, Bosacic, 
and Benzoic Acids,— Albumen,— Urea, Kesin, mid 

Occasional! v rt contains other Substances, often Mu- 
riate of Potash, and sometime- Sulphate of Lime. 

la Putrid Urine axe chiefly found,— A mm on ia,— Car- 
bonate, Phosphate, Urate, Acetate, Benzoate, and Mu- 
riate of Ammonia,— Phosphate, of Lime and Magnesia, 
—Muriate of Soda,— besides Precipitated Jelly and Phos- 


The Testes, formerly termed JDuIymiov Gemini, are 

two Glandular Bodies situated in the Cavity of the Scro- 



turn, and are the most important parts of Generation in 
the Male. 

The Scrotum, Tab. LXXXVI. which furnishes an 
External Covering to the Testes, is a continuation of the 
Common Integuments ; has the same structure with the 
Skin in general; but is more plentifully supplied wiih 

[Part IV. 

ter, and partly by that Muscle to the inner Surface of the 

It assists the Cremaster in supporting the Testis, and 
by being constantly moistened within by a Fluid exhaled 
from its Surface, and from that of the Tunica Albuginea, 

l .ll.x 

■ Tl,i 

. ,ly. 

the other 

of the 

villi the 

Upon the Surface of the Scrotum, there is a Superfi- 
cial, longitudinal, pi-ojM tin;;' Line, wiiieli divides it into 
two equal parts, ami lias [lie name of Raphe. 

The inner Surface nf I he Scrotum U lined with Cellu- 
lar Substance, which is firmer and more Vascular than in 
other places. 

The Cellular Substance of the Scrotum, in consequence 
of its redness, Fibrous appearance, and supposed power 
of contraction, has, by many Anatomists, been consider- 
ed a; a Muscle, and called Darius. — This opinion, how- 
ever, has been, for many years past, justly rejected. 

The Cellular Substance of the Scrotum involves each 
Testicle singly, and forms a Septum between the two, 
which prevents Air or Water from passing readily ft oni 
one side of the Scrotum to the other. 

The Vessels and Nerves of the Scrotum are chiefly 
from those of the neighbouring parts. 

The B/wW-com/.v are Branches of the Pudendal and 

The Lymphatics go mostly to the Inguinal, — hut some 
of them accompany those of the Testes to the Lumbar 

The anterior part of the Scrotum derives its Nerves 
from the Lumbar, and the posterior from the Pudenda] 
and Sciatic Nerves. 

The Scrotum assists in supporting and protecting the 

Under the Scrotum are two Membranes or Coats, pro- 
per to each of the Testes, the one termed Vaginal is, the 
other Albuginea. 

The Tunica Vaginalis, Tab. XCVIII. Pig. 1. C, 
named from its forming a Sheath, is of the same nature 
with the Peritoneum, hem- originally a Process of that 
Membrane, which, in the Foetus, descends with the Tes- 
ticle from the Abdomen. 

The Tunica A/lntgiiwa, so called from its white co- 
lour, is, like the former Coat, a continuation of the Pe. 
ritoueum, and invests the Body of the Testicle- closely. 
Tab. XCJX. Fig. l.A. 

It is a thick, strong, dense, and inelastic Membrane, 
of a glistening appearance. 

It is remarkably smooth on the outside, but internally 
it is rough and unequal, adhering every where firmly to 
the Body of the Testis. 

It covers both the Testis and Substance called Epidi- 
dymis, connects tliem to each other, gives strength to 
them, and conducts their Vessels in the same manner the 
Mesentery does those of the Intestines. 

The Body of the Testis is of a yellowish colour, and 
has a pulpy appearance, — is of an oval form, a little flat- 
tened at its outer and inner sides ; and frequently one 
Testicle is a little larger than the other. 

The Testes are placed obliquely, with one end up- 
wards and forwards, and the other end backwards and 
downwards. Tab. XCVIII. Fig. 2. 

The Epididymis is situated at the outer and back part 
of the Testis, and is inclosed in the same Covering with 
it. Tab. XCVIII. Fig. 2. G, H, I. 

The Epididymis begins at the upper part of the Tes- 
ticle, immediately above the entry of the Blood-vessels; 
and this part of it being large and of a round form, is 
termed Globus Major, or Head of the Epididymis. 
Tab. XCVIII. Fig. 2. G. 

In its descent, it becomes somewhat smaller and flatter, 

It I 

any other part. 

It incloses the Testicle as the Pericardium does the 
Heart, being only in contact with it, excepting behind, 

s with the Albugine 

It is considerably larger than the Testis w huh it in 
closes, reaching as high upon the Cord, and as much be 
low the Testicle, as to allow the latter a certain dejyrci 
of motion. 

It is connected by its external Surface to the Crcmas 

the Tunica Albuginea dipping in this place, and forming 
a Cavity or Pouch between it and the Testicle. 

The under part of it becomes more firmly attached to 
the Body of the Testicle, and forms the Cauda, or Glo- 
/'iis Minor. It is then turned backwards upon itself, 
after which it sends out the Excretory Duct ot the Tes- 
ticle. Tab. XCVIII: Fig. 2. I. 

The Eody of the Testis has numerous Arteries, Veins, 
Absorbents, and Nerves ; but is principally composed of , 
with a collection of minute, tender, clastic Filaments, intri- 
cately convoluted, termed Tubuli Semimfert\ vel Vnsa 

The Tubuli Scminifcri are disposed in Fascuuh' or 

Bundles, between Parti/ was, which are formed of Blood- 

Tab.XC\ III.Fig.8.A,A. 

t the back 
part of the Testicle, and extend in a radiated manner to 
the Tunica Albuginea. Tab. XCVIII. Fig. 8. B, B. 


The Tesfdfl is fixed behind by its Vessels, which are each side, and is sometimes called Corpus Pampyniformc, 

collected mt.o a Cord termed Spermatic, but is loose and from a supposed resemblance tc the Shoots of the Vine ; 

free before., to prevent it from Wing pinched. or Carpus P(,ranii,iuk\ from g.yiiie a Pyramidal form to 

The Sim-matic Cord, Tab. XCVUI. Fig. 3. A, B, the Cord, 

properly no called, extends obliquely from the King of the The Plexus ascends in the Abdomen, upon Hie Surface 

Obliqum, Exlernus to the body of the Testis, the obli- of the Psoas; and about the part where it recedes from 

guity bijing somewhat jo proporl ion to the width of the the Artery, it forms a single Trunk, which, in the right 

"IVcmit Hide, terminates in the Vena Cava, nearly opposite to the 

ity of origin of the Artery, and, in the left side, goes into the 

Cellular Substance. 

'The Cord is covered by the C 
by the same Process of the Pcriti 
Tunica Vaginalis Testis, and wl: 
Tunica Vaginalis of the Sper 

■, and within it, 

bich forms the 

fc-bich is here called the 

latic Cord. In this part, 

■porated with the common 

to form part 

The Nerves of the Testes are derived from the Renal, 
Aortic, and Lumbar Plexus, and though very- minute, 
they give the Testicle a more exquisite feeling than is 

however, the Pro< 
Cellular .Substance of the Coi 

of it. On the outside of the Cremaster, part of the Su- bestowed on any other Secretory Organ, 

perucial Fascia, formerly described, is found, and which The Tuhuli Semuuferi in the. Body of the Testicle 

is sometimes termed Camper's Fascia. consist of numberless extremely minute Duets, which are 

The under part of the Vagina of the Cord is separated of a Cylindrical form, have no division into Branches, 

by a Partition formed by the upper cud of the Vaginal and, when drawn out, arc found to be several feet 


the Testicle, and by condensed Cellular Sub- length, and lis small as so many line I 

They are first collected into Bundles between the Sep- 
tula; of the Testicle, and these again into others still 
smaller, each of the smaller being formed of a simple 

I Vasa Recta. Tab. XCVUI. 

tsily from the Cord 
to the Testicle, or vice versa. 

The Arteries of the Testes, termed Artcria Sperma- 
tids and Arteries Preparantes, arise, one on each side, 

from the fore part of the Aorta, a little below the Renal 
Arteries, opposite to, but at a little distance from, each 

The Spermatic Artery crosses over the Psoas Muscle 

and Ureter, and descends near the Brim of the Pel- Testicle, under the n 

vis, behind the Peritoneum, to the under part of the Ab- Fig. 6. A, A. 

domen. At the upper and back part of the Testicle, the Vasa 

At the lower part of the Abdomen, it gets under the Becta communicate, and form an irregular Plexus or 

edge of the Obliquus Interims and Transversalis, then Net-work,caUedifefcFWc(//osi(»i Testis. Tab.XCVIII. 

perforates the Bing <>t (lie Obliquus Exterjius, and passes Fig. 6. g,g. 

lu the Spermatic Cord to the Testicle. The Pete Testis sends out from twelve to eighteen 

In its descent, it gives Branches to the adjacent parts, straight Tubes, termed Vasa Efferentia, which carry 

and is so interlaced with the corresponding Veins, as to the Semen from the Testicle to the Epididymis. Tab, 

have been supposed l>v the Ancients to have large lateral X('\ III. Fig. G. /, f. 

communications with them. Each fas Efferent sooi 

After passing out of the King, it divides into Branches forms a Conical Bundle with 

which goto the 'Test is at its posterior edge. They are part- dvniis, the whole getting the name of Coni Vasculosi. ' 

ly dispersed upon the Epididymis, but the larger Branches ' The Coni Vasculosi arc firmly connected by Cellular 

run in a serpen line direction into the Substance of the Substance, and are observed by Dit Monro, in his 

Testis, where they are minutely distributed upon the Sur- Treatise De Testibits, to compose somewhat more than 

face of the Seminal Tubes. a third part of the Epididy 

Besides the Spei 

from the Hv 
Branch t 

- Kpiga.lrii 



The rW/warc much l.n ,o- , 
terics, and have several Valvis 
out the Ahdnuim, contrary to m 
of the oilier Viscera. 

They form a Plexu-; which n 
Vol. II, 

companies the Artery o 

The Vascular Cones gradually unite into a single Tube, 
which i? many feet in length, ami this by its innumer- 
able convolutions constitutes the rest of the Epididymis, 
and though only about the si/.e of a 1 log's Bristle, trans- 
iiiirs the whole of the Semen. 

The single Tube becomes larger in its course and less 
convoluted, and ut last, expanding its convolutions, it 
comes out greatly increased in size, and almost in a 
■-ri-.tight direction, under the name of Van Dijtn-it--: 
Tab. XCVUI. Fig. (i. a. 



les the Ducts already described, a Vas Aberrans Substance, and by many Vessels and, Nerves, but they 

tiiues observed, which is one of the Vascular have no Muscularity. Their Substance is somewhat ainu- 

Cones, tvanderiiur off, and terminating in the Epididymis lar to that of the Vasa Defercntia, but they arc more 

C than usual. 

At other times, the same kind of Vessel forms a Pro- Internally, they have 

casus Orcus, or Blind Duct, with a dilated Extremity, formed of Cells, which 

which does not communicate with any other part. on their External Surfac 

The Vas Deferens is about the size of a Surgeon's each other.— Their ahaj 

Probe, aud is of a cylindrical form through the great r however, vary in differc 

part of its length. It lias no inflections in it.- course, but in the oppt 

Villous appearance, and are 
^respond with the irregularities 
ana communicate freely with 
size, aud general appearance. 

arrival at the pi: 

such as are necessary for 

It ascends in the back, part of the Spi 
ing the Sp< 

and not unfrequently 

Tab. XCVJH. 

10:D, D. Tab. XCIX. Fig. 7. 8. 

Between the Vesicular Seminalcs, the ends of the Va» 

Cord, hav- Defercntia now become larger and Cellular, pass forwards 

fore part, but from till they arrive at the Prostate Gland, where each Vas 

DeFerens again contracts, joins the Vesicula of that side 

very sharp Angle, but communicates so freely with 

: Blood-vessels 
which it is readily distinguished by "its firmness. 

At the under part of the Abdomen, it passes in through 
the Ring of the External Oblique Muscle, and at the 
Internal King sep-'.-aUn from the rilood- vessels, goes ever 
the Psoas, and descends by the side of the Pelvis, cover- 
ed by the Peritoneum. 

In its descent in the lMi is, it gels behind the Bladder, length, passes out, wl: 
to which it closely adheres, lulle.iv. the Curvature of that without communicati 

Viscus, gradually approni Ling its fellow till it arrives at smaller, piercing obliquely the Prostate Cilond, and 
the Vesicula Seminaus u! the same side, minating in the under and back pan of the Neck of the 

In (his course it passes between the corresponding Bladder, a little before the beginning of the t'rethra. 
Umbilical Artery and Bladdi 

it, that injected Fluids readily pass from the former t 
hitter, 'lab. XCVUI. Fig. It.'. B, B, C, C. 

From each Vesicula Seminalis and Vas Deferens of the 
side, a small Canal, about a finger* s-breadth in 
ounected to its fellow, 
and becomes gradually 

i l,u, 

i considerably in The Orifu 

Bladder and Ureter, 

size, and becomes Cellular 

tin's appearance to near its 

contracts in its diameter, and becomes thinner and more 

tender in' its Substance. 

The Vas Deferens i .- remarkable for the thickness and 
firmness of its Coats, and proportional smallness of its 
Cavity. Like most other Excretory Duct 

also between the Tab. XCVUI. Fig. 10. E, E, F, F. 

se Canals sometimes open in a La. 

d behind by a Valve, that has its 
concave edge forwards ; but more generally they are se- 
parated from each other by a Camncu/a, or round pro- 
jection of the Membrane of the Urethra, termed Veru- 
iii'iiila/nim, from its supposed resemblance to a Javelin of 
the Ancients; — or Caput Gallinaginis, from its being 
broad behind, and rostriform before, and therefore coro- 

The Vesical* Seminalcs are commonly considered as 
Reservoirs of the Semen, receiving i( from the Vasa De- 
fcrentia, and afterwards, — by a power inherent in them- 

i the under and lateral \ 
inum Rectum, — about /. 
d the third part of tha 
ed. Tab. XCVII. '] 

of the Bladder and the lute 
fingers-breadth in length, 
breadth, and a little flatt 

They are at a considerable di: 
behind, but anteriorly they conve; 
guous to each other. Tab. XCVUI. Fig. i). D, D. ejection. 

Each of them is shut at its posterior i \heiuitv and is The Rem 
composed of a convoluted Tube, to the sides of u hicli are whitish' Vis 
attached a number of /V'/cr.w, iui Lidar in their form." come more 

They are surrounded by a quantity of tough Cellular It is found 


The Semen is prevented from passing into the Blad- 
der, the open i diut while that fluid is ei- 

Various experiments have been made on the Vesiculsc 
Seminalcs by the late Mr Hunter, from which he was 
of opinion, that they are not Reservoirs of Semen, but 
Glands secret ing a particular Mucus- — that, with other ■ 
parts, they are subservient to the purpose 


ii. w hen recently ejected, is observed to be a 
id Fluid, of a peculiar odour, aud to be- 
:i.m-|>:iieut and fluid by exposure to the Air. 
-> contain a great proportion of Water, some 

Part IV.] 



Mucilage, Phosphate of Lime and Soda. Leeuenhoeck, 
by the aid of the Microscope, detected in it innumerable 
AniniakuJa,, which he Ita-j particularly described in the 
Philosophical Transactions of last century. 

The Prostate Claud, or Corpus Glaudulo5Um,lies im- 
mediately behind the under end of the Symphysis Pubis, 
and rests upon the Intestinum Rectum, to both of which 
it is connected by Cellular Substance. Tab. XCV1I. 
Tab. CCIV. Fig. 2. K. 

It is partly inclosed by the Inferior Ligament of the 
Bladder, and by a Portion of the Levator Ani. 

It surrounds and 1 * closely embraces the .Neck of the 
Bladder, or beginning of the Urethra ; but the greater 
part of it is placed posteriorly and laterally, having a 
Jiobe projecting on each side. 

It is about the size of a Walnut, and of the figure of a 
Spanish Chesnut, — or it resembles a Heart as commonly 
painted on playing-cards, with the Base towards the 
Bladder, and the point towards the Penis. 

The middle of the Base of the Prostate Gland, be- 
tween the common Seminal Ducts and Bladder, is some- 
times, especially in the diseased state, of a rounded form, 
and has been described by Mk Home, in the Philosophi- 
cal Transactions 180(3, w a Third Lobe of this Gland. 
This part of the Gland is also taken notice of in the 
"Works of MORGAGNI. 

The Prostate has a red Fleshy appearance, and is of a 
Spongy Substance, but is one of the firmest Glands of 
the Body. It generally sends out Ten or Twelve Ducts, 
which open obliquely near the beginning of the Urethra, 
at the sides of the Caput Galluiaginis ; the Orifices of these 
Ducts surrounding the terminations of the Seminal Canals. 
Tab. XC1V. Fig. 17. M, M. 

From the Ducts of the Prostate Gland, a thin white 
Liquor is discharged, — from the same causes, and at the 
same tune with the Semen, — into the Urethra, and is sup- 
posed to be useful in the Process of Generat ion ; — or, ac- 
cording to some Authors, by its greater decree nf Fluidity, 
it facilitates the passage of the more viscid Semen through 
the Urethra. 

The Blood-vessels, Absorbents, and Nerves of the Ve- 
sicuke Seniinales and Prostate Gland, are in common 
with those of the parts which surround them. 

The Peru's consists of three Spongy Substances, two 
of which form the upper part and sides, or Body of the 
Penis, and are termed Corpora Cavernosa Penis ; the 
third surrounds the Urethra, and lias the name of Corp,,* 
Spongiosum Urethra. Tab. XCTII. Tab. CCIV. 

The Penis is covered by a continuation of the Com- 
mon Integuments, which are thinner here than elsewhere, 
ami instead of Fat, there is, as in the Scrotum, a Reti- 
cular Substance only under the Skin. 

At the i 

extremity of the Penis, the Integu- 
ments form a loose Fold, termed Prepuce, which covers 
the part called Clans Peim, when the Penis is ill a slate 
of relaxation. The Prepuce is connected to the anterior 
and under part of the Glaus, by a triangular Fold, termed 
Franum Pnputii, which serves as a Ligament. 

The Corpora Cavernosa Penis resemble two equal but 
irregular Cylinders, or rather Portions of Cylinders, 
closely applied to the sides of each other, and each cover- 
ed by a strong, elastic, Ligamentous Sheath, the Fibres 
of which run in a transverse, and partly in an oblique di- 
rection. Tab. XCVIIL Fig. 11. 

They arise by two blind conical extremities, called 
their Crura, from the inner part of the Crura of the Ossa 
Ischia and Ossa Pubis, to both of wliich they are very 
firmly connected by Ligament on.. Substance, being in a 
maimer (.unfounded there with the Periosteum. Tab. 
CCIV. Fig. 3. 

In their ascent along the Bones, they approach each 
other, and at the under part of the Symphysis Pubis, 
uuite, aud continue united till they reach the Glaus, 
where they terminate in a rounded extremity. Tab. 
CCIV. Fig. 2. N. Tab. XCVIII. Fig. 11. 

At the upper part of the root of the Penis, the Liga- 
mentous Sheath of the Corpora Cavernosa sends up a 
Process of a triangular form, to be connected to the 
Symphysis Pubis, under the name of Liganuiitum Sus- 
jicn'.ni'itiiii, by which the Body of the Penis i^ supported, 
:i.ud prevented from pressing too much upon the Scrotum. 
Tab. XCVIII. Fig. 11. E. 

By the union of the Corpora Cavernosa, a Groove is 
left above, for the principal \ ein of the Penis, and a Chan- 
nel below, for the Spongy Substance of the Urethra. 
Tab. XCVIII. Fig. 13. 

The internal Substance of the Corpora Cavernosa con- 
sists of hose Reticular Plates, somewhat similar to the 
Canetlli in the ends of long Bones, and, like them, readily 
communicating with each other. Tab. XCVIII. Fi fi . U\ 
A, A. 

Upon the Cells of the Corpora Cavernosa the Arteries 
arc plentifully dispersed, and open freely into them, the 
Blood of the Arteries tinging the Cells in the relaxed 
state of the Penis, and filling them completely when it is 

Cuvier considers the Corpora Cavernosa as being 
formed of a texture extremely complicated, of ramifica- 
tions of Blood-vessels, and particularly of Veins. 

The Corpora Cavernosa are united 'to each other by a 
Septum, formed by a continuation of the Ilia-tic Liga- 
ments which cover these Bodies. Tab. XCVIII. Fig. 
12. B, B. 

The Septum Penis is composed of thin Tendinous-like 
Cords, extending across, nearly in a parallel direction, 
from the Dorsum Penis to the Corpus Spongiosum Ure- 

Between the different Cords, Figures are left, through 
which the Blood, or an injected Fluid, passes without 
g obstruction, 


obstruction, from one of the Corpora Cavernosa to the common diameter of which is nearly equal to that of a 

other ■ rendcrinr the Penis iu this maimer one general Ca- writing-pea. It begins at the under and tore part of the 

vity separated by the Septum into two apartments. Bladder, and here the Apex of the Trigone oi Lievjtaud 

The Corpus Spuii-i^sum I 're! A rci i a Minuted under and frequently projects, and is sometimes called X r <a Lvette, 

between the Corpora Cavernosa Penis, but projects con- or Uvtfo Vesica. 

siderably beyond them. Tab. CCIV. Fig. S. M, Q. The Urethra, at is beginning, is inclosed by the Pro. 

It begins 'a little behind the part where the Corpora state Gland; it runs next through the Corpus .Spongio. 

Cavernosa are united, adheres to them by condensed Ccl- sum, and terminates ui the point of the Penis by a long*. 

lular Substance, and terminates at the anterior extremity tudinal Orifice, the whole length commonly including a 

of the Penis. space of eight or nine inches. Tab. XCIV. Fig. 1?, Tab. 

It has an external Covering similar to that of the Cor- XC VIII. Fig. 11. 13. 

pora Cavernosa Penis, but more delicate, and has more At its Origin it descends a little, and then passes for. 

of a Membranous appearance. wards under the Symphysis of the Ossa Pubis ; to which 

The posterior part of the Corpus Spongiosum is dilated it is closely connected by Cellular Substance. It thai 

into a Longitudinal Prominence, of a Conical form, si- ascends at the outer and fore part of the Ossa Pubis; 

1 termed varying in the remainder of its course, according to the 
duTercut degrees of relaxation or distension of the Cells of 

(ids from the root of the Penis to near the Penis. Tab. CCIV. Fig. 2. 

the Anus. It projects most towards the under and back There are commonly three Dilatations in the Vre- 

part, is divided antcriorlv by a Septum, and is covered thra; one of which is in the Prostate Gland, the second 

at its under and lateral pans by the Accclcratores U- iu the Bulb of the Urethra, and the third abont the be. 

rina?, and by a thin Layer of Tendinous Fibres, which ginning or back part of the Glans. 

assists in bracing this part of the Penis. Tab, CCIV. In general, it has also the same number of slight Con- 
Tig. 2. M. tractions ; the first at its Origin from the Bladder, the 
From the Bulb, the Corpus Spongiosum is continued second between the point of the Prostate Gland and 
along the under part of the Corpora Cavernosa, of a Cy- Bulb of the Urethra, and the third at the point of the 
lindrical figure, and at the end of these expands into the Glans, 
Glans Penis, which is of an oval form, and placed ob- 
liquely. The Glans covers and incloses the ends of the 
Corpora Cavernosa. Tab. XCVIII. Fig. 12. C. including nearly the spate of an inch, — the Urinary Pas- 
The Glans is separated from the Corpora Cavernosa sage is entirely Membranous, and covered only with the 
by a continual Inn of |1m> Ligamentous Sheath which co- common Ctllular Substance. Tab. CCIV. Fig. 2. L 
vers them, Tab. \( Y 1 1 1 . and is encircled at its paste- Tab. XCVII. /. 

rior part by a prominent Margin, called Corona Glandis ; At the upper side of the Bulb, the Urethra enters the 

behind which is a Cervix. Corpus Spongiosum, in which it is inclosed to its terrui- 

The Surface of the Glaus is covered with a Plexus nation in the point of the Penis. Tab. CCIV. Fig. 2. ( 

chiefiy of Venous Yessels/W with Nervous Papilla-; The inside of the Urethra is lined by a very Vascular 

and tne«e arc inclosed in the Skin, continued from the in- and s< risible Membrane, continued from the inner Coat 

tide of the Prepuce, but now become so delicate, that the of the Bladder, but which is observed to possess a cet- 

colour of the Corpus Spongiosum of the Glans appears tain degree of contractility, and is therefore presumed by 

through it. several Anatomists to be endowed with Muscular Fibres. 

The Nervous Papilla; render the Glans the principal Between the Corpus Spongiosum and Membrane which 

eeat of the sensibility or which the Penis is susceptible. lines the Urethra, especially towards the Septum Penis, 

About the Cervix and Corona of the Glans are many numerous Lacuna of different sizes are situated; one or 

Follicles, termed Glaadula Odarifera*, which discharge two of which in particular, next the Glans, are often 

a Sebaceous Matter, to preserve the sensibility of the considerably larger than the rest. 

Glans, and allow the Prepuce to move backwards and They run in a lougitudinal direction from behind for- 

forwards upon it with facility. Tab. XCVIII. Fig. 11. wards, and, perforating the Urethra by Orifices large 

The Internal Structure of the Bulb of the Urethra and enough to admit a Bristle, they discharge a bland Mucus 

Glans Penis, is of the same nature with that of the Cor- for the defence of the Urethra. 

pora Cavernosa j and the Internal Structure of the rest Besides the Lacuna-, two small Bodies of a yellowish 

of the Corpus Spongiosum differs from that of the Cor- colour, each about the size of a Garden-pea, are fre- 

pora Cavernosa only in this, that the Cells arc smaller quently met with, and are termed, from their Discoverer, 

and of a more delicate texture, Tab. XCVIII. Fig. 11. CowrEii's Glands. They have likewise the name of 

— 18. Some Anatomists consider the greater part of the Anti-prostata; and Pivstata Inferiores. 

Corpus Spongiosum as merely a Plexus of convoluted They are situated at the sides of the Membranous part 

Blood-vessels, particularly of Veins. of the Urethra,— between its Bulb and the point of the 

. The Urethra is a long and very elastic Canal, the Prostate Gland, but nearer the former,— and covered by 


Paut IV.] 


Tab. XCIV. Tig. 17. N, N. 

the Acceleraiori 
Tab. XCVII. t 

Each semis out a small Duct, which 
liquely in the Urethra, at the bulbous part. 

They are observed to discharge a Fluid, which is sup- 
posed to serve the same purpose with that of the Lacunae. 

The Arteries of the Feins are chiefly from the Fudicai 
Communes, which are Branches of the Internal Iliacs, 
and partly from the Femoral Arteries. 

Each of the Pudic Arteries having passed out of the 
Pelvis through the great Notch of the Os Ilium, runs be- 
tween the Sacro-sciatic Ligaments to the inner side of the 
Tuber Ischii, from which it passes alon^ (in: Crus of that 
Bone and of the Os Pubis, to the root of the Penis. 

In its course, it furnishes Branches to the adjacent 
parts, and afterwards given oil' three principal Branches, 
which belong to the Penis : — One of these goes to the 
Bulb of the Urethra, to be dispersed iu the Corpus Spon- 
giosum ; — the other two, which are larger than the for 
mer, go to the Body of the Penis; one of them peuetrat 
ing its Crus, and miming in the axis of the Corpus Ca. 
vernosum, as may be readily seen by a longitudinal sec- 
tion of this part ; the other passing between the Symphy. 
sis Pubis and joining of the Crura Penis, and extending 
along the Dorsum as far as the Corona Glandis. 

The Branches of the Femoral Artery to the Peni 

e chiefly 

e with those of the former, and 
dispersed upon the Integuments. 

The Arteries of the Penis are divided into minute Ra- 
mifications, which communicate with each other, and 
with their fellows on the opposite side, and terminate 
partly in the corresponding Veins, and partly in the Celb 
of the Penis. 

The Veins arise, some from the extremities of the Ar- 
teries, and others by large open Mouths from the Cells of 
4be Penis. 

The greater number of the Veins unite into a Trunk, 
called Vena Magna Penis, which runs in the superior 
Groove formed by the union of the Corpora Cavernosa, 
and is furnished with Valves, and with thick strong 

The Vena Magna, at the under end of the Symphysis 

Pubis, separates into Right and Left Plexus, which pass 
to the corresponding Iliac Veins. 

To an obstruction of the course of the Blood through 
the Veins, by the pressure of the Muscles at the root of 
the Penis, together with an increased influx tlirough the 
Arteries, is owing that accumulation of Blood in the Cor- 
pora Cavernosa and Corpus Spongiosum, which occasions 
a distension of the Penis. 

The relaxation of the Penis happens from the causes 
which produced the distension being removed ; the elastic 
Ligamentous Membrane which covers the Penis again 
forcing the Blood from the Cells into the Veins. 

Upon the Surface of the Penis, there are small super- 
ficial Veins, which communicate with those deeper seated, 
and commonly terminate by one or more Brandies in the 
Veins at the top of the Thighs. 

These Brandies assist in carrying on the circulation, 
and return part of the Blood during the distension of the 

Of the Lymphatics of the Penis, those from the Pre. 
puce and Skin, in general, go to tiie right and left Ingui- 
nal Glands, while the Lymphatics from the Glans and 
Body of the Penis accompany the Arteries into the under 
part of the Pelvis. 

The Nerves of the Penis are large compared to the 
size, but are quite in proportion to the great sensibi- 
lity of that Organ. They come from that part of the 
Spinal Nerves which gives origin to those termed S'i in tit , 
and are distributed chiefly upon the Ligamentous Sheath 
which incloses the Corpora Cavernosa. 

The most considerable of them are large Cords, situa- 
ted upon the Dorsum Penis, more laterally than the Ar- 
teries which lie between them mid the principal Vein. 

For the Muscles of the Penis, see Part II. 

The Penis serves to eject the Semen into the Vagina, 
and to convey the Urine from the Bladder. The Caver- 
nous Structure allows the Pun- to be distended or relax- 
ed :is occasion may require. The distension of the Penis 
serves to give the proper degree of consistence for its in- 
troduction into the Vagina; the Glans, by Friction, ex- 
citing tlic feelings requisite lor the cxpuUion of the Sfmen 
in the Male, and for Conception in the Female, 

( 166 ) 


A Side View of the Male Pelvis, after separating the Left Os Innominatum. 

A, The cartilaginous surface of the right 03 pubis, form- 
ing part of the symphysis pubis. 

B, That of the os sacrum, forming part nf tie joint be- 
tween this bone and the os ilium ; 

C, A fibrous cellular substance, forming part of this joint. 

D, The situation of the point of the os coccygis, sup- 
posed to be seen through the rectum. 

E, The psoas muscle. 

F, G, A section of the muscles in the back part of the 

H, A section of the pyrifonnis. 

I, glutei. 

K, K, The levator ani turned back, a portion of it being 

removed to shew the situation of the anus. 
L, The right thigh. 
M, M, The integuments and fat. 
N, The intestinum rectum inflated, adhering to the antc- 

O, O, The peritoneum descending to the bottom of the 

P, The dilated under end of the rectum. 

Q, Part of the anus. 

B, B, The bladder of urine in the distended state, rising 

a considerable way above the pubes. 
S, S, The upper and back part of the bladder, covered 

by the peritoneum, the fore part being only covered by 

cellular substance. 
T, The ureter, with its contractions and dilatations. 
U, The termination of the left ureter in the under ani 

lateral part of the bladder. 
V, The neck of the bladder, and beginning of the urethra. 
W, The spermatic blood-vessels. 

X, The cremaster muscle covering the spermatic cord, 
Y, The left testicle covered by the scrotum. 
Z, The left vas deferens. 

o, The dilated, cellular under end of the vas deferens. 
£, The left veskula seminalis inflated. 
r, The beginning of the ductus communis seminifcris. 
rf, The prostate gland surrounding the neck of the bladder. 
e, One of Cowfer's glands. 
f y The membranous pail of the urethra, 
g, The ligamentum suspensorium penis. 
A, The bulb of the urethra. 
i, The left crus penis, and, 
i, Its erector turned aside. 

/, A section of the corpora cavernosa peni°, and of, 
mi, The corpus spongiosum urethra. 
«, The cut end of the vena magna penis. 
o, A catheter introduced through the urethra into thft 



Gives a View of the Bladder of Urine and the Levator Ani in situ, as seen from the Fore and 
Right Side, after the Symphysis of the Pubis has been divided, and the Ossa Pubis separated 
a considerable way from each other. The Figure is three-fourths of the original size. 

A, A, The thighs. 

B, B, The cut edges of the integuments. 

C, The scrotum with the testes, pulled to the left side. 

D, The right spermatic cord, tut and turned down. 

E, The penis, turned also to the left side. 

F, The cut edge of the parietes of the abdomen. 

G, The rectus abdominis of the right side. 
H, H, The cut edges of the symphysis pubis. 
I, The right erector penis, cut from its origin, and turned 

a little aside, to shew, 
K, The corresponding «m ppnis, which 

its origin. 
L, The accelerator urinae. 
M, The transversalis perinci cut from its origin, 

turned down. 

troduced by the anus iuto the 

P, Part of the glute 

Q f Q, The levator ani, cut from its origin, and left iu ih 

place over the under part of the bladder and the pro< 

state gland. 
R, The point of the os eoccygis. 
S, Part of ou "' 
T, The bladd 
from TJ, The peril 

V, V, Turns of the i 

reflected over the bottom of the 

( 166(1 ) 


various Views of the Parts about the Anus and Root of the Penis. The Figures are 
three-fourths of the original size. 

FIG. 1. 

itcprcsents the Muscles belonging to the Lift Side of 
the Anus and Root of the Penis, most ufuhiclt are 
concerned in perfumiing the lateral operation of Ly- 
thotomy. The external lucfi,m is made nearly in the 
same direction uitfi that usually done in performing 
this operation. 

A, The left thigh turned up. 

B, The cut edge of the integuments. 

C, The root of the left cms penis. 

D, The erector penis, adhering to the crura of the os 

i which covered the pro. 

pulled a little towards the 

ischium an 

E, The acci 
right side. 

F, The transversalis periuei, covering part of, 

G, H, The levator ani. 

I, The sphincter ani, drawn a little to the right side. 
K, Part of the gluteus maximus. 

FIG. 2. 

Slicies the Parts deeper seated than those represent! d in 
the former Figure, After laming up the Thighs, a 
cut has heeii /nude from the Penis to the Back Part 
of the Anus, and tin Int. ^inneuts furm d to each side. 

A, A, The integuments, reflected. 

B, B, The crura penis covered by the erectores penis. 

C, The right transversa!^ periuei. 

D, D, The left levator ani. 

E, The sphincter ani. 

F, The accelerators urinse, covering the bulb of the 

G, The membranous part of the urethra exposed, after 
removing the upper or fore part of the levator ani. 

II, One of the glands of Cowper. 
I, I, The corpora cavernosa penis. 
Jv, The corpus spongiosum urethra:. 

FIG. 3. 
Gives a View from the Bight Side, of the Parts about 

the Neck of the Bladder and Boot of the Penis.— See 

Tab. XCVIl^, 

A, Part of the left thigh. 

B, B, The cut edges of the integuments. 

C, The right side of the 

1), Pai 

I tin 

E, The cut edge of the parietes of the abdomen. 

F, F, The cut surface of the symphysis pubis. 

G, Thi 
H, The 

I, The accelerator 

penis, higher than which i 

K, The sphincter ani. 

L, The levator ani. 

M, That part of the levator a 

state gland, reflected. 
N, Part of the levator ani which covered the membra- 

nous portion of the urethra, also reflected. 

0, Part of the gluteus maximus. 

P, The urinary bladder, with the peritoneum covering 

the upper part of it. 
Q, The prostate. 

R, The substance considered by Mr WllsOn as a com- 
pressor urethra:. 

FIG. 4. 

Represents Parts deeper seated than those seen in the 

former Figure. 

A, Part of the penis. 

B, The cut edge of the parietes of the abdomen. 

C, The cut surface of the symphyiMH pubis. 

D, The crus penis turned up. 

E, The accelerator urinse turned down from the bulb of 
the urethra. 

F, The substance considered by Mr Wilson as a com- 
pressor urethra:, turned down. 

G, The prostate gland. 

H, The membranous part of the urethra. 

1, The bulb of the urethra. 
K, The bladder. 

FIG. 5. 
Exhibits the Under Surface of the Prostate Gland, 

the. Membranous Part of the Urethra, with the 

Glands of Cowfer. 
A, The prostate gland. 
H, The membranous portion of the urethra. 

C, C, Cowper's glauds, one of which is i 
situation, the other is drawn outwards. 

D, Part of the bulb of the urethra. 

FIG. 6. 
Shews the Form of the Crethra, after it o»W 

der had hem moderately distended. The Parts ar 
seen from the Right Side. 

A, The cut surface of the symphysis pubis. 

B, B, A section of the prostate gland. 
(_', 'I Ik- neck of the bladder. 

D, The dilatation of the urethra in the prostate gland. 

E, The contraction of the urethra at the point of th 
prostate gland. 

V, The dilatation of this passage in (he bulb of the urethra 
G, The cylindrical part of the urethra. 

'A the 




( 167 ) 


Views of the Male Parts of Generation. 

Gives a View of the Vaginal Process of the Sperma- 
tic Cord inflated, to shew that there is no immediate 
communication between this and the Vaginal Coat of 
the Testicle. 

A, B, The vaginal process of the spermatic cord inflated. 

B, A partition formed by condensed cellular substance 
between the vaginal process and testicle. 

C, The testicle inclosed in its vaginal coat. 

A, The vasa prseparantia. 

B, The vessels of the testicle running in the sperm&th 
cord, freed from their membranes. 

C, C, C, The arteries of the testicle. 

D, D, The corresponding veins. 

E, The tunica albuginea of the testicle. 

F, Part of the tunica vaginalis turned batk. 

G, H, I, The epididymis ; 
G, Its globus major ; 

K, The end of the epididymis, or beginning of the .vaj 

L, A section of the vas deferens. 

A, The spermatic artery. 

o, The vas deferens ; 

by Its beginning, at the under part of the epididymis. 

c, The middle of the epididymis, composed of serpentine 

«/, The head, or anterior part of the epididymis. 

e, e, &c. The coni vasculosis which compose thu head of 

the epididymis, separated a little from each other. 
/,/, The vasa effereutia. 
g, g. The rete testis. 
/;, h, The vasa recta. 
ij t\ The substance of the testicle. 

FIG. 7. 

A, The naked pulpy-like substance of the testicle. The 
lines running across seem to indicate the septula which 
divide the ducts of the testicle into bundles, 

B, The outer, and, 

C, The inner concave part of the tunica albuginea, which 
contains and adheres to the pulp of the testicle. 

FIG. 8. 

FIG. 4. 

The Right Testicle viewed from the Fore Part. 

«» The testicle. 

o, Tie van deferens. 

c, The epididymis. 

A, A, The seminal tube.-; collected into bundles betweei 
their septula:. 

B, By The seminal tubes running through the membra. 

•stick, ;uiJ turned ba^k. 


A, The under and back part of the bladder. 

B, B, The termination of the meters in the bladder. 

C, C, The vasa deferentia. 

D, D, The vesiculae seminales. 

E, The proatatc gland. 

F, The urethra. 

FIG. 10. 

Itepresentt the Communication of the Vasa Deferen- 
tia, with the Vesicul^ Seminales, their Cavities 
being laid open. 

A, A, Part of the vasa deferentia, with thick sides and 

B, B, The vasa deferentia, with thin sides and large ca- 
vities, where they approach the vesiculae. 

C, C, The vasa deferentia again contracted, where they 
communicate with the vesiculae. 

D, D, D, D, The vesicula: seminales expanded, to shew 
their contractions aud dilatations. 

E, E, The duct common to each vas deferens, and vesi- 
cula seminalis of the same side. 

F, F, The two common seminal ducts, adhering together, 
without any communication between their cavities. 

G, G, The part where the seminal ducts open into the 

II, H, Vessels running to the vesiculae seminales. 
I, The membrane which connects the vesiculae seminales 
and vasa deferentia to each other. 

FIG. 11. 

A Section of the Anterior Part of the Penis, with the 
Urethra laid open. 

A, A, The corpus spongiosum urethra and urethra, cut 

longitudinally at their under side, and spread out, 
Between B and C, the orifices of the raucous follicles are 

D, One of the mucous follicles, larger than the rest, dis- 

E, The ligamentum suspensorium penis. 

Fi F, A membrane continued from the ligamentum sus. 
pensorium, and represented as surrounding the penis. 

G, Part of this membrane separated from the body of 
the penis, and turned back. 

H, Part of the prepuce turned back. 

I, The franum. 

K» The corona glandis, beset with many sebaceous fol- 
licles. — A few of these are liki wise Been upon the free. 
and inside of the prepuce. 

FIG. 12. 

A, A, The corpora cavernosa penis. 

B, B, The septum penis. 

C, The corpus cavernosum glandis. 

D, The outer surface of one of the corpora 

A Trt 

FIG. 13. 

rse Section of the Penis. 

A, A, The corpora c 

B, The septum penis. 

C, The corpus spongiosum urethra. 

D, The urethra. 

E, E, The partition between the corpora cavgtno?? 
nis and corpus spongiosum urethra. 

( i6» y 


Views of the Testicle and Vesicuue Seminales j — the Tubuli Seminiferi having been filled 
with Quicksilver. 


A View of the Testici 

and Epididymis. 

A, The tunica albuginea. 

B, The headj of the epididymis, or globus major. — Be- 
tween B and C, the body of the epididymis. 

C, The posterior and under part of the epididymis, named 
Globus Minor. 

D, E, The spermatic cord. — D, The vas deferens. 

FIG. 2. 

)' Tunica Albuginea A, cut and drawn back, tut left 
J\ the Body of the Testicle, where some of 
the convoluted Seminal I'ewik appear 

FIG. 3. 

The Body of the Testicle, in the Anterior Part of which 

a Longitudinal Incision has In en made, and the two 

^^^kteparut, do certain, uau from each other,— to shew 

the Situation of the Seminal Ihu t.-, and their Course 

tin Bach Part of the Testicle. 

FIG. 4. 

E iplained in Tab. XCVIII. Fig. C. 
■ FIG^ 5. 

I Tht Spermatic Vessels of the Testicle of a Boar. 

A, The seminal convoluted ducts passing to the back 
part of the testicle. 

B, The vasa efferentia. 

C, C, The body of the epididymis. 

D, D, The vas deferens. 

E, E, Numerous lymphatic vessels arising from the body 
of the testicle, and ascending in the spermatic cord. 

FIG. 6. 

A, The vas deferens. 

B, The termination of the epididymis. 

A, b, The epididymis drawn out to a single d 

C, The beginning of the epididymis. 

D, The body of the testicle covered by the 

FIG. 7. & 8. 

? deferens and vesiculre s 

( »70 ) 


Organs of Urine. The Cavity, like the external part of the Uteres, U of 

a triangular form, but is small in proportion to the size 

The Kidneys, Renal Glands, and Ureters, have the of the Organ,— being scarcely capable of containing the 

same situation and structure as in the Male. Kernel of an Almond,— and has its sides closely applied 

The Bladder also has the same situation behind the to each other. Tab. CVII. Fig. 3. ' 
Ossa Pubis, but rises higher when it is in the distended It is covered externally through its whole length with 

state. a smooth polished Coat, continued from the Peritoneum, 

It is proportionally larger than the Bladder of the which, after covering the beginning of the Vagina, eepe- 

Male, and is broader from one side to the other, cone- ciallyat its under or back part, is reflected forwards upon 

spouding to the Cavity of the Pelvis to which it belongs, the Bladder, backwards over the Bectum, and laterally 

and Jo the quantity of Urine Females are sometimes un- towards the sides of the Pelvis. 

der the necessity of retaining in it. Its Substance is of a compact, cellular, and fleshy na-r 

The Urethra is much shorter, — being scarcely two tnre, and plentifully supplied with Blood-vessels ; The 

inches in length, — and straighter than in the Male, having Fleshy Fibres, however, are seen distinctly only in the 

only a slight bend downwards between its extremities. Gravid Uterus. 

It is produced from the most depending part or Neck It is remarkably Vascular in its Body, less so in its 

of tlit- Madder, and is directed almost horizontally under Cervix, and is nearly of the same thickness throughout, 

the Symphysis of the OVsa 1'ubis. It has no Prostate excepting at its corners, where the Uterine or Fallopian 

Gland, lint is furnished, as iu the Male, with Lacunar, Tubes terminate. 

which open into it, and discharge a Mucus to defend it It is lined with a fine and very Vascular Membrane, of 

tvoin the Urine. a somewhat Porous and Villous appearance, in which the 

The Parts of Generation are divided into Internal and Arteries terminate which di i liurgc the Menstrua! Fluid. 

f'.itfmnf. The former consist of the Uterus and its The Cavity of the Cervix lias tm small Longtiu&ut 

Appendages. Lines projecting in it, one in the anterior, the other in 

the posterior part, on each side of which are numerous 

Ituqte. Tab. CVII. Fig. 3. K, K. 

Internal Parts of Generation. The Ftugm run in an oblique transverse direction, and 

are formed, not only by the muer Membrane, but also by 

The Uterus, Matrix, or Womb, is a hollow Viscus, the Fibres which compose the Body of the Uterus. 

situated in the Pelvis, in the Hypogastric Region, be- Between the Rugs are many small Follicles, which 

tween the Bladder and Rectum, with which it is con- discharge a Mucus for lubricating the parts near which 

nccted, Tab. CIV. It is naturally placed in an oblique they are placed : — Some of them, being of a roundish 

situation, with its under end directed a little forward; form, were mistaken by Naboth for Female Ovula. Tab. 

but the obliquity musl vary according to the state of the CVII. Fig. 3. K, K. 

Bowels, with which it is in contact. The under part of the Cervix projects into the Vagina, 

It is of a Triangular Figure, and a little flattened be- somewhat in tbrm of the Glans Penis, and is perforated 

fore and behind, but more so anteriorly ; is large above, by a transverse Slit, termed Os Internum I terii 

small below, and has two angles at its upper and lateral from the resemblance of this part to the Mouth of the 

parte, called Comers of the Uterus. Tench, Os Tinea:. Tab. CI. Fig. 3. D. 

Il is distinguished into Fundus, or upper part, which The Os Titicrr, in a Virgin Uterus, is about the size 

includes the space above the insertion of the Fallopian of the Orifice of the Urethra in the Male, but nearly 

Tubes, the Body or middle, and Cervix or under part ; twice as large in the Uterus of a Woman who has bom 

the two last being nearly of equal length. Children. Tab. CIV. Tab. CII. 

1 he extent and figure of the Uterus varies considers- It is smooth on its external Surface, is placed oblique- 

bly in different Subjects.— In Women who have never iv, in a direction towards the back part of the VagSE 

Lam pregnant, it is commonly about two inches and a Tab. CIV. and is surronnded with several Mucous Fol- 

half in length, from one inch and a half to two inches licks. 

in breadth at the Fundus, and about half as broad at the The dppendages of the Uterus are, the Broad and 

Cervix.— It is near an inch in thickness, and is larger 111 Bound l.;giim,n(.- t the Oraria, the FaLLOI'IAN Tuba, 

Women who have barn Children than in Virgins. and the Vituina. 


Part IV.] 



TIip Li'gamenfa Lata, termed sometimes .thr Vesper- These Vesii Jcs differ time 

tilionis, are two Membranous Productions or Doublings iiuin ; — the Ingest of them 

of the Peritoneum, sent from tin- edges of the Uicrus of ;i biiiiill ^nden-pea, M \A are commonly placed i 
and posterior extremity of the Vagina, in :i transverse the Surface. Tab. CI1. Fig. 1. F. 

direction, to be fixed to the sides of the IMvis. Tab. The number of Ova is diiU rcntly estimated by different 

i twenty and upwards having 

be fixed 

CHt Fig. 1. G,G. 

The Uterus and Ligament :i Lata 

Ligamcnta Lata arc subdivided 
anterior and posterior Ala; or Pi 
The Ligamcnta Lat; 

the sides oi" the Pelvis. Tab, 

Anatomists ;— from 

■orate the Pelvis been found in one O' 

According to Expi 

i large and small, 

its made by Mr Hunter, it is 
iber of originally exiting Ova. 
helber lliat number be great or small. 

,ud I"- 

s Tubes, with i 

e Vessels and N 
menta Rotunda, &c. connect tlie Uterus to Uie sides n 
the Pelvis, and a-ssist in retaining it in its place. In tin 
time of Gestation they become effaced, by furnishing tin 
Cterus with [>.u t oi its external covering. 

The LigtuiunUt R'di'mUi are two long and slcnde 
Cords, composed chiefly of Blood-vessels and Ligamcnrnu 
Fibres. They arise from the corners of the Uterus, iiu. 
mediately before and below the Fallopian Tubes, fron 
which thoy descend oblique!/, in the Ligamcnta Lata, di. 
iiiiuishing a little in their course towards the Groins 
Tab. CI. Fig. :J. K, K. Tab. CIV. 

They pass through the Kings of the Abdominal Mus- 

The Utvnne, or Fali 
K, K. Tab. CIV. con 

i Tubes* Tab. CIT. Fig..l. 


the IV 

clcs, in the 



rds r lo i 

the Male, and are afterwards inserted by sep: 

es into the upper and lateral parts of the Pudendum, cesse 

They assist the Ligamcnta Lata in preserving the equi- CIV. 
librium of the Uterus. They 

The Ovaria, anciently culled Testes Mttlieb, 
situated at the sides of the Fundus Uteri, about 
distant from it, and are contained in the posterior 

nate iu it, each by a small Opaii^, which scarcely ad- 
mits the entrance of a Bristle. Tab. C\ II. Fig. 4. C. 

They become gradually larger in their passage towards 
the sides of the Pelvis : Near their outer extremity, tiny 
are convoluted and coiisiikr.ibk dilatrd, but are after- 
wards suddenly contracted, and terminate by open 
Mmi!/:-., sulikienlly large to admit the point of a Goose- 
quill. Tab. CHI. Fig. 1. B, B. Tab. CIV. 

Their outer ends are free and fluctuating in the Pelvis, 
and expand into many irregular jagged or pointed Pre 

monly upwards of a hand-breadth in 
length,' and are contained in a Doubling of the Ligamcnta 
Lata. — In their natural situation, they lie near the Ova- 
ria ; but when drawn out and extended, are a finger's. 
breadth distant from them. 

The Structure of the Tubes is nearly the same with 
that of the Uterus, and, like it, they are capable of dila- 


of a different nature, being famished with 

oft the Ligamcnta Lata, which form aCo; 
lap to the Tunica Albuginea Testis. 

The Ovaria are plain above, and prominent and si 
oral below, flattened at their anterior and posterior ! 
feces; and the size of each, when in a state of the gr- 
eat maturity, is nearly equal to that of half of the Male longitudinal Plica:, which have 
Testicle. Tab. CIL Fig. 1. D, D. and which are most conspicuous towards th< 

In the vigour of life, they are large, uniform, and mities. They have a very large proport: 
smooth, but become small, unequal, and shrivelled, in old vessels, which 
Women, and in those who have born many Children, Tab. branes. 
CIV. Tab. CV. This unequal appearance, however, is 
greatly owing to the habit of Body, a; it is frequency met 
with in a young Adult Virgin. to 

They are attached to the Uterus by the Ligamcnta O' 
Lata, and by two small Cord-, termed Ugamenta Ho- O' 
huuUt Orar//, which were mistaken by the Ancients for according to the op: 
Vasa Deferent iu, carrying a secreted Liquor 


The Tubes are supposed to convey the prolific part of 

the Male Semen from the Uterus to the Ovaria, in order 

to fecundate the Ova ; and by grasping that part of the 

Ovarium where the ripest Ovum is situated, to carry the 

mling to some Authors, or its Contents only 

of others, to be mixed with the 

the U- Male Semen, and "to be lodged in the Cavity of the Utc- 

They arc composed internally or a loose whiikh Ccllu- They have been observed, in a few ins 

lap or Spongy Substance, intermixed with Vessels and males who have been killed soon alter Con 

Nerves, and contain a number of small Vesicles called the Ovaria by means of their Fimbria;. 

Ova, filled with a limpid Fluid which partakes of the The Vagina is a Membranous Canal, 

qualities of the white of an Egg. from the ^cck of the Uterus to the ( 


Pudendum. Tab. CI. Kg. 3. M, N. Tnb. till. Tab. 

It is situated at the under and back part of tlie Blad- 
der and Urethra, and over the under part of the Inlesti- 
ntim Rectum ; to each of which it is closely connected 
by Cellular Substance. Tab. CIV. 

It begins a little above the internal Orifice of the Ute- 
rus, which it embraces, but readies higher at the poste- 
rior than anterior part of that Opening ; from which cir- 
cumstance, together with a slight curvature it has back- 
wards, the Canal is found to be longer in its posterior 
than anterior Surface. 

From the Os Tinea 1 it passes downwards and for- 
wards, and terminates between the Labia Pudendi ; the 
Axis of the Vagina forming a considerable Angle with 
that of the Uterus. Tab. CIV. Tab. CC'II. 

The dimensions of the Vagina correspond with the t-'y/c 
r.i' ilie rViiis in the Male, but vary according to the tem- 
perament of the Body, aud become larger in Women who 
have born Children. 

'i lie '.'.:]<: of the Vagina is composed of thick, strong, 
Mi iiibr:iin>u:- parts, «liif!i are very dilatable, and plenti- 
fully supplied with Blood -vessels. It i.s furnished intcr- 
BaUy with numerous irregular Ruga: or Wriuklea, and 
Nmou, Papillon the former of which considerably di- 
minish the W pjci 


di-posed as to diiidr tin.- \ :n:,ina into anterior and poste- 
rior Columns* which join ii».;elher laterally, and produce 
a Raphe at the right 'and left sides. 

They arc deepest, largest, aud most crowded upon the 
anterior aud towards the outer part of the Vagina ; are 
most conspicuous in Virgins, less so in married Women, 
and become more aud more effaced in those who have 
horn Children. — The Ruga; augment the Friction during 
( oition, and facilitate the distension of the Vagina dur- 
ing Child-birth. 

The whole extent of the Vagina, particularly towards 
its outer extremity, is furnished with small Follicles, the 
Orifices of which can frequently be seen. 

They supply ;• Mum-, with which the Canal is always 
lubricated, ami which is discharged, in time of Coition, 
in such abundance, as to have been formerly considered 
as an emission of Female Semen. 

The outer end of the Vagina is covered, on each side, 
by a Substance composed of Blood-vessels and Cells simi- 
lar to those of the Penis, and described by De Gkaaf 
under the name of Pteuts Rctefbrmis, and by later Ana- 
tomists, under that of Corpus i'ui-er/inxt/in Vagina:. 

The Corpora Caverwm are covered by the Sphincter 
Vagina;, the action of which, joined to the dilatation of 
'.hese Bodies, serves to contract the entry of the Vagina 
in the time of Coition. 

The Vagina receives the Penis and Semen, and con- 
veys from the Uterus the Menstrual Flux, the Foetus, the 
Secundines, and the Lochia, 

The Uterus, with its Ligaments, Oram, and Uterine 
Tubes, are supplied with Blood from the Spermatic and 
t iii-iue Arteries, 

The Spermatic Arteries arise from the Aorta, as in 
the Male, and descend for some way through the Abdo. 
men. 'I hey run next in the Ligumentn Lata, to be.dis. 
persed upon the Ovaria and Uterine Tubes, and after. 
wards upon the Fundus of the Uterus. In the progress 
of then course, ihcy have a Serpentine appearance. 

The Uterine Jrtcru:x are derived from the Internal 
I lines, and are much larger than the Spirmatics. They 
direct their course, first lo the under part of the Uterus, 
after which each -plit. into the propel' l'teiiue and the 
Vaginal Arteries. The L'teiiue Arteries ascend aloug 
the edges of the Uterus, mid near its upper part join the 
Spermatic Arteries-. The Vaginal Arteries run aloug the 
lateral parts of the Inner Portion of the Vagina. 

Chiefly from the Uterine, and partly from the Sperma- 
tic Allelic-, many small Branches are furnished, which 
run in a Sei pentiue manner, and commui.ii.alc with their 
fellows hi the opposite side- of the Uterus, so as to sup- 
ply the whole Substance of that Viscus. 

The Vagina is supplied vn each side by t lie Vaginal 
Arteries from the Uterine, and by small Branches lioai 
the Umbilical, noddle Ihtiunrrlmidal, and I'u.lic Aitern-s. 

The Spcrmatie J'ei/ix, in parsing from the Ovaria aud 
Uterus, form a complicated Plexus. They have the same 
termination as in the Male, but arc con-iderably larger. 
— The other Veins run into the Internal lliacs. 

The Lymphatics, like the Blood-vessels, run also in 
two Sets, Those of the one Set accompany the Sperma- 
tic Blood-vessels, and, like the Absorbents of the Testes 
in the Male, go to the Lumbar Glands. Those of tho 
oilier correspond with the Hypogastric Blood-vessels, aud 
terminate in the Glands at the lateral parts of the Pefti». 

The Nerves are from the Lumbar, Sacral, and Great 
Sym pathetics. 

The Uterus, by means of the Fallopian Tubes, re- 
ceives from the Ovaria the Rudiments of the Foetus, — nou- 
rishes it, and, after bringing it to maturity, expels it 
through the Os Internum Uteri and Vagina. 

From the Arteries of the inner Surface of the Uterus, 
the Menstrual Evacuation i.s also discharged. 

The Menses or Courses commonly make their appear- 
ance, in this Country, about the fourteenth year, but 
sooner in hot Climates, and often later in coider Regions. 
The commencement is affected also by the nature of the 
Constitution, and manner of living. 

After the period". al F.vacuaiions have begun, they re- 
cur generally every fourth weik while the Person is in 
perfect health, though the period varies a little in diffe- 
rent Wo, inn. They cease during Pregnancy aud Suck- 
ling, but there are now and then i 

The duration of each Menstruation is also various; in 

gi iiL-val they continue to flow for Fhree or four days, il 
which time five or six ounces are commonly discharged. 


But tire duration and quantity are fov ordinary less in the der, and red like tlie inside of the Lips, and furnished 

robust, and in cold climates, and more in tlto-ic of relaxed ivii.Ii numberless SehaMoiis Follicles, secret ing a Liquor 

habits, or living in hot countries. whereby llie parts arc preserved smooth and moist. 

From the Surface of the Vagina, part of the Men ,fi -nal J i * tween the upper ends of the Labia, is the Substance 

Flux has by many been also supposed to be derived ; but named Clitoris, and by some Mmtuftt Muliebrity not 

those who have seen the discharge from the Uterus, in extending an inch in length, ami little more than the third 

cases of a Prolapsus of that Organ, do not take notice part of that in thickness, ;i ud i Kf | ,lmvn to the forepart 

of having observed any evacuation from that passage-. of the Symph) si, Pubis. Tab. CV. </. 

The Menses commonly disappear about tin- forty-fifth It is extremely Vascular and Nervous, and is composed, 

year, but soonest in Women where they have begun mo.-t like the Penis in the Male, of iwo tin -a ;md Corpora 

early. After this period, Impregnation generally doe., Curenium, which are occasionally distended with Wood, 

not take iplace. and are contained in a Ligamentous Sheath, with a Sep- 

According to Experiments made by Mr JBrande upon turn between them. 
the Menstrual Di.- charge, collected from a Woman with The Crura are upwards of twice the length of the 

a Prolapsus of the I 1 terns, it hail the properties of a very Body of the Clitoris, and, together with Muscles belong- 

concentrated solution of the Colouring Matter of the ing to litem, arise, as the Crura of the Penis do in tht; 

Blood in a diluted Scrum, though he could detect no Male, from the Crura of the Ossa Jsehia and Ossa I'ubi-.. 
traces of iron by the usual modes of analysis. The Clitoris is also pvovid'-.l with a Ligainentvm Stis- 

pensorium, by which it is connected to the Ossa Pubi-. 
and with a Glaus, which, like that of the Penis, is e.\- 

-r. n r* tremcK sensible, but lia- im prrfei alien in it for the pas- 

External Parts of Generation. ;■ , ,, ■ ... . ,..' r * 

sage ot the Urine. lab, Cl ./. 

It is covered by a continuation of the Skin of the La- 

The External Part*, called Pudendum or Vulva, are bia, which, at its inferior extremity, forms a Semilunar 

formed of two prominent sides, termed Luhia Path n,h\ Fold, tenm d Pn-piitium Ciitoridii. Tab. CV. e. 
Labia Externa, or Ahr Mcjures, Tab. CV. b, b. These The Prepuce is furnished with G/andu/a; Odoriferrr 

are contiguous when the Limbs are not much separated, upon its inner Surface, and with a small Fneiiuni which 

thereby preventing the access of Air to the Internal fixes it to the Glaus. 
Parts, which they at the same time protect aud conceal. The Clitoris possesses great sensibility. la the time 

The upper part of the Pudendum, named Pubes, < 
Mom Veneris, is situated on the fore side of the Os; 

Pubi.;, and is covered with Hair similar to that in the Penis does in the Male. 

Male, Tab. CV. to prevent the .Skin from being injured At the under and outer part of the Clitoris are tw 

by the approach of the Sexes. In both Sexes, the Hah a Hudic ., called S'l/itij/fict; uhieh arise narrow from th 

"■"". Prepuce aud Glaus, and run obliquely downwards an 

1 Integuments, outwards along the in-ide of the, iiK-rciiMiig i 

inder which a considerable quantity of Fat is situated, breadth, but suddenly contracting again at their lowt 

andfiiing it thick, soft, and prominent. extremity. Tab. C\'. g, g. 

The Labia Pudendr extend from the Pubes to with- They are chiefly formed In a production of the insid 

a an inch of the Anus, the .pace between thePuden- of the Libia, have the same (lurid coluui v.JlIi ihn-.. a> 

lum and Anus obtaining the name of Per/iioeum, Tab. in their natural stale are conligr.o.t.,, aud the Oii 

,f tk-'skin. — Il i- ■.."mining aho.ail.d ht>, rior /Vril '' Th ' a- ■ ..i.-ii ■■:"■.. ' ' ■ 

.-ry Vascular Membrane, which 1 thill, ten- fibttltW, or Curite, 'ahich u must eomplel 



Virgins, and leads to two Passages,— to the Urethra 
above, and to the Vagina below. 

The Orifice of the Urethra is placed a little below the 
Glaus of the Clitoris, and between the two Nymph*, 
and is surrounded by a Spongy Eminem - -?, which pi'"jce.r- 
at its under part, — called by some Authors Cuq<m Gtux- 
dulosum, or Glandular Piwtaf.r Mi/In rum. Tab. CV. A. 

The Corpus Glandulosinn is perforated by Ijacuna ,- 
some of which are of considerable depth, and discharge 
a Viscid Matter roundthe Orifice of the Urethra. Tab. 

cv. i, ?, h. 

The Corpus Glandulosura directs the point of the Fin- 
ger to the Orifice of the Urethra, in discharging the 
Urine by the Catheter. 

The Orifice of the J'ti^iuu, termed likewise O.s Exter- 
num Uteri, is placed immediately under that of the Ure- 
thra, and is naturally straiter than the rest of the Canal ; 
but in the Virgin state, is still more contracted by the 
Substance tailed Hymen, or Circuit/* Mtmbrannsi/s, 
which forms an incomplete Septum between the Vagina 
and External Parts. Tab. CV. I, I. • 

The Hymen is formed of a double Membrane, and is 
red and sensible like the Vagina Uscll', the inner part be- 
ing derived from that Canal, the outer from the Labia 

Pudendi. It approaches to a circular figure, but thn 

Circle in frequently incomplete next the Orifice of the U, 

Membrane is of a Semilunar form, the 

i>. frequently i 

, or the Men 

being t 

the Perinceum. 

mmonly in 

the iirst Sexual iulem>ur-,e, it degenerates into small Co. 
nical Papilla., termed Varum iila Myrttjbrmes, from their 
-.u|i|ify-fd rescmlibiicc to M vrl le-berries. 

The Hymen has been considered us a test of Virginity; 
— but neither the presence nor the absence of tliis Mem. 
brane can be depended on as a certain criterion. 

Sometimes the Hymen is impervious, in which case 
the Menstrual Fluid i> rU.iincl in the Vagina. 

About the Orilicc of lhe\agina are several Mucous 
Follicles, similar to those round the Opening of the U, 

The Bload-vesseh and Xerves of the External Parta 
are from the Pudic Branches, and are dispersed in nu- 
merous Ramifications upon the cud of the \ agina. Labia 
Externa, and Clitoris. 

The Absorbents pass partly to the Inguinal Glands, 
and partly to those placed at the sides of the Pelvis, or 
upon the Lumbar Vertebrrc. 

( ns ) 


Gives a View of the Contents of the Female Pelvis. 

A, A, The last lumbar vertebra. o, a, «, o, That part of the uterus to which the neck of 

B, B, The inner surface of the ossa ilia. the bladder adhered. 

C, C, A section of the os inaominatum. RI, The oa tincae. 

D, 13, The acetabula, N, N, The ligamenta lata. 

E, E, The ovarii. O, O, rotunda. 

; F, F, The Fallopian tubes. P, P, A section of the vagina. 

G, The fimbriated extremity of the right tube embracing Q, Q, The upper, and, 

the corresponding ovarium. B, The under part of the rectum. 

H, The fimbria: of the left tube, turned forwards to shew S, The cellular substance betweeu the integuments and 
its orifice. muscles of the nates. 

I, The body, T, T, The integuments of the nates. 

K, The fundus, XT, The part covering the extremity of the coccyx. 

L, The cervix of the.uterus. 

( 1W ) 


Views of the Organs of Urine and Parts of Generation in the Female. 

FIG. 1. 

A Posterior View of the Right Kidney, with its Vessels 

A, The renal artery. 

U, Tlie corresponding vein. 

C, The pelvis of the kidney forming the beginning of the 

FIG. 2. 

A, The back part of the body of the i 

A, The renal artery, 

B, - 

of the tubes in the uterus. 

_ o, &c. The termination of the renal artery and i 
the cortical part of the kidney. 
b, 6, &c. The uriuiferous tubes, forming, 

e, c, c, The papilla:. 

(7, </,.(/, The papilla: entire. 

f, e, &c. A M-'ciion of tlie infundibula. 

/,/, The infimdibula united into trunks, to form, 

C, The pelvis. 

1>, The beginning of the ureter. 

D, The os tinea:. 

E, E, The Fallopian tubes, 

F, F, The finibi 

G, G, The tern: 
H, H, The ovai 
I, I, &C. The ligament a lata. 

K, K, rotunda. 

L, h, Their extremities. 

M, The inside of the vagina, with its ruga. 

J>, N, The cut edge of the vagina. 

O, The orifice of the urethra. 

P, The glans ditnridis, surrounded by its prepuce. 


Tab 101 

<J>UJ. ). 


( 177 ) 


Views of the Uterus. 

FIG, I. 

A View of the Uterus a few days after Impregnation 

A, A, The body of the uterus cut open, by which i 
thickness and cavity appear. 

B, Theos'uncar. 

C, Cf The part to which the vagina adhered. 

D, D» The ovaria, one of which is cut open. 

E, An ovum fcecundated. 

F, Vesicles not fecundated. 

G, Blood-vessels in the cellular substance. 

H, A prominence occasioned by the contained ova. 

s of the ligament a lata. 

( 178 ) 


Views of the Uterine System. 

s the Uterus and Vagina laid open. 
iria, the left, which is dropsical, kid open. 

A, A, The 
a, a, The ligaments of th. 

B, B, The Fallopian tu 
duced by their orifices A, A.— The air readily passed 
into the cavity of the uterus. — The large convolutions 
of the right tube are left out on account of the small- 
ness of the plate. 

C, C, The fimbriated extremities of the tubes. 

D, D, A longitudinal section of the uterus. 

E, E, The cavity of the uterus. 

c, A small excrescence in this uterus. 

F, A similar excrescence obstructing the passage into the 

d, The os tincae laid open. 

r, e , Hydatids upon the mouth of the uterus. 

G, G, The ligamenta lata. 
J^f, rotunda. 

H, H, The vagina laid open. In the anterior part it is 

rugous, in the posterior part smooth, 
g, g, The lacunae in the cavity of the vagina. 
J, The orifice of the urethra placed in a glandular emi- 

//, A lacuna situated upon the glandular body. 

i\ J, Two ventricles appearing in the vestible of the vagina. 

K, The clitoris, with its surrounding prepuce. 

I, , /.', The lacunae in the ventricles of the vestible. 

/, /, The lacunae, called Ductus Bartholin!. 

m, 77i, The carunculae myrtiformes. 

«, n, A section of the labia. 

Jj, L, The nymphae preternatucally large. 

M, M, The labia pudendi. 

A View of the Os Internum and part of the Vagina, mi 
a Girl of fourteen years of age. The Vagina is cut 
longitudinally upon the Bight Side. 

A, The rima transversa of the os uteri. 

B, B, The vagina, with rugae more simple than those I 
found on its fore part. 

A, A, The labia pudendi. 

B, The clitoris. 

C, C, The nympbe. 

D, D, The hymen, of a semicircular figure. 

E, The fossa navicularis. 

FIG. 4. 

The External Parts of a Child a few weeks old. 

A, A, The labia. 

B, The clitoris. 

C, The urethra. 

D, D, The hymen, of a circular form. 


The letters point to the s 

( K9 ) 


; : A Side-View of the Contents of the Pelvis in a Young Female ; the Left Os Innominatum 
being separated. . 

A, The anterior surface of the os sacrum, covered by cel- 
lular substance. 

B, The cartilaginous surface of the os sacrum, which 

was joined to the os ilium. 

C, The cartilaginous surface of the light os pubis, which 
formed part of the symphysis pubis. 

), The psoas muscle. 
3B, A section of the muscles placed in the back part of 

H, The levator ani raised from its origin, and turned 
F back, with a cut in it, to shew, 
'I, The point of the os coccygis. 

K, Pain of the sphincter ani. 
; L, The transversalis perinei separated from the os ischium. 
", The sphincter vagina; covering the corpus caverno- 
— i vagina. 

'he erector clitoridis. 
0, The left crus clitoridis. 
~, The body of the clitoris, and the angle it forms with 

, The supensorium clitoridis. 
""lemons Veneris. 
e left, and, 

t of the right labium pudendi. 
e right thigh. 

a termination in the bladder. 
| The bladder of urine moderately distended, and 
i above and behind by the i 

, b, The end of the colon and the intestiuum rectum dis- 
tended, resting upon the lumbar vertebra: and top of 
the os sacrum. 

, The cut edge of the peritoneum, and its depth in the 
pelvis, in this state of the viscera. 

, The fleshy surface of the rectum. 

,/, The posterior surface of the unimpregnated uterus, 
which is drawn upwards, so as to bring it fully into 

g, g, The ligament a lata drawn upwards ; the left, with 
the parts connected to it, is expanded upon the side of 
the bladder; the right, with the parts it includes, is 
turned backwards upon the side of the pelvis. 

A, The left ligamentum rotundum uteri obscurely seen. 

j", i., The two ovaria, with their flat upper, and rounded 
under edges. 

A, The left ligamentum rotundum ovarii. 

/, /, The uterine tubes ; their shape and size are distinct- 
ly seen, in consequence of their having beeu drawn in 
the distended state. 

m, m, The external orifices of the tubes, with the fim- 
briae surrounding them, which are spread out, and 
considerably longer at one side of the tubes than at the 

«, n, The vagina cut open. 

o, The inside of the vagina, with its transverse ruga;, 
which are most numerous towards its outer extre- 

', The os tincae placed transversely at tiic posterior part 

of tire vagina. 
', The spermatic blood-vessels of the right side, 

• * are placed opposite to the external orifices oi the 

urethra, vagina, and rectum. 

( ISO ) 

T A B*L E CV. 

The External Parts of Generation of the Female, in the Virgin State. 

A, A, A, The drapery covering part of tbe abdomen and ft. The orifice of the urethra. 

thighs. *', *" t The orifices of mucous lacunae. 

«, The mons Veneris. k, The orifice of the vagina, with si 

/>, A, The labia pudendi separated. upon its internal surface. 

(, ThojtVajium labiorum. 
rf, The clitoris, 
c, The preputium, and, 
f. The glans clitoridis. 
'g, g , The nymph* turned outwards. 

e of the ruga s 


( 1»1 ) 


The External Parts of an Herj 
who was years of age, and in shape perfect- 
ly Male. 

a t The clitoris, which, when erected, was said to be al- 
most as large as the penis. 

b, The glans clitoridis. 

r, c, The labia, or a divided scrotum, in which were per- 
fect testicles, with all the vessels. 

il, d. The nymphs. 

r, The entrance into the vagina, where there were ca- 
runcula- myrtiformes. 

/, The furca virguiis. 

FIG. 2. 

The External Parts of another Hermaphrodite, 
whose shape was said to be rather Female than Male ; 
but too young to have Breasts like a Female, or a 
Beard upon the Face like a Male. 

o, The glans clitoridis. 
6, b, The nymphs. 

c, c, The labia, with testicles in them, separated from 
each other, to shew the parts between them, but in 
their natural situation like the labia represented in the 

The External Parts of an Hermaphrodite Child, 
who died from a Disease in the Abdomen, when t/irtt 
years old. 

. The ii 

i but 

shorter, aNo with Mime red hair. Their ii 
ner surface is white and rugous, the line red skin not 
beginning till near the external orifice of the vagina. 

c, The clitoris projecting, which is upwards of an inch 
in length, and about half an inch in diameter. 

d\ A thick wrinkled prepuce. 

e, The glans of the clitoris, in which is seen an appear- 
ance of the orifice of an urethra, but which ii only :i 
deep channel descending to the vagina, and is like the 
male urethra slit open. 

/,/, The nyrapha:, which form the sides of the above- 
mentioned channel. 

g, A longitudinal eminence like the veru-montauum. 

A, The hymen, surrounding the orifice of the vagina. — 
Between the hymen and the glans, the orifice of the 
urethra is concealed. 

The size and shape of the uterus belonging to the prepa- 
ration from winch this figure is made, is equal to that 
of a girl of fourteen years of age. The os Uncae is. 

he Fallopian tubes are knotted in their course, like 
vasa defereutia. 

he ovaria correspond in size to the dev elopement of the 
other parts of the uterine system. 


When the Rudiments of tlie Fa'tus have been con- Decidua, from being supposed tu be cast off from the 

veyed from one of Liu- Ovaria into the Cavity of the U- Uterus; the other, covering the ouu-r Surface of the 

terns, through the medium of the corrapoiyUng Uterine True Chorion, he term, Decidua lUjteui; Tab. CXI. 

Tube, whether in the state of a Fluid only, or of a com- Fig. 4. ; the one appearing to be a continuation of, or 

plete Ovum, Impregnation is said to have taken place. reflection from the other ; of course, four Layers or 

The Rudiments of the Foetus have been supposed to Coats are found in the Uterus in the beginning of Preg- 

come from the Father, or from the Riot her, or from both ; nancy. 

at any rate, it is ascertained, that something absolutely The DcctVtmt vr lca-[ di-tniei bttwecn t lie Uterus and 

necessary for Conception is derived from the Ovaria, and Placenta, being there perforated by the Uterine Ves- 

that, in consequence of a Stimulus given by the Male scls. Near the edge of the Placenta, the Decidua 

Semen, the Rudiments of the Child proceed from the O- and that part of it called Rtjltta, are thickest and 

varia through the Tubes into the Uterus. strongest, and decrease in *' ' 

In the case of a single Child, the Rudiments come end of the Uterus and Ovi 

from one of the Ovaria, and go through the correspond- come more expanded. 

In advanced Gestation, the inner Surface of the De- 
■idua, and outer one of the Decidua Reflexa, gradually 

trom one Ovarium only. approach each other, and unite into one Membrane which 

Some days after Impregnation, an Ovum, consisting of retains the name of Spongy Chorion, or Decidua. They 

a Vesicle filled with a limpid Fluid, is found in the Cavi- have been supposed to be formed originally by an Efflo- 

ty of the Uterus. rescence thrown out upon the parts on which they are pla- 

The Ovum, when first visible, is observed to have a ced, in the manner it is thrown out upon inflamed Surfaces, 

smooth Surface, but in a short time thereafter it sends Between the Amnios and Chorion, a large proportion 

off flocculent Branches, the greater part of which are by of Gelatinous Fluid is contained in the early Months, 

degrees converted into a Placenta at that part of the U- which separates them at a considerable distance from 

terus where the Ovum happens to be first attached ; the each other. At this period a small Bag, filled with a 

Branches covering the rest of the Ovum becoming matted milky-like Fluid, is observed on the Amnios, near the 

together, form part of what is termed Spongy Chorion. insertion of the Umbilical Cord, and is termed Fesicula 

The Rudiments of the Fcetus, however, are not always Vmbilicalis, vel Alba. Tab. CIX. Fig. 2. 

conveyed to the Uterus after Impregnation, for sometimes The Vesicula Vmbilicalis is connected to the Cord by 

a Fcetus is found in the Ovarium ; at other times in one a Filament consisting of an Artery and Vein, Branches 

of the Uterine Tubes ; and some rare instances have oc- from the Umbilical Vessels, which, with the Fluid and 

curred, where the Embryo has chopped from one of the Bag, soon c" 

Ovaria or Tubes into the Cavity of the Abdomen, where has sometmn 

a Placenta has been formed, by which it has been nou- understood, 

rished. In these cases, which are called Extra-uterine In early Gestation, the Ovum is large in proportion to 

Concept im*, the Uterus is also found to be somewhat the Embryo ; but towards the latter period of Pregnancy, 

e:il;u-!(-d during the time of Pregnancy. the proportion is reversed, as appears from the following 

The Ovum, at an rarh period of Gestation, consists observations, 

of a thin Membranous t'apwte, which incloses the Em- No well-authenticated account has been yet received, 

bryo or Germ with the Umbilical Cord and Waters ; and of the Embryo being observable till near the end of the 

the Capsule, again, consists of an internal Membrane third Week, when it is found to be about a line in length, 

called Amnios, on the outside of which is another, term- and to appear like ;m oblong curved Vesicle floating in 

ed True Chorion, width is thicker and stronger than the the Limpid Liquor of the (.Mini. Tab. CIS. Fig. 1. 

former, and thicker in the early than in the. late periods of In the fourth Week, the Uvum is about the size of a 

Pregnancy. This is covered with a Filamentous and Pigeon's Egg, and the Embryo not larger than a com- 

Spongy Substance, named by Rwscfl Tunica Filamtn- mon House Fly. 

fosa, and by more modern Authors, the Fake or Spongy At the end of the sixth Week, the Embryo is about 

Chorion. Tab. CIV. Fig. 1.— 5. Tab. CXI. Fig. 4. as large as a Honcy-Bee, with the Head turned forwards, 

The Spongy Chorion is described by Dr. Hunter as towards the farther exiirnmv of the Trunk. The size 

consisting, in early Gestation, of tiro Layers; one lining of the Head is almost equal' to that of the rest of the 

the Cavity of the Uterus, and termed by him Mcmbrana Body. The Eyes and Mouth apmar < vident. 


Id the eighth Week, the Ovum nearly equals the bulk of dually vanities, but leaves a Scat- in the Ovarium, which 

a Hen's Egg, and the Embryo is about an inch in length, continues for life. The number of Corpora JLutca corre- 

The Nose and Ears now begin to be visible ; the Limbs spoutis with that of tlic Ova impregnated, 
extend beyond the Trunk. The Cord is at this period After the Embryo 1, received into the Cavity oi the 

almost as long as the Embryo, but the Vessels run parol- Uterus, the Uterine 1'ahchuill-:. of ri,. 'i'-,v„ - -. n - Hencd 

lei to each other, nor do they receive their twisted ap- by (be Membrana. Dcidtia ; the I!- Ti . ■ - m > u , |v. 

pearauce till a few weeks afterwards. a Bupy Muru.t secreted from ;],. !■'.,!],. , ., -: . ( ,\\ 

About the end of the third Mouth, the Ovum is of the Uteri, which exclude* the Air, ->.A p ■]. ,h,,ne< 

size of a Goose's Egg, and weighs about eight ounces, while of Abortion ; the Mr-n.--.liji <■•»., /■. ,.' ?/.— ,<nrl the Utrrui 

the Embryo is between two and three oimces in weight, by degrees is changed I'iom . ■ ., ul ,, ,, „, „iW form, 

and three inches in length ; and the Head and Extmni- though the oval appearand , . ,j, <,.,, ; | v observed till 

ties being now distinctly observable, it obtains the name the latter Months of > . 

of Foetus, which it retains from this time till the end of From the influx of Ulo'ni to tin: Substance of the Ulr- 

Gestation. rus, and from the growtli of the Ovum, the Cavity of the 

Towards the end of the fourth Month, the motions of Uterus gradually enlarges from a size capable only of ad- 

the Child begin to be felt by the Mother, in con semi mice mining an Almond, to that which contains the full-grown 

of which the term Quickening has been applied. Fcetus, the Secundines, and Waters ; composing together 

In the sixth Month, the Placenta and Membranes a mass equal to nine or ten pounds in weight- 
weigh seven or eight ounces, the Fcetus twelve or tliir- The size of the Uterus varies in different Women, ac- 

teen. It is then eight or nine inches in length, and per- cording to the size and number of the Fcetuses, and the 

feet in all its external parts. quantity of Fluid contained in the Ovum. 

In the seventh Month, the Fretus is about a foot in Some time after Impregnation, the Fundus and Body 

length. of the Uterus, being softer and looser than the Cervix, 

At Birth, the Secundines weigh between a pound and first yield to the parts which it contains, but continue 
a pound and a half. The Fcetus is then six or seven somewhat flat through the whole period of Gestation, in 
pounds, and is from eighteen to twenty-two inches in consequence of pressure from the anterior and posterior 
length. parts of the Abdomen ; the fore part of the Uterus, how- 
Still, however, from the difficulty of ascertaining when ever, still continuing natter than the back part. 
Pregnancy commences, — from the difference of Foetuses For the two first Months, the Uterus increases so little 
of the same age in different Women, and in the same as to remain in the Cavity of the Pelvis, and it is gene- 
Women in different Pregnancies, — and from the Fcetus rally after the third Month, before the Tumour formed 
being frequently retained in the Uterus some time after it by it can be felt above the Symphysis Pubis. 
is dead, as well as from the inaccuracy of many of the In the fourth Month, the Body of the Uterus is about 
five inches in length, and it has acquired so much addi- 
tional size and weight, that it is found lower than for- 
merly in the Cavity of the Pelvis ; in consequence of 
Changes produced in the Uterine Si-stem by wliich, the Os Tinea; is felt projecting nearer to the Os 
Impkegnatioh Externum Uteri. 

After this time, its bulk increasing, it presses against 

Immediately after Impregnation, a large Orifice is the Pelvis, and ascend- in the Abdomen, carrying the 

constantly observed in the Ovarium, leading to a Cavity Os Tinea: higher than n- 01 iginal situation ; at the same 

in that part of it from whence the Rudiments of the time elongating the Vagina. 
fetal have been derived. In the fifth Month, the Uterus renders the Jhta 11 

This Cavity appears first flocculent, and is afterwards tense, and forms a sort ot Ball between the 1 ubis ami 

filled up, during Gestation, though sometimes not till se- Umbilicus. _ 

vend Mouths afterwards, by a Grauulous Substance, In the sixth Month, it e* tends about four indies above 

which has the name of Corpus Luteum, from the yellow the Pubis, the length varying according to that ot tne 

appcanapait assumes, especially in Quadrupeds. Abdomen and Ovum. _ _ 

The fflPim Luteum is of a roundish or oval form, and It continues to rise ihiouy h the whole mmumng uencd 

consists of an outer Vascular, and an inner Inorganic- of Gestation, ami alter a^u^uW l - Pelvis, ,t cum- 

looking pale-coloured Substance, which has been const- moDly inclines, with n> I ■uudus torwaids, uc ui imcss 

dered by some Authors as the remains of the Ovum, backwards, and is frequently also turned a little to one 

Tab. CXI. Fig. 1. B. side; but the ascent is <ib-med mi be more m tlie hist 

A real Corpus Luteum is not found till after Impregna- Gestations, and the inclination greater in later testa- 
tion, though diseased appearances of the Ova have some- tions, owingto the nature ot Die tatmmuma m uilM- 
times been shewn as men. It continues till the end of domen, less bung ...ade b> them alter a v> - 
Pregnancy, and for some time after Delivery, when it gra- man has born a number ot Uiiiuren. 


In the seventh Mouth it reaches the Umbilici^, in cms!.!. . rably altered. Tlic Ovaria, with (he Tubes and 

the eighth is halt' i\av bet ween th:it and tlie Sternum. At Ligaments of (lie I 1 terns, are situated lower, in respect 

hst it touches the Scrobicuhis Cordis, Stomach, and Co- to the Fundus Uteri, in proportion as it ascends, Tab, 

Inn, being now about a toot in length from the upper to CXVII, At the full time, they lie close upon its Sur- 

the under extremity ; occupying tlie whole of the Vmbi- lace, the Hound Ligament- are thicker and more Vascu- 

lital and Epigastric Regions, and having the Intestines lar, and the Ligamcnta Lata, by assisting in forming a 

at tlie upper, lateral, and posterior pari- of it, the fore Covering li> tlie Uterus, are marly obliterated. 
part of the Uterus being in close contact with tlie Pa- The Tubes descend by the hides of the Uterus, arc 

rietes of the Abdomen. straighter, thicker, and more Vascular; have the Mus. 

In the progress of Gestation, the whole Uterus be- cular-like Plica; more distinct, and the Fimbriae more 

comes softer ami looser, in consequence of which it rea- expanded than formerly. 
di!y changes its form, and accommodat 
pres-ure of the Child, or of any of the a 

It becomes now also more \ aseular, and tlie Vessels are Fasciculi uhicli run in various directions, but c 

greatly enlarged in size ; the proportional increase being traced far without interrupt ion. They are variously de- 

nearly similar to that of the bulk of the Uterus. scribed by different Authors ; their course, however, is 

The Arteries, in their course, are remarkably convo- such, that they are capable of contracting the Uterus in 

I tiled,— fully as much so as they are previous to Concep- all its iliim-n-inus during I he time of Delivery. 
tion, — and greatly more so than the corresponding Veins. According to Dh Hunter, the contractile power of 

Tab. CXX. the Muscular- Fibres of the Uterus is in some parts slow. 

The Veins are much larger than the Arteries, their but in others quick; in some parts voluntary, and in 

diameters being such as to have distinguished them by the others involuntary, 

name of Sinuses; — and to them the great bulk of the A description is given bv Ruysch of a Circular Muscle 

Uterus is chiefly owing. Tab. CXX. in the bottom of the Uterus, for the expulsion of the 

The Lymphatic, like the Sanguiferous Vessels, are Placenta ; — but the Placenta is found to adhere to other 

also much increased in size, as well as in number, to- parts besides the Fundus Uteri ; nor has such a Muscle 

wards the latter period of Pregnancy. Many of them been observed by later Anatomists. In Hunter's Plates, 

are larger than Crow-quills. They form a Plexus which the Fibres are seen running transversely in the Body of 

covers a great part of the Body of the Uterus. the Uterus, and describing Concentric Circles about the 

The Substance of the Uterus was formerly supposed Orifices of the Fallopian Tubes, 
by some to be thicker, and by others to be thinner in The Muscular Fibres of the Uterus assist in the Deb'- 

the Gravid, than in the unimpregnated state ; but it ap- very of the Child and expulsion of the Placenta ; and in 

pears now to be sufficiently ascertained, that it is nearly a few weeks after Delivery, the Uterus, partly by the 

and during the contractile power of these Fibres, and partly by that of 

t the end of Ges- the Blood-vessels, is restored to near its former diraen- 

tation, when it becomes thinner towards the under ex- sions. 
tremity. For several days after Delivery, on the con- 
trary, it is observed to be much increased in thickness, Contents of the Uterus about the End or 
especially at its T undue. Pregnancy. 

After the third Mouth, tlie Cervix Uteri begins 
come softer, wider, and more Spongy, and i 
do so till the seventh or eighth Month, when it i 

pletelv obliterated. centa. Membranes, and Wafers, all of which are dis- 

During all this period, the Ob Tinea is undergoing charged at each Delivery. 
similar changes, In proportion as the Cervix stretches, The Cord, Placenta, and Membranes, are named the 
tlie Tubercle of the <_K Uteri becomes less prominent, Secu/ldiues, or .Iftcy-hhtli, with which Mime include the 
but its circumference i-. enlarged. At the latter Months Waters, though these ate diseharg. d previous to the ex- 
it becomes thin, flat, and irregular on its edges, and the pulsion of tlie Child. 

firmness of its texture is converted to the Spongy softness The Cord is fixed by one end to the UmbuKis of the 

of the Body of the Uterus. Its Olilice is changed from Fcetus, and by the other it is attached to the Placenta at 

a Transverse Slit into an Oval Pit ; and in Women who a little distance from the middle of this Organ; Front 

have bt>m several Children, it is considerably dilated which circumstance the extraction of the Placenta is" 

near the end of Gestation. There is now merely the more easily effected. Tab. CX. 

Mucus as a Septum between the Uterus ami Vagina ; this It is commonly about two feet in length,— sometimes 

comes away before Parturition, along with the Liquor considerably shorter, and often much longer ; — but in 

Amnii, the Follicles which form this Mucus throwing general it is" sufficiently long to allow the Birth of the Child, 

put, afterwards, a thinner fluid, to lubricate the parts. while the Placenta adheres to the Uterus of the Mother. 

The situation of the Appendages of the Uterus is also Its thickness is iiearlv equal to that of one's Finger, 

Pari IV.} 



but it is smaller and weaker at the extremity next the Pla- 
centa. It is seldom of a Cylindrical form, beui^ marked 
with Sulci corresponding to the course of its Vessels. 

It is composed of two Arteries and one Vein, Tab. 
CXXII. the Vessels running in a spiral direction, like 
the twisting of a rope, in consequence of which the- im- 
petus of the Blood is broken iu its course to the Child, or 
to the Placenta. 

The Arteries, especially in cases where they run some 
way in a straight course, or where they are of unequal 
length, frequently form short Coils upon themselves. 
Sometimes there is a knot upon the Cord. Now and 
then the Navel String forms one or more turns about the 
Neck of the Child. Sometimes, though very rarely, 
there is only a single Artery. 

The Cord is covered by a smooth Coat, derived from 
the Membranes. Neither Lymphatics nor Nerves have 
ever been satisfactorily demonstrated in it. 

The Trunks of the Vessels are inclosed in a Gelati- 
nous, Ropy, Cellular Substance, which adds to the 
strength and elasticity of the Cord, and allows the Blood 
to pass freely between^ the Feet us and Placenta, without 
being in danger of interruption from pressure. 

The Vein is much larger than the Arteries, its area 
being about equal to the area of both of these. It is des- 
titute of Valves, and sends off no Branches while run- 
ning in the Cord. 

It arises from the Substance of the Placenta, and, after 
perforating the Umbilicus, it passes in the inferior part 
of the Ligamentum Suspensorium, to the under side of 
the Liver. Tab. CX. Fig. 3. Tab. CXXII. 

The Arteries arise from the Iliac Arteries of the Foe- 
tus, perforate the Umbilicus, Tab. CXXII. and run to 
the Placenta, in the Substance of which they divide into 
their ultimate Branches, but send off no Ramifications in 
their course through the Cord. When they reach the 
Placenta, the Trunk of the one Artery frequently forms a 
large Anastomosis with that of the other, and the Ramifi- 
cations of the Arteries communicate with those of the 
Vein, in the manner Arteries and Veins do in other parts 
of the Body. 

The Cord, by means of the Vein, conveys pure Blood, 
of a Vermilion colour, from the Placenta, for the nourish- 
ment of the Fcetus, and, through the medium of the Ar- 
teries, returns what is not used in Nutrition, and which is 
here of a purple colour, again to be mixed with the Blood 
«f the Uterus. — By the intervention of the Cord, also, 
the Placenta is more readily extracted. 

The Plhcenta, or Cake, is a Spongy Mass, of a round 
fcrm, though sometimes oval, or oblong, occupying near 
a fourth part of the Ovum, and is common to the young 
•f many other Animals. Tab. CXII. 

It is about seven or eight inches in breadth, and up- 
wards of one inch in thickness, though nearly the double 
if that when minutely injected ; but is thinner at the 
edges where the Membranes go off. While attached to 
lie Uterus, it is concave next the Child, and convex to- 
wards the Womb. 

Vol. II. A 

The External Surface, or that next the Uterus, is di- 
vided into Lobules with Figures between them, whil j. 
the Internal, or that next the Foetus, forma a regular 
Mass, which has numerous large Branches of the Umbili- 
cal Vessels dispersed upon it in a radiated manner. '■ 

In the Placenta are to be observed, on the side next. 

the Child,— the RamiEcations of the Umbilical \ cssch 
iV-ruiing the principal part of its Substance, Tab. CX. 
Tab. CXV. ;— on tie side next the Mother,— Branches 
of the Uterine Arteries, almost of the size of Crow- 
quills, passing in a convoluted maimer between the Ute* 
rus and Placenta, and terminating in the latter; — Veins 
corresponding with these Arteries, but flat and of great 
size, running obliquely from the Placenta to the Uterus,. 
— and, in the Substance of the Placenta, an appearance 
which has been supposed by many Authors to be the 
common Cellular Membrane, of a tender nature, and 
easily ruptured by Injection, but winch is considered by 
late Writers as a regular Spongy Substance, similar to 
that in the Body of the Penis, and, as in that Organ, 
the Cells communicating freely with each other. 

The Placenta is connected to the Uterus on one side 
by Blood-vessels and by the Decidua, and to the Foetus 
on the other, by means of the Umbilical Cord. 

The common place of attachment is near the Fundus 
Uteri; though it is found at different times adhering to 
all the other parts of the Uterus, not even the Os Tinea: 

In the case of Twins, there is sometimes only one, 
but most frequenily two distinct Placenta;, adhering to- 
gether by the intervention of a Membrane in which the 
Vessels of the two Placenta occasionally communicate 
with each other. 

There are in this case also two distinct Apartments, 
separated by a Partition ; each Apartment containing its 
own Foetus, Waters, and Cord. Tab. CXIX. 

The Placenta receives Blood from the Uterus, and, 
according to the opinion of modern Anatomist:, purifies 
the Blood, as the Lungs do iu the Adult, for the nourish- 
ment of the Fcetus. 

The Membranes consist of the Spongy Chorion, or 
Decidua, the True Chorion, and the Amnios ; and these 
are so closely connected to each other, as to appear at 
first sight as a single Layer, but they can be readily peel- 
ed off from each other. , 

The Placenta and Membranes form a complete Bag, 
which lines the Cavity of the Uterus, and incloses the 
Foetus, Umbilical Cord, and Waters. Tab. CX. Tab. 
CXM. Fig. I. 2. 

The Spongy Chorion is a thick opake Substance, which 
adheres to the Uterus, and forms the outer Layer of the 
Ovum, but scarcely penetrates between the Lobules of 
the Placenta, though, in the early Months, it entejs 
more into the composition of that Substance. 

Between the Uterus and Placenta, it is less distinct 
than elsewhere, being perforated there, and in some de- 
gree concealed by the Blood-vessels pro«eujng from the 
inside uf the Uterus. 


It has a Spongy and Villous appearance, and is full of Mouth of the Uterus, and, by lubricating the Vagina, fa- 

small Blood-vessels, which can be readily iujected Irom cilitates Delivery, 
these of the Uterus. 

The True Chorion is thinner, smoother, and much Pn<=rrrnv of thf Fifths 
denser, than the former, and is connected with the Spongy 
Chorion as far as the edge of the Placenta, where it se- 
parates from it. It is next reflected over that Surface of In the first Months, the Embryo swims in the Liquor 
the Placenta which is opposed to the Fcetus, and is after- Amnii, free from the pressure of the surrounding parts ; 
wards continued over the whole of the Cord. —and from many Dissections and Observations made by 

It is uniform in its texture, has a. transparent appear- the latest Anatomists, it is ascertained, that the Head 

ance, adheres to the Spongy Chorion and Surface of the preponderates, and in general continues undermost during 

Placenta by a delicate Cellular Substance, and has no the whole time of Gestation. 

Vessels visible to the naked Eye, or which can be in- Formerly it was supposed that the Embryo, in the first 

jected. Months, was situated with the Head uppermost, and 

The Amnios lines the whole Surface of the True Cho- that, in the latter Months, the attitude of the Foetus was 

rion, and, with it, is reflected from the Placenta upon the inverted. 

Cord, which it supplies with an External Covering. The Foetus, towards the end of Gestation, is observed 

It is thinner, (but at this period stronger), more, dense, to be coiled up into an oval form, so as to be property adapt- 
ed transparent, than the Chorion, to which it adheres ed to the Cavity of the Uterus. Tab. CX. CXI. CXIV. 
rvery where by a tough Jelly. The Head is bent towards the Tlioras, and the Arms 

It is smooth and polished on the side next the Foetus, are folded : —The Knees arc drawn towards the Abdo- 

and is destitute of Blood-vessels. men, and the Heels towards the Nates. 

The Membranes, besides containing the Child and Wa- The Spine is bent into an Arch, and one side of the 

t.ers, give origin to the latter, and, hi the time of Labour, Body of the Foetus is frequently turned forwards, 

opening the Orifice of the Uterus. The Head is placed diagonally, 

1 corresponding to that of * u ~ ' 
posed to the Os Tinea;. 

.._, mposed of the Serum of 

s natural state, it has all the characters PECULIARITIES OF tbeF<etu3. 
r Pericardii, or of the Liquors exhaled from 

i the Pericar- All the Bones in the Foetus, excepting a few, are soft, 

consists of a- yielding, and imperfect, and many of them entirely in a 

bout 98 in 1U1I of Water, the remaining part being Albu- state of Cartilage. The Gelatin in their composition is 

men and Saline Matter. — It is supposed to be derived observed to be in greater proportion than in Adults^ in 

from the Exhalent Arteries of the Amnios. whom the Fibrin, and Saline Matter found in them, pre- 

It is proportionally greater in quantity in the first than dominate. The Internal Cavities of the Bones, at this 

in the last Months ; at the full time there are generally period, are filled with a Jelly, in place of Marrow, 

about a couple of pounds ; the proportion and quantity The Head is large iu proportion to the rest of the Body, 

varying considerably in different Women, and in the same and the Bones of the Cranium are united by Membrane, 

Women in different Pregnancies. which admits of some alteration in the form of the Head, 

Between the Amnios and Chorion, Water is frequently whereby its Passage is facilitated in the time of Delivery. 

collected, but in much smaller quantity than in the Amnios, Tab. XXVII. 

aud is termed Fahe Water, or False Delivery. — It is The Cranium bears a large proportion to the Face in 

rpinmorJy discharged before the Birth of the Child, the Child, owing to the size of the Brain, and the want 

Frequently it comes away some days previous to this of Sinuses in the Head, and of Teeth in the Jaws. 

without any danger. Between the Frontal and Parietal Bones, is the 

The Liquor Amnii defends the Child and Umbilical space called Bregma, formed of a Membranous Sub- 

Vesstls from the pressure of the Uterus, assists in distend- stance, which commonly disappears before the Child is 

ing the Uterus during Gestation, and allows the Fcetus a two years of age, the margins of the Bones being theft 

certain degree of motion ; but forms no part whatever of united. 

the nourishment of the Child, that being accomplished en- Between the middle of the Lanibdoid, and posterior ex. 

tirely by the Blood from the Umbilical Vein. Nor does tremity of the Sagittal Suture, a Membrane of a triangnlar 

it appear that any part of the Liquor Amnii is swallowed form is also described, and termed Putt trior Bregma ; but 

by the Child, as full-grown Foetuses have in different in- this does not exist in the Head of a sound and healthy 

stances been born without a Mouth. Child. 

In the time of Labour, it also assists in dilating the —The other Peculiarities or the Bones of the Fcetus are 


1 ilcil-I, 


;i dark 

> Water, 



red Air, no] 

mb. h 

Air be 

,i niLu. 


tbey a 


taken notice of along with the description of the Bones of in Young Adults, but in Persons advanced in life, it is .1 

the Adult — completely absorbed, that scarcely any thing but Cellular. 

The Fluids, in the Foetus, are proportionally larger in Substance remains in its place, 
quantity, and the Solids generally soffit; than in the Adult. The Blood- vessels ol the Thymus are Brandies of the 

The Skin is of a bright red 'colour, in consequence of Subclavian and internal Mammary ; (Ik Nerves come from 

its greater degree of Vascularity, and is covered with an the Great Sympathetica and Eighth Pair. 
Unctuous Substance, supposed to be secreted from the Its Lymphatics have not yet been virv iraraA. 
Vessels upon the Surface of the Skin. The Lungs are small, firm, 

That pari chiefly of the Cellular Membrane is Adipose, colour, and 'sink when thrown 

which is near the Surface of the Body ; scarcely auy Fat of the Brum hial Cell* having 1 

being found in the more interior parts, where it afterwards spiral ion taking place in the 

gradually accumulates till the person arrive at a consider- mitted to them, by Putrefactii 

able time of life. in Water, in the same maimer as if Air had been convey. 

The Brain, Spinal Marrow, and Nervous System, are ed to them in consequence »l liespiratiun. 
proportionally larger, but softer. From the observations of X)h JJunteii on the uncer-, 

The Sanguiferous System, and Glandular Organs, are tainty of the signs of murder in cases of concealed Labour! , 

larger. published in ilic Cih volume of Medical Observations anil 

The Pupil of the Eye, in a young Foetus, is occupied inquiries, it appears, that when Air ha, been respited, the 

and completely covered by the Membrana Papillaris, Air-bubbles are hardly visible to the naked Eye, while 

which arises from the inner margin of the Iris, Tab. Air existing in the Lungs from Putrefaction, the Air- 

LXXIV. Fig. 12. and continues there till the seventh bubbles are large, and are apt to run in lines between the 

Month, when it gradually vanishes. It is a very Vascular Lobules of the Lungs ; 

Substance, and separates the Camera; from each other. That if a Child make but one gasp and instantly dies, the. 

According to Blumenbach, it keeps the Iris expanded Lungs will swim in Water .ts readily as if it had breathed 

during the rapid increase of the Ball of the Eye, longer, and then been strangulated ; 

The Crystalline Lens is almost Spherical, and has nu- That a Child will very commonly breathe as soon as its 

merous FeweTs dispersed upon its Capsule. Tab. LXXIV. mouth is protruded from the Mother, and in that case 

Fig. 10. may lose its life before its Body is born, especially in te- 

The Meatus Auditorius is wholly Cartilaginous, and dious Labours; that Children are frequently bom, who, 

adheres by its extremity to an imperfect King of Bone, from circumstances in their constitution, or in the nature 

in which the Membrana Tympani is placed. Tab. of the Labour, are but barely alive, and after breathing a 

LXXIX. short time die, in spite of all attention ; 

The Meatus Externus, and Membrana Tympani, are That when a Woman is delivered by herself, a strong 

lined by a Mucoid* Membrane, which is cast off after Child may be born alive, and die in a few minutes from 

Birth. Tab. LXXIX. Suffocation, either by being upon its face in a pool made 

The Mamma: of the Foetus are in the form of Tuber- by the natural discharges, or by wet cloth collapsing over 

cles, from which a Fluid contained in them may be rea- it, and preventing it from breathing, 
dily squeezed out. The Heart, in the Foetus, is proportionally larger and 

The Thymus Gland, in the Foetus, is a large Sub- more Conical than in the full-grown Person. The Valve 

stance, situated in the upper part of the Thorax, between of EusTACHIOS is distinct and entire, (hough frequently 

the Layers of the Anterior Mediastinum. Tab. CXXII. Cribriform in the Adult ; is larger in proportion, and is 

It lie* over the Pericardium, and occupies the space supposed to direct ihe principal part of the Blood of the 

where the Aorta sends off the Carotid and Subclavian Inferior Cava immediately through the passage termed 

Arteries, and extends a short way into the fore part of the Foramen Ovale to the Left Auricle. Tab. CXXIII. 

Neck. Tab. LXXXIV. Fig. I. Tab. CXCVIII. 

It has too Long Cornua above, and tuo Broad Lobes In the back part of the Septum, between the Bight and 

below, is of a pale red colour, and becomes afterwards of Left Auricles, is the Furamcu Oiok, nearly equal in size 

a darker hue. tp the Mouth of the Inferior Cava, bounded by a thick 

A.wArte Strom Liquor can frequently be squeezed Muscular Edge, termed Annulm ■ furamii, - Oi-a/w. Tab. 

from its Substance ; but it has no Excretory Duct ; nor CXXIII. A. Tab. CXXIV. Fig. 2. Tab. C XXI. Fig. 

is the use of the Fluid, nor of the Gland itself, yet ascer- 8. P. • ' 

Inncd The Foramen Ovale is (.laced obliquely, and has a Mcrr- 

Sorae Anatomists are of opinion, that the white Fluid brane upon the left side of it, somewhat of a Crescent* 

is Chyle sent by a retrograde motion upon the Thoracic form, which allows part of the Blood of the Bight Ao- 

Buct, and that the Thymus Gland in a Diverticulum to ride to pass through tins opening directly to the Lett An- 

tlft Chyle, when too prcat a iiuantity of Lymph is- sent to ride, but which completely prevents its return, 
ihe Subclavian Vein. The Blood through the 1 orau.en Ovale, assists 

Part of the Tbymua Gland frequently remains distinct in keeping up the balance of tuculation bttween the 


two eidea of the Heart, till the Lungs be ready to re- that Vein directly to the Heart, without allowing it to 

ceive it. enter the Circulation in the Liver. 

The Pulmonary Artery divides into three Branches, The Umbilical Vein sends Branches to the Right Lobe 

the right and left of which run to the Lungs, while the of the Liver, but in principally distributed through the 

middle one, called Ductus Arteriosus, larger than both Left Lobe ; while the Right Branch of the Vena Porta 

the other Branches, and its Area nearly equal to that of carries the principal part of the Blood of the Splenic and 

the Foramen Ovale, passes in an oblique direction to the Mesenteric Arteries to the Right Lobe of the Liver, a 

beginning of the descending Aorta. Tab. CXXIII. small portion only going to the Left Lobe by the corre-. 

CXXIIIA. CXXIV. spontbng Branch of the Vena Ports. Tab. CXXIII. 

The Ductus, or Canalis Arteriosus, forms nearly one After Birth, the Left Lobe of the Liver, which was 

half of the Aorta, carries part of the Blood of the Right formerly more particularly supplied by the Umbilical Vein, 

Ventricle into that Artery, without allowing it to pass to receives an additional proportion of Blood from the Vena 

the Lungs, and thereby assists the Foramen Ovale iu keep- Portarum. 

ing up the balance of Circulation till the Child has breath- The reason why the Umbilical Vein goes partly to the 

ed ; and the Aorta, formed in this manner, receives the Cava, and not entirely to the Heart, is not understood, 

force of both Ventricles, by which it is more enabled to The Pancreas, like the other Glandular Viscera, is also 

drive the Blood through the Umbilical Arteries to the somewhat enlarged in size. 

Placenta. The Kidneys are irregular on their Surface, being 

The Abdomen is proportionally larger and more pro- formed of Lobes, the number nearly corresponding with 

rcinent on account of the bulkandnatureof itsconte»ts,and that of the Papilla; in the Kidney of the Adult, 

the Diaphragm is straighter or less convex towards the Each of the Lobes consists of a Cortical, a Medullary 

Thorax. part, and a Papilla, and is covered by a proper Mem- 

The Stomach is of a rounder form than in the Adult, brane. Tab. CXXIII. XCVI. 

:md commonly contains a small quantity of Gelatinous The Glandufa: Renalcs are almost as targe as the Kid- 

Matter. neys, but afterwards rather diminish than increase in size. 

The Omentum has a much smaller quantity of Fat be- Tab. CXXIII. XCVI. 

fween the Layers of which it is composed than is found The Pelvis of the Foetus is commonly so small, that 

in the Adult. the principal parts of the Viscera afterwards lodged in it 

The Valvulas Conniventes on the inner side of the are at this time contained in the Cavity of the Abdomen, 
small Intestines are only beginning to appear. The Ap- The Bladder of Urine is of a long form, and extends 
pendix Vermiformis is larger in proportion, and is insert- almost to the Umbilicus. The greater part of it is above 
ed into the extremity of the Colon, which at this time does the Pelvis, and is more particularly covered by the Peri- 
nut project to form a proper Cteciim. Tab. CXXI. Fig. 5. tone u m than in the Adult. The Urethra arises more di- 

The Longitudinal Muscular Bauds of the great Intes- rcctly from the lower Extremity of the Bladder than in 

tines are less distinct in the Foetus*. The Colon, and fre- a full-grown person. 

quently also the end of the Ilium, are filled with a gree- The Muscular Coat of the Bladder is proportionally a 
nish-bluck Faces, of a viscid consistence, termed Me- little thicker and more irritable than in the Adult, in 
ermiunu, which is considered to be a mixture of the Bile consequence of which the Urine is voided more frequent- 
ly ith Secretions from the Intestines. ly, and with greater velocity, in the Child. 

The Liver is so large as to occupy both Hypochon- The Urachus, which is of a Conical form and Fibrous 
driac Regions, and to extend some way beyond the Mar- texture, ascends from the bottom of the Bladder, be- 
gin of the Thorax. The right and left Lobes are more tween the Umbilical Arteries, and between the Perito- 
ttearly of an equal size than in the Adult. Tab. CXXI1. neum and Liuea Alba, to the Umbilicus, and vanishes by 

The Gall-Bladder is filled with a Fluid of a dark green degrees in the Umbilical Cord. Tab. CXXI. CXXIII. 

colour and bitter taste. It is formed by a production of the Fundus Vesica, 

The Umbilical Vein passes from the Umbilicus, in a and in the Human Body is a solid Substance, constituting 

Duplicature of the Peritoneum, behind the Recti Muscles, a Suspensory Ligament of the Bladder. 

It has been sometimes found hollow at its beginning. 

lughont its whole length. 

a the Foetal Quadruped, it is a large Tube, which 
smits Urine from the Bladder to a Bag between the 
nios and Chorion, culled Allantoic. 
(he Left. Venn Hepatic:!. uh< re I hat Vein enters the Cava. The common Iliac Arteries divide, on each side, into 
Tab. CXXIII. CXXIV. a .-wall External, and large Internal Branch, in conse- 

The Ductus Venosus is much smaller than the Trunk qiwoce of which, the Lower Extremities arc less in pro- 
of the Umbilical Vein, and carries part of the Blood of portion than in the Adult, 


The principal part of the Internal Uiacs is occupied not only to cover the Glaus, but to extend : 
in forming the Vmbilica! Arfir/i.y, which mount by the yond it. 
sides of the Bladder, on the outside of the Peritoneum, The Uterus is proportio 
and perforate the Umbilicus in their progress to the Um- Uteri, with the Fallopia.. 
bilical Cord. higher in the Abdomen than in the Adult", the Ovarta"^ 

Soou after Delivery, the Foramen Ovule, Dmhs Ar- this time having nearly the ami sHutlioa with the Tes 
teriosus, et Venosus, with the Umbilical Vein and Ar- tes in the Male. 

teries, begin to contract, and are, hi general, completely The Internal Abdominal King in the Pectus has nearly 
Closed, and the \ es,els shrivelled into Ligaments, within the same situation with respect to the Crcr.t of the Pubis, 
a year after Birth, though sometimes one or more of them as in the Adult Body ; but at this time the upper and 
remain open til! a much later period. under Kings are opposite to each other, and almost ia 

Tins Obliteration is produced by a contractile power m contact, 
the parts, by a pressure in the surrounding Viscera, and By degrees the Upper Ring changes its position, and 
by the Blood being directed through other channels. is situated nearer the Anterior Spinous Process of the Os 

The Testes are lodged, during the greater part of Ges- Ilium, the obliquity and length ol the Abdominal or In- 

tation, in the Cavity of the Abdomen, over the Psoa; guiual Canal, increasing gradually as the Pelvis increases 
Muscles, aud a little below the Kidneys. Tab. CXX1V. in wideness. 
CXXV. The Prepuce of the Clitoris is proportionally so much 

They constitute a part of the Abdominal Viscera, and, larger in a young Pectus than it is afterwards, that, in an 

in a similar manner with them, are connected to the Body Abortion, a Female Pectus has frequently been mistaken 

by a Production of the Peritoneum, which forms their for a Male. 
Tunica Albuginea. 

The Epididymis is placed more upon the back part of 
the Testicle, aud is proportionally larger than in the Adult. Circulation of the Blood in the Fcetus. 

Between the Testicle aud Scrotum, a Fibrous and Vas- 
cular Substance is extended, — called by Mb Hunter, The Blood is sent by the Arteries of the Uterus to the 

Guiertiaculum, vel Ligament um Testis, which he con- Substance of the Placenta, from which, according to the 

sitters as a principal agent in directing the course of the opinion of most of the ancient Anatomists, it passes to 

Testicle, and in making way for it in its descent. Tab. the Umbilical Vein by a direct communication of Branch- 

CXXIV. CXXV. es; or, according to that of the greater part of modern 

The Ligamentum Testis is of a conical form, with the Authors, — by Absorption, 
large end upwards, and fixed to the under part of the By the Umbilical Vein, it goes principally to be cir- 

Testis and Epididymis, while the Lower Extremity is culated in the Liver ; a small portion of it passing by the 

attached to the inner side of the Scrotum. Ductus Venosus to the Right: Auricle of the Heart. 
"" About the Eighth Month of Pregnancy, the Testis, by The Blood sent from the Inferior Cava is transmitted 

means not yet completely ascertained, passes gradually first to the Right Auric lc, then the larger portion of it 

along to the Scrotum, a Process of the Peritoneum pre- goes by the Foramen (hate, directly to the Left Auricle; 

cedingit, which afterwards forms its Vaginal Coat. while the rest of it, with that of the Superior Cava, is 

Sometimes one or both Testes remain several Weeks transmitted to the Right Auricle and Ventricle, aud from 

after Birth hi the Groins ; and cases have been found, thence to the Pulmonary Artery, 
where tljey have continued during life in the Abdomen. From the Pulmonary Artery one portion of it passes, 

The'Testis, through the whole of its course, continues by the Right and Left Pulmonary Branches, through the 

to be covered by the Peritoneum, is connected to the Lungs, as in tiie Adult, and another goes by the Ductus 

Sarts on which it" rests, and has its Vessels passing to it Arteriosus to the Aorta Descendens. 
■out behind forwards, the same as when situated hi the From the Lungs it is returned by the Pulmonary Veins 
Abdomen. to the Left Auricle, where it mixes with that coming 
While the Testicle is advancing through the Ring of the from the Right Auricle by the Foramen Ovale. It goes 
Abdominal Muscle, the Li-amentum Testis is found to through the Foramen Ovale in such proportions, as to 
be in some measure inverted, and to form the under and allow equal quantities of Blood to circulate through the 
fore part of the \ agiual i oat, or, dmh the Cremuster i* right and left h idc< of the Heart at the -ame time. The 
expanded. Blood is afterwards sent by the Aorta to the different 
" After the descent of the Testicle, the Peritoneal parts- of the Body, to be returned by the Veins. 
Process, which accompanies it, begins to contract at From the Iliac Arteries, it is conveyed by the Umbili- 
the Ring; and a firm adhesion of its sides, to within a cal Arteries to the Substance of the Placenta, where one 
little distance of the Testicle, is commonly found to be portion of it returns by corresponding ^ ems to the la- 
produced by the time of Birth, though in some cases it tus, the rest going In the I tern, in the manner it wl-. 
iemauis open dtmng'life. '" " discharged from the Uterine Arteries to the Branches ol 
The Prepuce of the Penis is so long in the Fcetus, as the Umbilical Vein. 

( 190 ) 


Views of the Female Parts of Generation, and of the Fcetus in Embryo. 

FIG. 1. 

A View of the Female Parts of Generation in situ. 

A, A, The upper part of the os sacrum. 

B, B, The ossa ilia. 

C, C, Their connection with the os sacrum. 

D, D, The ossa pubis. 

E, The symphysis of the ossa pubis. 

F, F, The tuberosities of the ossa ischia. 

G, G, The foramina thyroidea. 

H, H, The acetabula for the articulation of the thigh- 
I, I, The brim of the pelvis. 
K, The intestinum rectum. 
L, The uterus. 

M, M, The Fallopian tubes. 
N, N, The fimbria: of these tubes. 
O, O, The ovaria, concealed by the ligaments lata of the 

G, G, The hymen. 

g, g. The extremities oF the ducts of the lacuna;, which 

are placed before the hymen. 
H, H, The vagina, with its ruga. 
I, The os tines. 
K, K, The neck of the uterus, with its mucous follicles 

and rugs. 
L, L, L, The body and fundus of the uterus, in which 

are spots, such as Mokgacni observed in a Virgin 

who waB killed, during her menstrual period, by a blow 

od the head. 
M, M, The extremities of the Fallopian tubes, by 

which they open into the superior angles of the uterus. 
N, N, The ligaments of the ovaria, by which these parts 

of the tubes next the uterus are covered in this Figure. 
O, O, The testes, or ovaria. 
P, P, The tubes delineated in that position in which the 

Author of this Figure most frequently found them. 
Q, Q, Small portions of the ligamenta lata. 
It, It, The ligamenta rotunda. 

R, The upper part of the bladder of i 

FIG. 2. 

A View of the Vterus a Jew days Pregnant. 
Explained Tab. CII. Fig. 1. 

FIG. 3. 

A Viewofthe Female Parts of Generation, the V- 
terus and Vagina being laid open Posteriorly. 

A, A, The labia pudendi separated and turned down- 

B, The glans clitoridU ; 

C, Its prepuce. 

D, The superior part of the h'gamentnm suspensorium 

E, E, The nymphse, with their sebaceous glands. 

F, The meatus urinarius, near which are situated the ori- 
fices of the mucous follicles, or lacunar, which belong 
ta the glandular body with which the urethra is sur- 

A, A, A longitudinal section of the uterus. 

B, B, The fundus of the uterus divided, to shew the en- 
trance of the tubes iuto its cavity. 

C, The origin of one of the tubes. 

Dj D, The progress of the tubes gradually dilating. 

E, E, The ligaments of the ovaria. 

F, F, The ligamenta uteri rotunda. 

G, The cavity of the uterus. 

II, ■ ■■- cervix, and its fibrous substance 

I, I, The proper membrane of the uterus. 

K, The mouth of the uterus. 

Ij, The contraction of the cervix uteri. 

FIG. 5. 

Skews the Ovarium, with the annexed Extremity of the 

Fallopian Tube. 
o, The ovarium, opined longitudinally in the under part. 
b, l>, &c. Ova of ditk-mit magnitudes, contained in the 
membranous substance of the ovarium. 

c, r, Numerous 


e, c y Numerous blood-vessels going to the ova. 

d, The ligament of the ovarium. 

e, A section of the Fallopian tube. 
/, The cavity of the tube. 

g. The orifice in the extremity of the tube. 

A, h. The foliaceous part of the tube, attached to the 

FIG. 6. 

A View of the Uterus, 'some Months pregnant, to shew 
its Proportional Size with respect to the Pelvis, and 
the height to which it rises above the Pubis. 

A, The uterus. 

B, B, The uteriue tubes. 

C, C, The ligaments lata. 

I), 1), rotunda. 

E, The bladder of urine. 

FIG. ?. 

Ova of different Sizes. 

FIG. 8. 

An Oyvm foscundated, excluded from the Uterus entire. 

A, The head of the embryo. 

E, The body, not yet furnished wi 

C, The umbilical cord. 

D, The rudiment of the placenta. 

Shewing the Human Embryo, somewhat larger than the 
preceding, the Head of which is already distinct from 
the Body, and the beginning of the Extremities ob- 
served in the form of very small Tuberosities. 

A, The 

B, Its inner surface, 

C, The head of the embryo. 

D, The body. 

urface of the rudiment of the placenta ; 

Represents the Embryo, still larger than the former, the 
Head of which is not only distinguishable from the 
Body, but the Budiments of the Extremities also ap. 
pear like large Tubercles; and, which is particularly 
to be noticed, the Umbilical Cord is nearly equal in 
thickness to the Embryo itself, which the Author of 
the Figure reports he has seen oftener than once. 

FIG. 9. 

A Foecundated Ovum, of nearly the same size with that 
of Fig. 8. opened : No Solid Substance was found in 
its Cavity. 

A, The outer vascular part of the ovum ; 

B, Its cavity. 

FIG. 10. 

l of the minutest Human 

A, The foetus, with a large head and prominent eyes, as 
is generally the case in this state, appearing through 
the transparent liquor and membranes. 

B, B, B, B, The exterior layers of the chorion, full of 
vessels depending like small routs, which the Author of 
this Figure MiripoM- were iii-r ik-limated by him. 

C, C, C, C, The transparent coats of the foetus, fro 

D, D, The umbilical cord. 

FIG. 16. 

A Foetus, with a remarkable thick Umbilical Cord. 

FIG. I?. 

A Fcefus somewhat larger than the preceding. In this 
Fccttts, both the Fingrrn aw! Tuc* are visible, and the 
Umbilical Cord is much thinner than in some of the 
other Figures. 

'hews the Human Embryo of the size of a G> 
Bailiii, adiu-riiin to the Rudiment of the Pla 
by means of the Umbilical Cord. 

( 192 ) 


Views of the Gravid Uterus. 

Represents the F<etus hi Utebo mi the Fourth or Fifth 
Month i the Fore Part of the Utekub being cut off. 

A, A, A section of the ossa innominata, as in Tab. C. 

B, By A section of the uterus. 

C, The fcetus, with the head turned towards the under 
part of the pelvis. 

E, E, The umbilical cord. 

F, The placenta, — the side next the fcetus covered by the 
chorion and amnios. 

G, G, The membranes adhering to the uterus. 

£■> gt St St The edges of the membranes somewhat de- 
tached from the surface of the uterus. 

H, The cervix uteri, from which the bladder has been 
dissected, shortened. 

I, The os internum uteri. 

K, K, The ligaments, lata. 

L, L, A section of the vagina. 

M, M, Cellular substance. 

N, N, The integuments of the nates. 

O, The anus. 

FIG. 2. 

A View of the Gravid Uterus in the Second Month, « 
in a similar way with that represented in Fig. 1. — h 
this are to be seen, the Foetus, the Umbilical Cord a 
its Branches, with the surrounding Membranes.— -1 
Cervix Uteri, is still of its natural length. 

FIG. 3. 

A similar View to the former, also in the Second Jl 
but the Parts more evolved, and the Cervix Uteri c 
siderably shortened. 



( 193 ) 


Exhibits Figures of the Human F<etus at different Periods. 

The ovuluui is completely covered with t omentum, which 
ia formed of fibres proportionally long and thick, though 
upon about a third or fourth part of the ovulum they 
were found shorter and thinner. Among the fibres, lit- 
tle knots are every where interspersed, which are con- 
sidered as belonging to the placenta. The ovulum was 
filled with a pure fluid, and contained a very small curv- 
ed embryo, closely connected to it by a short umbilical 
cord. From the body, the upper and under 

1 the form of tubercles. 

FIG. 2. 

An Abortive Ovulum, about six Weeks after Impreg- 

The ovulum does not exceed that of the second Figure m 
size. The flocculi of the membrana decidua are fewer 
and shorter than in the second ovulum. The embryo 
immersed in the fluid of the amnios is bent, and larger 
than the preceding. In the eye the iris is distinguished 
by its blackness. Poruli mark the place of the nose. 
The aperture of the mouth is wide. In the upper limbs, 
the arm and fore-arm can be distinguished. Between 
the lower limbs, which are less conspicuous than the 
upper, the tuber coccygeum projects. The umbilici 
cord is longer, but more slender. The funnel-shaped 
process of the amnios is distinct round the cord. The 
sex not yet to be distinguished. 

The filaments covering this are proportionally shorter and 
thinner than upon the former one, and without knots. 
The vesicuia is of an oval form, and contained a clear 
fluid, apparently collected from the chorion and amnios. 
The chorion was found much thicker and harder than 
the amnios. The embryo adheres to the ovulum by a 
very short and thick umbilical cord ; and is so much 
bent, that the tuber coccygeum almost touches the head. 
The size of the head nearly equals the rest of the body, 
without any appearance of either eyes or mouth. The 
extremities are in form of globular tubercles, the lower 
limbs separated by the tuber coccygeum. From the 
middle of the body, the substance termed vet-icitltt uni- 
bilicalis arises, by a small filament, and is situated be- 
tween the amnios and chorion. 

The body of the embryo is curved, the eyes, mouth, and 
nostrils are distinct, but the openings oF the ears can 
scarcely be seen without the assistance of a glass. The 
abdomen, turgid and prominent towards (he umbilicus, 
ends in the umbilical cord. In the supermr exmniitie-, 
though short, their different parts can be readily distin- 
guished. The lower limbs now extend beyond the tuber 
coccygeum, but there is yet no appearance of toes. 
This embrvo is supposed to be of the female sex, from 
two small holes seen in the lower part of the trunk. 

fig. e. 

A Female Embryo, about Eight Weeks. 

The projections of the nose and cars now begin to be vi- 
sible ; the limbs extend beyond the trunk, the toes ap- 
pear ilisLinc t ; the umbilical cord becomes longer aud 

The eyes and mouth are distinct, but no mark of a nose. 
The extremities are more distinct than in the pre- 
ceding embryo. The thick umbilical cord is now 
Vol. II. B 

FIG. 7. 
A Female Embryo about Vine Weeks. 


in general, bear all the marks of the s 

FIG. 9. 

A Male Embryo, consi<kred to be Eleven Weeks complete. 

The prominences of the nose and ears become now more FIG. 15. 

perfect ; the palpebr* are shut. j Mah F(ETUS whkh appears fa ^ Fmr Mmi(hs _ 

FIG. 10. 
A Male Foetus, supposed to be Twelve Weeks complete. 

A Male Fostus of Four Months. 

countenance and thorax in some measure iiidicatin 
i sex , the penis is somewhat thick, the scrotum i 


In this, bones appear in the head, trunk and extremities, 

FIG. 11. FIG. 17. 

A Male Fcetus, perhaps exceeding Three Months. 

FIG. 12. 

A MaJeYaLTVS, which has nearly reached the Fourth Th ? i"*S™enU bave acquired a proper qoantity of fat, 

Mnntli e counltnance IS pleasant, t lie trunk and limbs well 

proportioned, the head regular, and a little oval, the 

The external parts of generation are disliuct. The su- fore-head round, the eyes large ; the round a 

; almost of the same length with hands and finger those of a female ; the inferior e 
the inferior, _ tremities exceeding the BBpflriox in size. 






The Human Ovum of Five Months discharged entire 
from the Uterus, mi consequence of the Woman hav. 
ing been kicked upon the Belly. 

Iu describing the ovum, the situation is here chosen, in 
which most of its parts, without changing their place, 
might appear through the pellucid membranes. 

The half of the surface of the ovum appears, which be- 
longed to the inner and left side, while it remained in 
•utero ; from which it is to be observed, that the head 
of the fostus occupies the lowest pail of the uterus ; 
that it is turned towards the left and back part of the 
pelvis ; and that the ovum has the form of the hollow 
pregnant womb, to which it clings. The liquor is less 
in proportion to the siv^ of the fcetus than in early ges- 
tation, but sufficient to keep the ovum equally distend- 
ed, and of the oval form. 

The surface of the ovum is every where covered with a 
filamentous substance, which, however, is more abun- 
dant and shaggy where the placenta i- .formed, as is 
seen at the upper and left side. 

FIG. 2. 
Shews the three Membranes of which the Ovum is com- 

posed. The Spongy Chorion m seen on the outside, 
the True Chorion in the middle, and the Amnios, 
which is left entire, is nbnern-d >jit the imittc. The 
Branching of the Umbilical Vessels is xufjkiattty 

FIG. 3. 

The Fffitus, which in L'ig. I . ;iikI j. appeared through the 
membranes of the ovum, is here removed from the 
amnios, but the extremities are left in their natural si- 
tuation. The umbilical cord is a little unfolded, and 
the placenta so placed, as to shew its inner surface. 
The Fietus is so disposed, as l-i correspond not only 
with the other two figures of this, but with all the 
other figures of the former Table. The twUliug of the 
umbilical cord is here observed, it.-. Insertion, not to 
the middle, but towards the edge of the pUeenta, 
where the covering of the cord is continued, to form 
the two inner membrane* of the ovum. The im.'mli- 
dividing into branches, and the 

Of a 

tmg i 

» fori 

: the 

( 196 ) 


A, A, The substance of the ov 
pentine arteries interspersed. 

B, £, The corpus luteum. No vessels appe: 

A, The clitoris. 

B, B, The nympha;. 

C, The orifice of the urethra. 

D, D, The lower end of the vagina, which is rugou3. 

E, E, The upper eud, which is more smooth, especial 

F, The orifice of the uterus, projecting into the upr 
end of the vagina. 

G, G, The tubes. - 
H, U, The fimbria;. 
I, I, The ovaria. 

K, K, The bundle of spermatic vessels passing up in t 
ligamenta lata to the ovaria, tubes, and fundus uteri. 

i of the Fallopian tubes. 

B, B, The same bristles coming out through a larger 
- hole at the lower angle, supposed to be opposite to the 

C, A small hydatid projecting through the substance of 
the decidua, which had slender branching filaments 
shooting from the surface supposed to be the chorion. 

FIG. 3. & 4. 

From a Subject in the beginning of the Fifth Month of 
Pregnancy. The Arteries and Veins were injected 
with Wax of different colours. 

FIG. 3. 

A Bach View of the Uterus, with the Vagina laid open, 
to shew the state of the Cervix and Os Uteri. 

The same Uterus fully opened, shewing the Decidua 
Reflexa upon the Chorion, through which the Child 
appears i and the Inside of the Cervix and Orifice of 
the Uterus. 

A— K, of Fig. 3. are little more than outlines in thiB 

L, The rugous inside of the cervix uteri, seen through 
the transparent membranes. 

M, M, The substance of the uterus and of the decidua 
cut through. 

N, N, The decidua reflexa covering the transparent mem- 
branes in white and opaque stria'. It was become so 
thin, by extension, as to be rendered almost transpa- 
rent in many places. It had not as yet contracted an 
adhesion with the decidua which covered it. 



( 137 ) 


FIG. 1. 

AWN a Subject in the Fifth Month. The Itekus/hZ/v 
opened, (mil Hit FttTUS taken 'Hit, to shtu- the exact 
fiimaixi'iitv tun! Proportions of the Child, and the 
State of the Cervix Uteri at this Period of Utero- 

FIG. 2. 

From a Subject til Six Months, A Fore View of the 
Uterus, which va* injected; the Anterior Part, 
both of the Uterus and of the Membranes, having 
been cut away, and the Liquor A mnii taken out, to 
shew the Fcetus, with Part of the Placenta and of 

the I'm 

A, A, The opening made in the membranes for the ex- 
traction of the child, through which is seen the inside 
of the placenta around the termination of the umbili- 

cal c 

s and chorion, cove 
eflexa, which had i 
t the decidua. 

B, B, The collapsed am. 
nally with the decidu; 
contracted au adhesion 

C, C, The uterine tubes. 

D, D, The broad ligaments. 
JE, The decidua, lining that part of tbi 

placenta did not adhere to it. 

F, F, F, F, The section, from side to side, of the sub. 
stance of the cervix uteri. 

G, The upper, narrower, and smaller part of the pas. 

A, The bladder, i 
rus. It is moderately distended, and is < 
some large branches of the hypogastric veins. 

B, The inside <A' the posterior part of the vagina. 
i ester- C, C, The hypogastric vessels, going into the neck of the 
t as yet uterus, and sending branches to (lie bl iddcr and vagina. 

D, D, The spermatic vessels, going into the duplicature 

of the ligamenta lata. 

£, E, The uterine tubes. 

here the F, F, The fimbria. 

G, G, The posterior lamella of the b'gami 

the . 

tinued down i; 

H, 'I lit j lower, wider, a 

H, H, The ligamenta rotunda. In the left is seen a 
where the decii!u:i was evi- convoluted urUTi, descending from I lie spt i iiutK 
) the inner membrane of that I, I, I, The section of the whole substance of the t 
and of the membram -, by which the fore part i 
uterus, and of the seeundincs, was removed, to ( 

K, The umbdical cord, nea 

rugous part of that passage. 
I, The mside of the posterior lip of the os uteri, studded 

with small bags of jelly. 
K, The inside of tbe adjacent parts of the vagina. 

L, L, The two small pieces of floating membranes repre- 
sent, though very imperfectly, two portions of the cu- 
ticular lining of the vagina, which, in this subject, 
was separated distinctly, as far up as the proji ctiou ot 
the os uteri. 

and i 

the body of the child. 

( 198 ) 


Shews the Uterus, after Seven Months of Pregnancy, 

A, A, A, A, The integuments of the abdomen divided D, D, The veins of the uterus much dilated. 

E, E, E, The colon and part of the small guts appearing 

above the fundus uteri. 
In the light portion of the colon, one of its longitudinal 
bands of muscular fibres is distinctly seen. 
itlining towards the right side. 

( 199 ) 


FIG. 1. 

from a Woman who died of a Flooding in the Ninth 
Month of Pregnancy. A View of tin- Uterus and 
Vagina full)/ opened on the Back Part, to shew the 
Situation of the Child, and of the Lower Part a/ the 
Placenta, at the inside of tin Mouth of the Uterus, 
under the Child'* H* ad, mid. <!< taclnd from the Ute- 
rus; tin: cause of the jo hit /hemorrhage. 

A, A, The Fallopian tubes. 

B, The left ovarium, at the lower end of which is seen, 

C, The projecting corpus luteum. 

D, The right ovarium. 

E, The £i W p of spermatic vessel.-! approaching the side 

Vesica Urinaria, in uhich all the inclosing Par/,- 
were cut through, and turned up, to shew the Situa- 
tion of the Child, Willi its Head npnJtds. The la- 
seh of the Utehl's had been pre viomy injected. 

A, The bladder i 

i with respect to 

of the 

F, F, F, The s. 

etion of 1 

he subs 

G, The inside 

of the »l 

H, H, The moii 

111 of the 

I, The external 


,!i ui 


2 of the u 

J3, The upper and outer part of the vagina, which lies 
under the symphysis of the ossa pubis, and where the 

C, The cavity of the vagina exposed, where the labia 
and other external parts have been cut oft", in uikiii^ 
this part from the body. 

D, D, The spermatic vessels, passing up towards the 
sides of the uterus. 

E, E, The tubes, of which the extremities or fimbriae are 
concealed behind the group of spermatic vessels. 

F, The great vein on the right side of the uterus, formed 
by the anasloniu-iiig hypogastric, and spermatic veins. 

G, G, The round ligaments. 

H, H, The fore part of the womb, with that part of the 
placenta which adhered to it, cut up, and turned back 
over the fundus of the uterus, to bring the child into 

FIG. 2. 

■'roni a Subject in the >'/'»/ /< Month «f Pregnancy. A 
Fire View of the Uterus, with the Vagii 

I, I, I, The sectic 

of the investing 

K, K, The- Bame s 

the placenta, wl 

part aud right si 

L, The cord paBsi 

f the substance of the 

( 180 ) 


FIG. I. 

From a Subject at Eight Months. A Side-View of the 
Uterus, so injected and dissected, as to shew the Ap- 
proach, and first general Branching of the Uterine 
Vessels. The Hack fart of the Uterus is still co- 
vered by the Peritoneum ; but at the Fore Part, to 
which the Placenta adhered internally, the Outer 
Stratum nf the Substance of the Uterus was removed 
by Dissection. 

A, B, The outside of the neck of the uterus, 
not in the least dilated. The os uteri was 
B, from which downwards there is a par 
gina left covered with fat. 

C, C, A stricture in the uterus, where it wa 
by the brim of the pelvis. 

D, D, The tubes, behind which the ovai 

E, E, The ligamenta rotunda dissected, to 
which is twisted at its inferior part, and 1 
all from the spermatic vessels. 

F, The hypogastric artery. 

Their vessels send down numerous branches to tin 
gina, and ascend upon the side of the uterus, 
nastomose with the respective spermatics. 
H, The spermatic artery. 

These vessels, in their approach to the uterus, send up 
numerous branches, forwards to the tube, and back- 
wards to the ovarium ; then passing to the side of 
the fundus uteri, they anastomose with the hypo- 

The principal branches of both, in this case, go to the 
t of the fundus uteri, where the placenta was 


Fundus, to shew a Part of the Membranes, through 
which the Child's Head is obscurely seen, and about 
half of the Placenta ; together with the correspond- 
ing Internal Surf nee nf tin- Uterus, and the Vessels 
passing between the Uterus and the Placenta. The 
External Parts of the Uterus are represented in out- 
lines only. 

A, The upper extremity of the vagina laid open. 

B, The orifice of the uterus contracted. 

C, The neck of the uterus not stretched. 

D, D, The round ligaments. 

E, E, The tubes ; the ovaria concealed behind them. 

F, F, The spermatic vessels. 

G, G, The hypogastric vessels. 

H, H, H, The substance of the uterus cut through. 

I, I, I, The fore part of the uterus raised from the se- 
cundines, and turned over the fundus. 

K, The chorion covering the amnios, through which the 
child's head appears. 

L, L, Ii, The decidua where it adhered in the inner sur- 
face of the womb, in which are seen some small ves- 
sels sent into it from the uterus. 

M, M, M, The corresponding inner surface of the u- 

O, O, The corresponding internal surface of the uterus. 
P, P, Convoluted arteries upon the inner surface of the 

uterus, which had passed to the placenta, and were 

broken through in separating the uterus. 
Q, Q, The corresponding arteries on the surface of the 

ft, K, Veins emerging from the substance of the placenta, 

and broken through at its surface, where they were 

K, K, Thecdgenftheperiton 
terror surface of the uterus. 

, which covers the p»«;- 

S, S, The ■ 

1 the ii 


i the inside of the u 

FIG. 2. 
From the same Subject. A Fore-View of the Uterus. 

Its Substance is cut through, and tinned up over the 

T, A convoluted artery, continued from the womb into 

the placenta. 
V, A corresponding vein near that artery, continued from 
the placenta to the uterus. 

( 801 ) 


From a Woman who died suddenly in the end of her Kiiitk K, The lower and middle part of the omentum, which 

Month of Pregnancy. The Arteries and Veins had been pushed up by the uterus, and lay in numerous 

were injected with Wai of different Colours. small Folds pressed together. 

The Plate represents the OA/'eif, as it ti/i/i.ared when the L, The omentuir in the right side, descending some way 

Abdomen was opened by a Crucial Incision, and the behind that part of the uterus from which the right 

Four Angles of the containing Parts turned outwards; tube begins. 

the Subject lying on its Back, with the Vpper Part of M, The omentum, in the left side, which descended 

the Trunk considerably higher than the rest. before the Fallopian tube, &c. turned a Utile out- 

A, A, The under and fore part of the thorax. 

B, E, The two upper angles of the integuments, muscles, 
and peritoneum, turned back over the cartilaginous 
margin of the thorax. 

C, C, The two under angles turned down, and fixed by 
threads at the puckered appearance of their inferior 

D, The upper end of the longitudinal incision, beginning 
at the point of the cartilage ensiformis. 

E, The lower end of the same incision continued to the 
symphysis of the ossa pubis. 

F, The umbilical ligament of the liver. 

G, G, The epigastric blood-vessels, projecting through 
the peritoneum. 

H, The small or leit lobe of the liver. 
1, The omentum, spread over the small 
epigastric region. 

N, N, Two turns of the small i 

partly covered by the portion of the omentum M. 

O, The uterus, occupying all the umbilical and hypo- 
gastric regions. Its situation is a little oblicjuc, and 
towards the right side. The letter is placed at the 
part which \\-Ai opposed to the umbilicus. 

P, A swelling towards the left side of the uterus, where 
the middle of (he placenta adhered, and, 

Q, A swelling on the right side, where the buttocks of 
the child lay. 

R, R, The round ligaments of the uterus. The left i; 
the longer of the two, on account of the oblique situa- 
tion of the uterus. 

S, S, Portions of the Fallopian tubes. 

T, T, The spermatic vessels, situated in the space be- 
tween the round ligament and Fallopian tube. 

Vol. II. 

( 20= ) 


A View of the same Subject from the Right Side, after the Upper Abdominal Flap, and the 
Containing Parts of the Right Hyi>ochondiiium had been removed, that the whole Mass of the 
Abdominal Viscera might appear in its Natural Situation, the Subject lying on its Back. 

A, A, The thighs, covered with a cloth where they had S, The cut edge of the peritoneum, where it was cooti- 
been cut through. nued from the inferior surface of the diaphragm to the 

B, The spine cut through above the diaphragm. inside of the abdominal muscles. 

C, Part of the eighth rib. Between the cut edge of the pleura, II, and that of the 
X>, D, The integuments and muscles at the back part of peritoneum, S, is the attachment of the diaphragm cut 

the thorax, cut through. off from the inside of the ribs. 

E, F, The iuferior flap of the abdominal muscles, &c. T, The inside of the transverse muscle of the abdomen 
turned down over the thigh, as in the preceding figure. covered by the peritoneum. 

F, G, The mons Veneris divided and turned aside with U, The great or right lobe of the liver; the letter is 
the abdominal muscles. placed opposite to the gall-bladder. 

H, The mar-gin of the thorax at the left side of the scro- V, The small lobe of the liver. 

biculus cordis, covered by the peritoneum and muscles, W, The umbilical, or round ligament, cut off where it 

which are turned over it. enters the fissure of the liver. 

J, The cartilago ensiformis. X, The colon passing up from the ca*cuin towards the 

K, K, The lower ribs and other containing parts, ml down liver. 

longitudinally, by which means all the parts between Y, The colon with its appendicular adiposa: running to- 

this section and the scrntiiculis nmlU were removed, wards the left side, between the li\er and small guts. 

lo expose the viscera in the rigln hvpuehojutriura. X, The beginning or root of the omentum. 

£,, The under and back part of the right cavity of the u, «, a, o, StMtte turns of the .small intestines exposed by 

thorax. cutting off part of the omentum which covered them. 

M, The aorta tied up where it was cut, and filled with b, The uterus ; the veins, which at first could only be 

injection. distinguished bj the colour of the injection in them, 

N, The esophagus also tied up. are here seen =oim-H Inn prominent, on account of the 

O, The upper convex surface of the diaphragm covered part having been a little dry, by exposure lo the air. 

by the pleura, in its natural situation. c, The round ligament. 

P, That part of the centrum tendinosuin of the diaphragm ft, The Fallopian tube. Between the tube and the 

which is in the right side. ligament the speimatic vessel-, are seen, which go 

Q, The trunk of the inferior cava tied, close lo the dia- chiefly to the lore pan ui' the uterus, where the p)n- 

phragm. cent a adhered. 

R, The cut edge of the pleura, where it was reflected c, 'I lie prominent corners of the uterus, u I 

" lie locks of the child w<rc tilt before the iviit uus 


From the same Subject. This represents the Uterus 
opened, to shew the Child in its Natural Situation. 
The Upper Part of the Bladder, is cut away, to shew 
the Child's Head in the lower part of the Uterus. 
All the Fore Part, both of the Uterus and of the He- 
cundines, which included the Placenta, is removed. 
The Umbilical Cord is tied, cut, and turned to the 
left side, over the edge of the Uterus. At the Fun- 
dus, the invat ni« Membranes arc likeit-ise turned over 
the edge of the Uterus, that they might be more ap- 
parent. The Head of the Child is lodged in the 
Lower Part of the Uterus, or in the Cavity of the 
Pelvis, and its Body lies principally in the Right Side. 
Its position is diagonal, or oblique ; .so that its Poste- 
rior Parts are turned forwards and to the Right Side 
of the Mother, and its Fore Parts directed, backwards 
and to the Left Side. The Right Foot appears be- 
tween its Left Thigh and Leg. Its Body was cover- 
ed with a white Greasy Mucus, which is commonly seen 
on Children at their Birth. 

A, A, The thighs. 

B, B, Part of the lower corners of the containing parte 
of the abdomen, turned down over the ossa ilia. They 
are covered by the peritoneum, which was partly cut 
away, to shew the course of the epigastric vessels. 

■C, C, The ossa pubis cut through above the foramina 

D, D, The ascending process of the ossa ischiacut through. 

F, E, The inguinal arteries. 
F,F, veins. 

G, G, H, H, I lit epigastric artery and vein of each side, 
the former of which is seen uppermost. 

I, The obturator artery of the left side, a branch of the 

K, K, The round ligaments descending from the abdo- 
men upon the outside of the epigastric vessels. 

L, ii, The section of" the integuments mid muscles in 
each groin, which ivua made iu removing the anterior 
containing parts of the pelvis. 

M, The anterior perinoeum. 

N, N, The lower extremities of the labia pudendi. 

O, The remains of the hymen. 

P, The vagina. 

Q, Q, The crura clitoridis. 

R, The urethra slit on its upper part, through its whole 
length, and spread out. 

S, The lower extremity of the uterus lodged in the cavity 
of the peivia, and considerably more contracted than 
the part above it, which lies in the yielding parts u! 
the abdomen. 

T, The cluster of spermatic vessels of the left side. 

U, C, The cut edge of the uterus. 

V, The umbilical cord. 

W, The investing membranes turned over the edjre of lh* 

( 20* ) 


A Front View of Twins in Uteeo, in the beginning of Labour, the Anterior Parts being 

t, £, The two placenta: adhering to the posterior part of 
the uterus. The two Foetuses lie before the placentae, 
one with its head in the natural position, in the inte- 
rim' pai't of the uterus, the other situated pretematu- 
rally with the head to the fundus uteri. The body of 
eaeh foetus is entangled in its proper cord, nliith is 
frequently found to huppeu in the natural as well as in 
hf The os internum uteri dilated with the membranes and the preternatural position. 

waters, in the time of parturition. L, L, otc. The membranes belonging to each placenta. 

/, The inferior part of the uterus stretched with the wa- 
ters, which are below the head of the child. 

«, a, The superior parts of the oss 

bj 6, The acetabula. 

<', c, A section of the ossa ischia. 

rf, The os coccjgis. 

f, The lower part of the rectum. 

f,J, The cut edge of the uterus, ; 

gt gi The vagina. 

( «W ) 


The Blood- Vessels of the Uterus, injected with Wax. 

FIG. 2. 

Shews the Uterus, twenty-four hours after Deliver t,. 
A, A, &c. The hypogastric and spermatic uterine arte. 

The Anastomoses of the Spermatic and Uterine Arte- B,B,&c. 

ies, and of both with their fellows of the opposite side, with their innumerable 
re sufficiently obvious without the aBsretsnce oi letters. C, C, The ligamenta rotunda, 

( 206 ) 


Fig. l . and 2. of this Table represent the Placenta. From Fig. 3. to Fig. 1 1 . the Peculiarities 
of the Fietus are shewn. Fig. 12. 13. and 14. give Views of the Ducts of the Mamma. 

FIG. 1. 

A View of the Placenta and Membranes. 

A, B, C, The external convex surface of the placenta, 
with its tissues and lobules corresponding lo the ine- 
qualities of that part of the uterus to which it adhered. 

D, D, E, The chorion. 

F, Part of the amnios. 

G, A portion of the umbilical cord tied. 

FIG. 2. 

p, The symphysis of the ossa. pubis, 
y, >■, .«, /, 'lnc testes, in their descent from the abdomen 
to the scrotum, inclosed in their vaginal coats. 

side of (Ik placenta, some way from its middle. 

C, C, The chorion adhering firmly to the inner concave 
part of the placenta. 

D, D, Branches of the umbilical arteries, distended. 

E, E, The brandies of the umbilical vein, also distended, 

FIG. 3. 


, a, The thorax. 

, /', The diaphragm, 

, The large lobe of the liver; 

', Its small lobe. 

, The gall-bladder. 

, The stomach. 

, The pylorus. 

, A section of the duodenum. 

, ;', The kidneys. 

, Tin. bl;uli!< r ..I' mine ascending almost to the umbilicus. 

m, m, The umbilical arte 
n, n, The umbilical cord. 
o, The umbilical vein passing fi 

running along, 

«, fl, The ribs. 
It, The cart il ago ensiformis. 
c, The stomach, 
rf, The pylorus. 
p, A section of the duodenum. 
/,/, The convex surface of the small lobe of the liver, 

drawn a little up, to shew, 
fi-, The concave surface. 

- of the large lohe. 
(gall-P " 

/,' The left, and, 

tji, Bart of the right kidney. 

n. The right ureter. 

o. The vena cava inferior, 

p, The under end of the aorta. 

q, 17, The common iliac arteries. , 

r, The external iliac artery. 

S, The internal iliac artery, tin continuation of which forms, 

/, The umbilii al artery, amending by the side of, 

z/, The bladder of urine. 



.l, and Beginning of tha Great 
iewedfrom the Left Side. 

a, n, A portion of the intestinum iliv 

r, *?, Its vermiform process. 

rf, d, 'lhe beginning of the colon. 


A, A, The two lobes of the thyroid gland 1 . 

B, The trachea. 

C, C, The right lobe of the lungs. 

D, The bronchi of the left lobe cut off. 

E, The left ventricle of the heart. 

F, Part of the right ventricle. 

G, A division between the two ventricles, very distiu 
in the foetus. 

H, The arch of the aorta. 

I, The right subclavian artery. 

K, The right carotid. 

h, The left carotid. 

M, The left subclavian. 

N, The aorta descendens. 

O, The trunk of the pulmonary artery ; 

P, Its left pnlraonary branch. 

Q, The ductus arteriosus. 

R, The left auricle. 

S, S, The left sinus venosus. 

T, Branches of the left pulmonary vein. 

V, A small |>ortio>i of i lit- right lobe of the lung. 

X, X, X, A portion of the diapliragm. 

Q, The trunk of the superior vena cava. 

fl, or, rt, The inferior sin-faec of the small lobe of the liver. 

b, The lobulus Spigelii. 

c, <:, The eminence called Porta. 

</,</, Part of the liver which surrounded the umbilical 
vein, divided. 

e, The gall-bladder. 

f, The umbilical vein laid open. 

g, The vena portse also laid open. 

/;, The online of the right brumb of the vena porta:, go- 
ing to the large lobe of the liver. 

2, The left branch which goes to the small lobe, slit open. 

I; The ductus veuosus, opened longitudinally. 

I, wj, Its oblique terminations. 

n, Part of the pharynx. 

o, The esophagus. 

p, The bottom of the stomach. 

9, The pylon 

a, a, The anterior part of the septum of the auricles. 
£, b. The posterior part of the septum. 

f, The valve of, 

rf, The foramen ovale. 

FIG. P. 
The Heart, with the Left Auricle opened. 

o, c, The pulmonary artery. 

b, b, A, The eul edge of (he auricle opened. 

c, c, A probe passed from the left auricle through the 
foramen ovale, into, 

rf, rf, The inferior vena cava. 

e, e, The anterior part ol ih< septum, the margin of which 

terminates in the right auricle. 
f,f, The valve of the foramen ovale, which extends from 

the posterior part of the septum to the left auricle, 

where it is secu ku-lo 1 above the probe. 

g, The oi'iiice of the left ventricle. 
/;, The left ventricle. 

i, The right ventricle. 

k, k, The division between (he ventricles. 

FIG. 10. 

Shews the Heart of the Fcetus retting upon the It^ht 
Ventricle, to bring into vi>:w tin- Co/uuctiu/i if the 
Ductus Arteriosus ui'.k the Pulmonary Artery 
and Aorta. 

, The left ventricle ; 

v of the v 

d, The 
<-,<■, Brauchi 
/, The online 

e, e. The lei' 

FIG, 11. 

Shews the Heart, with some of the 
the same Subject* in an iniet 

o, The apes of the heart. 
b, The vena cava inferior, or desce 
r, The oblique termination of the * 
</, </, The esophagus. 

- carotid. 
, A, The left carotid. 

subclavian vein. 

r, The arch of the aorta. 

, The aorta descendcns opened and 

, The mouth of the ductus 


Represents a 

A, The papilla. 

B, B, The boundaries of the areola. 
c, c, A section of three of the sebaceous glands, where 

likewise a few lactiferous ducts sometimes terminate, 
(7, rf, The integuments of the mamma. 
e, e, e, e, The superior or exterior stratum of fat. 
ftftf, The inferior or interior stratum of fat. 

C, The glandular part of the manuua, situated between 
the two strata of fat ; of an irregular figure, compacted 
into one large body, in the inner parte of which no re- 
markable intervals filled with fat arc observed. 

Ji, h* h* Large lactiferous ducts, as they appeared in this 
section, going from the glandular part to the papilla. 

FIG. 13. & 14. 

x valve upon Gives Views of the Trunks and Branches of two Lacti- 
ferous Ducts, dilated. 


( 'J09 ) 


In a CHILD bom at the full time, the Integuments, G, G, G, II, II, Tiie three right, and two left lobes of 

Bones, and Muscles coining the Fare Par! r,f the the lungs, inflated. 

Thorax, cut and removed, to obtain a View of the I, The right auricle, and. 

Viscera. The Blood- Vessels mere injected with K, The right ventricle of the heart. 

Clue thrown into the Umbilical Vein. 1<, T, The cartilaginous margin of the thorax. 
IVI, The cartilago ensiformis. 

A, A, The cut edge of the integuments and muscles of N, O, The right and left lobes of the liver, the left ex- 

the thorax. tending into the hypothondrium of that side. 

B» B» The upper part of the sternum divided, and drawn P, The stomach. 

' out. Q, Q, The small intestines. 

C, C, A section of the ribs and intercoBta] muscles. R, R, The colon. 

D, I), The flaps, formed by the under part of the inte- S, The bladder of urine inflated. 
guments and muscles of the abdomen, turned down. T, The urachus. 

E, E, The two lobes of the thymus gland lying over the XT, U, The two umbilical arteries, 
great vessels at the upper part of the heart ; the coinua V, The umbilical vein, 
ascending some way in the neck. W, The umbilicus. 

F, Veins descending from the thyroid gland. X, The collapsed umbilical cord . 


The Peculiarities of the Elood -Vessels in the Fcetus, shewn from the same Subject with that 
represented in the former Table. To the real size of the Vessels in the Subject of this Fi- 
gure, particular attention was paid. 

A, The thyroid eland. 

B, B, The lubes of ill. tin mu. ol.ind turned up. 

C, C, Tht left lobe* of the lungs. 

D, E, Tlie liver disserted and turned over to the right 
side ; the inferior surl.ici- t en ; 1), the great, and, E, 
the small lobe. As much of llie substance of llie liver 
is dissecte'd away, ti.s to shew the \eius which inter it, 

F, The call -bladder, with the trunks of the biliary ducts. 

G, The venal gland of the left side. 
H, The corresponding kidney. 

J, The ureter. 

K, Part of the right kidney. 

L, The bladder of urine inflated. 

M, The urachus. 

N, O, P, The heart drawn over to the right side ; N, the 

right ventricle ; O, the left auricle ; P, the left ventricle. 
Q, The left branch of the pulmonary artery. 
K, R, The corresponding veins, with their termination 

in the left auricle. 
S, The left subclavian vein. 
T, The arch of the aorta, with the three great arteries 

sent off from it. 
U, The At 

pulmonary artery 

V, The continuation of the aorta descendeiu. 

W, The cceliac artery. 

X, The superior mesenteric artery. 

Y, The right renal artery, with its corresponding vs 

«, «, The two common iliac arteries. 

b, The external iliac artery of the left side. 

r, The root of the internal iliac artery of that side. 

rf, rf, The two umbilical arteries running along the 

of the bladder. 

f, f, The vena cava inferior. 

ff . The vena port*. 

A, h, The right and left brandies of the vena ports. 

i, ?', -i. The venae cavae hepaticse. 

k. The collapsed umbilical cord. 

/, The umbilical vein. 

W, The umbilical vein sending branches to the right 

left lobes of the liver, but chiefly to the latter, 
n, The trunk common to the umbilical vein and 

branch of the vena porta?, 
o, The ductus venosus. 
p. Its termination, along with the left vena hepatic 

the vena cava, where that great vein is about to f 

rate the diaphragm. 

Tab 72j 

W i I 



he Heart of the Fcetus represented in the two last Tables, with the Right Auricle cut open, 
to shew the Foramen Ovale. The Heart is pulled considerably over to the Left Side, to 
bring the Parts within the Auricle properly into View. 

) subclavian veins. 

i The valve of Eustachius over the mouth of the infe- 
rior cava, am! its obliijut' situation seen with respect to 
the termination of the latter. 

■, The termination of the great coronary vein at the left 
side of the Eustachian valve. 

, The beginning of the foramen ovale, which passes ob- 
liquely up between the septum of the auricles, and its 
proper valve. 

, A dotted line opposite to the upper edge of the valve 
of the foramen ovale, 

■ s A dotted line at the root of this valve. 

/, I, Two dotted lines Marking the size of the passage 
through the foramen ovale. 

m, The annulus foraminis ovalis. 

7i, The right ventricle. 

o, The pulmonary artery. 

p,p, The two pulmonary brarn hes of this artery. 

The third brain li ui tins aili-ri, termed Ductus Arte- 
ivwi-'S terminating in the aorta descendi-us. The dot- 
ted lines mark the length of this duct. 
The ascending aorta. 
The arch of the aorta sending off the subclavian and 

t, The 

i after receiving the ductus 

, «, A crooked wire introduced between the ductus e 
, The continuation of the aorta. 

( 818 ) 


A View of the Peculiarities in the Heart and Blood- Vessels, with the Situation of the Testes, 
in the Fcetus. 

Peculiarities in the Vessels of the Liver. 

i Branches from i 

, The * 

, The division of the vei 

; The left branch of the 

bilical vein. 
■, The right branch of the 

portarum id 
na portarum 

i two principal 
joining the urn- 

fi, The branch called Ductus Venosus. 

/, The termination: of the duct in the left hepatic vein. 

l\ The hepatic vein terminating in the inferior cava. 

/, The right hepatic vein. 

m, m, The inferior vena cava. 

FIG. 2. 

A View of the Right Side of the Heart, with the Au- 
ricle of that Side laid i.jh h, in « Child a few days old. 

«, Tlie superior cava, and immediately below the «, the 

Isthmus Vieussenii, or Annulus tossm Ova/is. 
b, The inferior cava. 

r, The right sinus open near the hepatic veins, 
rf, The orifice of the coronary vein. 

e , The foramen ovale. 

f, The opening in the upper part of the foramen ovale, 
the rest being covered hy its valve. 

g, The right ventricle. 
A, The left ventricle. 

/, The ductus arteriosus, continued from the trunk of 
the pulmonary artery to the beginning of the aorta de- 

g, g. The right and left pulmonary veins. 

h, The left auricle. 

i, The left ventricle. 

k\ The aorta descendens. 

FIG. 4. 

Exhibits the Loins and Pelvis of a Fcetus at an tarty 
Period-, to shew the Testes i?i the Abdomen without 
any Coverings adhering by the Peritoneum, with thf. 
Spermatic Blood-Vessels and Vasa Deferehtia 
at a distance from each other. 

<t, One of the lumbar vertebrae. 

b, b, The muscles of the loins, covered by the peritoneum. 

c, The sigmoid flexure of the colon. 
d y </, The kidneys, covered by the peritoneum. 

A, h, The bodies of the testes. 

/, i, The epididymis in each side. 

#, A, The vasa deferent ia. 

/, The spermatic cord of the right side 

The Pelvis of an A 
ted than thou- npr 

1 of (ih;ii! Six- Mouths, to 
Paris a little more aitett/t- 
ii the preceding Figure. 

a, The superior vena cava 

b, The right auricle. 

c, The right ventricle. 

rf, The pulmonary artery. 
e t c, The two pulmonary \ 

a, The third vertebra lumborum. 

6, b, A section of the psoa: muscles. 

r , i. The peritoneum sind nm.-cks of the abdomen cover- 

im> ihccrisU of the ossa ilium, 
rf, d. The colon, at this time destitute of valves, filled 

with the meconium. 

r, The 

Ti/i ZS I 


J, The projection formed by the vertebra: of the loin; 

and large blood-vessels. 
K, The rectum tilled with 

V, The spermati 

G blood-vessels. 

, k, The testes. 

«, A process oi 
the left one, «, 


- pi',110 

dr.,i .'.■Slrlilii.. 


,- than the rijrh 

, H, The vasa deferent ia. 

, The bladder of 

,p, The umbilical arteries. 

, The urachus. 

, The umbilical i 

j, The anterior 

and under 

parts of the : 

cera turned do« 


, 6. 

The Situation of the Testes in the Abdomen of another 
Foetus, said «!-.•> to be about Six Months. The Parts 
hi the Abdomen are in general covered hy the Pehi- 

A, The upper part of the abdomen covered with a cloth. 

B, B, The thighs. 

C, The penis. 

D, The scrotum. 

E, F, G, The 8ap of the integuments, abdominal muscle?, 
and peritoneum, turned back. 

H, H, The lower part of the kidneys. 

artery which 
artery going to 

L, A branch of the inferior 

went to the colon. 
M, A branch of the inferior 

the pelvis. 
N, The lower part of the bladder, the upper portion 

ing cut off, to obtain a view of the parts behind it 
O, O, The hypogastric-, or umbilical arteries. 
I', P, The ureters pa 

:r the psoas muscles and 

Q, Q, The spermatic arteries, somewhat serpentine. 

K, R, The testes placed before the psoa muscles, a little 
higher than the groins, and turned -omeuhat outward?, 
to shew the passage of the spermatic \ easels into them 
in the duplicative of the peritoneum. At the upper 
end of each testis is seen the beginning ol the epidids - 
mis, the rest of it being hid hy the body of tiie 

S, S, The vasa deferent ia in their course to the vesiculie 

T, T, What Mk Hunter calls the Gtibernaculo, or Li- 
gaments of the Testes.— The left ligament is entire, 
and is seen passing from the under end of the testicle, 
through the abdominal ring, to the scrotum : The right 
is cut away on its upper and fore part, to shew the be- 
ginning of the vas deferens. 

( 214 ) 


those shewn in the former Table, of the Situation of the Testes in tiit 
Fcetus at different Periods. 

Fic:. 1. 

In a Fam's snmnrhat older than that represented in 
Fig. 6. of Tab. CXX1V. the State of the Testes is 
,•.7)17(7/, u'ten they haw rcccntht AwiW from the 
Abdomen into the Scrotum. The Small Intestines 
are removed, the Large are lift nearly in their Xattt- 
ral Situation. 

r, a, The liver in outlines. 

>, /.. The thighs. 

■, The pen'u. 

/, The middle of the scrotum, the lore part of the sides 

iif which arc mt away, that the testes may appear. 
■, e, The integument:) directed from 1 lie abdomen, and 

, if. The appendix verniiformis. 

:, The arch of the colon. 

, The turn of the colon under the spleen. 

:, The colon descending on the outside of the left kidney. 

, The sigmoid flexure of the colon, which in adults is 

seated lower in the cavity of the abdomen. 
n. The beginning of the rectum. 
I, Part of the abdominal muscles, with the peritoneum 

k, The u 

Sf, The remains of the gubemaculum testis. 

The part of the perilum-urn, in this figure, is car- 
ried down in the form of a hernial sue to a little below 
the testis, covers the te-U-, epididymis, spermatic ves- 
sels, and vas deferens, in the sume maimer as it covers 
the viscera in the cavity of the abdomen ; the posterior 
part of the sac is united with them, and gives them a 
smooth covering, while the anterior part lies loose bei 
fore them, and may be removed to some distance from 
them, as is the case when fluids are generated in the 
cavity of the sac. 

FIG. 2. 

Represents the Testes, Sec. in the same Subject as Fig. 1 . 
the Parts above the Ossa Ilii being cut away, and 
the Abdominal Muscles and Bladder being turn- 

I lie bladder i 

The t 

1.1,1 1*. 

The femoral vessels passing behind the crural arch to 
the thigh, 
f, The external surface of the spermatic cord of the left 

u, The appearance of the testicle, when its tunica vagi- 
nalis, or process of the peritoneum, is a little distend- 
ed with air or water poured into it from the cavity of 
the abdomen. 

i', The right testis fully exposed, by l;n infl open the peri- 
toneal process through its whole length. 

«', The epididymis of the same side. 

a-, x, The spermatic blood- vessels. 

«, a, The tbjghs. 

ft, The penis. 

r, The middle of the scrotum, its lateral parts being re. 
moved to shew the testes. 

(/, d, The integuments of the abdomen turned down over 
the thighs. 

e, e. Part of the abdominal muscles and peritoneum turn- 
ed down at the groins. 

ff, The peritoni urn i overing the internal iliac muscles. 

'g. The intcstinum rectum filled with meconium. 

h, The bladder, with the umbilical artery at each side of 
it, turned a little forwards over the symphysis of the 

i, f, The ureters passing over the iliac vessels to the pelvis. 

k, The right testis exposed, as in Fig. I. v. 

I, The left testicle inclosed in the process of the perito- 

«i, The spermatic vessels of the left side, seen through 

the peritoneum which covers them. 
n, The left vas deferens, seen through the peritoneum, in 

its passage from the mouth of the sac to the posterior 

part of the bladder. 

t, The 


aperture of the process of the peritoneum, by 
i it communicates with the cavity of the abdo- 

Tliis passage generally cluies, mid the niem- 
becomes smooth, soon after the testis has got 

ides of the abdomen. 

The Meatus Dext 

FIG. 3. 

Exhibits, in a new-born Child, the Meatus or Passa- 
ges of the two Spermatic Cords, the Right entire, 
the Left surrounding the Cord only. The Integu- 
ments of the Abdomen, Groins, and Scrotum, and 
of the typer Half of the Penis, are removed. 

a, b, c, Tlie meatus dexter inflated ; c, a stricture where 
the peritoneal process had begun to adhere to the sper- 

rf, f,/, The meatus sinister, which at/ 1 is united with 

the cord, forming e, f, the tunica vaginalis testis, and 

d,f, the vagina of the cord. 
The tunica vaginalis testis was turgid with a reddish 

jelly, through which the testicle appealed obscurely, 

as at the shaded spot. 
g, h, t\ The musculi pyramidales. 
fr, /, m. The integuments of the scrotum laid open. 

A, The testicle. 

li, The epididymis. 

rf, e, The spermatic vessels. 

e,J~, i, The tunica vaginalis testis. 

/, f, The stricture where the cord and i 

rf, i, c, The vaginal coat of the cord. 

E, The testicle. 

F, The epididymis. 
f, g, The spermatic blood-vessels, 
f, A, The vas deferens.